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2004 FOI Day biographies

Scott Armstrong is an investigative journalist and executive director of the Information Trust, a nonprofit organization devoted to facilitating freedom of expression in the U.S. and abroad, improving the quality of journalism, increasing accountability in government through access to information and reforming abuses of government secrecy. He is the co-author with Bob Woodward of The Brethren, a narrative account of the Supreme Court from 1969 through 1976, and assisted Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward as a researcher/writer on The Final Days. He is the founder of the National Security Archive, a private, nonprofit research institute that provides journalists, scholars, congressional staffs, present and former public officials, other public interest organizations and the general public with comprehensive government documentation. He is a member of the National FOIA Hall of Fame and a recipient of the American Library Association’s James Madison Award.

Thomas S. Blanton is Director of the National Security Archive at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. The Archive won U.S. journalism’s George Polk Award in April 2000 for “piercing self-serving veils of government secrecy, guiding journalists in search for the truth, and informing us all.” The Los Angeles Times described the Archive as “the world’s largest nongovernmental library of declassified documents.” Blanton served as the Archive’s first director of planning and research beginning in 1986, became deputy director in 1989, and executive director in 1992. He filed his first Freedom of Information Act request in 1976 as a weekly newspaper reporter in Minnesota; and among many hundreds thereafter, he filed the FOIA request and subsequent lawsuit (with Public Citizen) that forced the release of Oliver North’s Iran-contra diaries in 1990. His books include White House E-Mail (1995). He co-authored The Chronology (1987) on the Iran-contra affair, and served as a contributing author to three editions of the ACLU’s authoritative guide, Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws. He received the 1996 American Library Association James Madison Award Citation for “defending the public’s right to know.” He is a founding editorial board member of, the virtual network of international freedom-of-information advocates.

Rick Blum coordinates, a broad coalition of journalists, labor, and free-speech and environmental advocates that fights the expansion of government secrecy. For several years he promoted public access to government information to safeguard public health and protect the environment. As a policy analyst at OMB Watch from 1997 to 2001, he worked with librarians, environmental groups, freedom-of-information advocates, and others in the 1999 fight to maintain public access to chemical accident risk management plans. He has worked on environmental right-to-know issues and has gained experience in grassroots organizing. Blum has also testified before Congress on EPA’s science program. Before returning to OMB Watch to coordinate efforts to fight government secrecy, he conducted research on the effects of the commercialization of science on environmental and public health protections. He holds a master’s degree from Indiana University, where his studies focused on democratization efforts in Russia, and a bachelor’s degree from the University of California, Berkeley.

William (Bill) F. Chamberlin has been the Joseph L. Brechner Eminent Scholar in Mass Communications at the College of Journalism and Communications of the University of Florida since 1987. He serves as Director of the Marion Brechner Citizen Access Project. He is the Founding Director of the College’s Brechner Center for Freedom of Information. The Marion Brechner Citizen Access Project is a comprehensive study of open-meetings and open-records laws in the 50 states. Chamberlin is the co-author of The Law of Public Communication, now in its fifth edition. He is the co-editor of The First Amendment Reconsidered. Currently, Chamberlin is a consultant with the Rockefeller Family Fund on a major new Internet access initiative. He was a founding member of the board of directors of the National Freedom of Information Coalition. He has served as an officer of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. He has also been a member of the AEJMC Executive Committee. In 1984, he received the first AEJMC Presidential Award for Outstanding Service. Chamberlin holds a bachelor’s degree in journalism and a doctorate in communications from the University of Washington. He received an master’s degree in political science from the University of Wisconsin.

Lucy Dalglish. Prior to assuming the position of executive director of the Reporter’s Committee for Freedom of the Press in January 2000, Dalglish was a media lawyer for almost five years in the trial department of the Minneapolis law firm of Dorsey & Whitney, LLP. From 1980-93, Dalglish was a reporter and editor at the St. Paul Pioneer Press. She was awarded the Wells Memorial Key, the highest honor bestowed by the Society of Professional Journalists, in 1995 for her work as Chairman of SPJ’s national Freedom of Information Committee from 1992-95 and for her service as a national board member from 1988-91. She also was named to the inaugural class of the National FOIA Hall of Fame in 1996. Dalglish earned a J.D. from Vanderbilt University Law School in 1995; a master of studies in law degree from Yale Law School in 1988; and a bachelor’s degree in journalism from the University of North Dakota in 1980. In 2003, under her supervision, the Reporter’s Committee filed a brief in M.K.B. v. Warden, the case involving the ultra-secret appeal of an Algerian-born man detained in Florida after the Sept. 11 attacks.

Robert Deyling is a senior attorney in the Office of Judges’ Programs at the Administrative Office of the United States Courts. He assists the Judicial Conference of the United States in developing procedural rules and policy guidance for federal courts on privacy and public access to court records. He is also involved in the ongoing analysis of legal and policy issues related to the implementation of electronic case filing in the federal courts. Before coming to the Administrative Office in 1995, Bob was a Supreme Court Judicial Fellow from 1994-95, and a staff attorney for the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit from 1991-94. As an associate with the Washington law firm Crowell and Morning from 1987-91, Bob was involved in FOIA litigation concerning national security information. He has written about the concept of privacy in the context of public records, and has represented the federal judiciary on issues related to privacy, public access, and electronic filing at several national conferences. He holds a bachelor’s degree from Stanford University and a J.D. degree from New York University School of Law.

Meredith Fuchs serves as general counsel to the independent, nongovernmental National Security Archive at George Washington University in Washington, D.C. For the Archive, she supervises all legal matters, including litigation under the Freedom of Information Act and negotiations with government agencies on appeals and denials. Fuchs directed the Archive’s Freedom of Information Audit, which tested 35 U.S. federal agencies’ compliance with access laws, and she authored the Archive’s amicus brief in the only FOIA case that reached the U.S. Supreme Court in the spring term of 2003. She coordinates the Freedom of Information Litigators Group of public interest lawyers. Previously she was a partner at the Washington, D.C., law firm Wiley Rein & Fielding LLP. Fuchs served as a law clerk to Judge Patricia M. Wald, U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia and to U.S. District Court Judge Paul L. Friedman, District of Columbia. Before that, she was the Supreme Court assistance project fellow with the Public Citizen Litigation Group. Fuchs currently serves as an appointed member of the D.C. Circuit Judicial Conference Standing Committee on Pro Bono Services (2001-2004) and previously served as a member of the D.C. Bar Technology Taskforce, Subcommittee on Courts (1998-2000).

Kevin M. Goldberg is a partner in the Washington, D.C., law firm of Cohn and Marks. His expertise is in First Amendment issues, especially those relating to newspaper and Internet publishing. He is co-counsel for the American Society of Newspaper Editors. He regularly advocates issues involving freedom of speech on behalf of press organizations, including lobbying against a proposed constitutional amendment that would allow criminalization of flag desecration, lobbying in favor of increased access to government records and proceedings, and protecting the rights and privileges of reporters. Among other things, he assists newspapers and television and radio stations in prepublication review of stories for possible legal problems. He is a member of the American Bar Association’s Forum on Communications Law, the Federal Communications Bar Association, the Computer Law Association, and the Virginia Coalition for Open Government and was recently named to the First Amendment Advisory Council of the nonprofit organization, The Media Institute. He also has written extensively on First Amendment law. His undergraduate degree from James Madison University is in communications with concentrations in TV/Radio and Journalism. He received his law degree, with high honors, from George Washington University.

Megan E. Gray is the interim vice president for government affairs and legislative counsel for the Newspaper Association of America. At NAA, Gray is responsible for telemarketing regulations, First Amendment educational programs for Congress, database legislation and the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, among other issues. Before moving her practice to Washington, D.C., Gray was with Baker & Hostetler and O'Melveny & Myers in Los Angeles. Before becoming a lawyer, she worked as a foreign correspondent in Moscow. She is a member of several legal and trade associations. She serves on the board of advisers for American Lawyer Media's Internet Newsletter and as chair-elect for the American Bar Association’s TTIPS Committee on Media, Privacy, and Defamation Torts.

Harry Hammitt is editor/publisher of Access Reports, a biweekly newsletter on the Freedom of Information Act and open-government laws and policies. He also edits Canada and Abroad, a monthly newsletter covering access and privacy issues in Canada. Hammitt has written and lectured extensively on access and privacy issues in both the United States and Canada. He is the primary editor of "Litigation Under the Federal Open Government Laws 2002," published by the Electronic Privacy Information Center, and is currently a senior fellow at EPIC. He is a past president of the American Society of Access Professionals, currently serves on the ASAP board and has conducted that organization’s annual seminar on business-information issues for more than 10 years. He also is a board member of the Virginia Coalition for Open Government and was inducted into the National FOIA Hall of Fame at the Freedom Forum in Arlington, Va., in 2001.

Carla D. Hayden is the executive director of the Enoch Pratt Free Library, in Baltimore, and the president-elect of the American Library Association. Prior to coming to Baltimore, Hayden was the first deputy commissioner and chief librarian of the Chicago Public Library, an assistant professor in the School of Library and Information Science of the University of Pittsburgh, and the library services coordinator at the Museum of Science and Industry in Chicago. She is a member of the Boards of the Maryland African American Museum Corporation, Goucher College, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute and Library, Maryland Historical Society, among other organizations. She was the recipient of the Librarian of the Year from Library Journal (1995) and was named one of Maryland’s Top 100 Women from Warfield’s Business Record (1996). A graduate of Roosevelt University, Hayden earned her master's and doctorate degrees from the Graduate Library School of the University of Chicago.

Bill Leonard was appointed director of the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) in June 2002. He is responsible to the president of the United States for policy oversight of the government-wide security classification system and the National Industrial Security Program. Previously, Leonard served in the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense (Security and Information Operations). He was responsible for programmatic and technical issues relating to the DOD’s information assurance, critical infrastructure protection, counterintelligence, security and information operations programs. Leonard served as the DOD member to the Interagency Security Classification Appeals Panel during this period. Prior to coming to the staff of the Secretary of Defense in 1996 as director of security programs, Leonard served as an assistant deputy director at the Defense Investigative Service (DIS). Leonard was instrumental in the establishment of the DIS Counterintelligence Office. Noteworthy awards which he has received include the DIS Exceptional Service Award (1987 & 1996), the DIS Meritorious Service Award (1989 & 1993), the Office of the Secretary of Defense Medal for Meritorious Civilian Service (2000), and the Department of Defense Medal for Distinguished Civilian Service (2001 & 2002, with Bronze Palm). In 2002, Leonard received the rank of Meritorious Executive from President Bush.

Patrice McDermott is the assistant director of the Office of Government Relations at the American Library Association Washington Office. She joined ALA in December 2001, after having served for eight years as the senior information policy analyst for OMB Watch. At ALA, McDermott has lead responsibility for government information and privacy policy, as well as e-government policy issues. She has testified in congressional hearings, and is a frequent speaker on public-access issues. McDermott was awarded her doctorate in political science from the University of Arizona and received a master’s degree in library and information management from Emory University. She served as the assistant director of the ALA’s Office for Intellectual Freedom from 1986-88, taught information politics at Clark Atlanta University from 1988-90, and, from 1990-1993, worked at the National Archives and Records Administration. At NARA, she worked on electronic public access to and exchange of information from the online information resources and services NARA was developing.

Philip H. Melanson is Chancellor Professor of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts-Dartmouth, where he serves as director of the Robert F. Kennedy Assassination Archive, the world’s largest collection on the subject. Previously he was chairman of the university’s political science department for 12 years. He has written 13 books and 14 articles, most relating to political assassination and violence, government secrecy, law enforcement and intelligence agencies. He has been a consultant to television and movie productions in the United States, Canada and Germany, including Oliver Stone’s movie “JFK.” Melanson has appeared on numerous television shows, documentaries and news programs and more than a hundred radio shows. His credits include National Public Radio’s “All Things Considered,” “CBS Evening News,” CNN News, ABC’s “Prime Time Live,” CNN’s “Both Sides Now,” “Entertainment Tonight,” “Hard Copy,” “Inside Edition,” and BBC Channel 4 Newsmakers. His 1983 expose on the CIA’s secret ties to U.S. police departments, based on previously classified documents, was widely covered by major print and broadcast outlets during the week of its publication in The Nation.

Anna Nelson is the distinguished historian in residence at American University, where she teaches courses related to 20th century U.S. foreign policy. She served on the Public Documents Commission from 1976-1977 and was director of a foundation-funded Committee on the Records of Government (1983-85). She also has served on the Department of State Historical Advisory Committee and received a presidential appointment to serve on the Kennedy Assassination Records Review Board from 1994-98. Representing historical organizations, she has testified repeatedly for access to records. Her recent publications on the Cold War include articles titled, “Research Note: Operation Northwoods and the Covert War Against Cuba, 1961-1963” (2002) and “Illuminating the Twilight Struggle: New Interpretations of the Cold War” (1999). In February 2004, The Journal of Military History published her latest article, “Anna M. Rosenberg, an ‘Honorary Man’,” about the assistant secretary of defense, from 1950-1953. Currently, she is writing a series of essays on five Cold War presidents, to be titled Presidents, Policy and Process.

Eric Newton has supported journalism excellence and press freedom since 2001 as the director of Journalism Initiatives for the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation. Newton manages a portfolio of 160 grants, helping coordinate $22.5 million a year in annual support. Before joining the Knight Foundation, he created the content for the world’s first museum of news as the founding managing editor of the Newseum. A California journalist, Newton was managing editor of The Oakland Tribune under the ownership of Bob and Nancy Maynard, when the newspaper won more than 150 awards, including a Pulitzer Prize, with one of the nation’s most diverse newsrooms. He has edited a weekly newspaper and a small daily, taught high school and college journalism and trained professionals nationwide. Newton’s books include Crusaders, Scoundrels, Journalists; Capture the Moment and The Open Newspaper.

Harold C. Relyea is a specialist in American national government with the Congressional Research Service of the Library of Congress. Since joining CRS in 1971, he has produced a number of major studies for Congress, including analyses of the office and powers of the president, executive branch organization and management, congressional oversight, and various aspects of government information policy and practice. He has testified before congressional panels on various occasions, and also recently appeared before a committee of the European Parliament. In addition to his CRS duties, Relyea has authored numerous articles for scholarly and professional publications in the United States and abroad. He is currently preparing a book on national emergency powers. His recently published titles include Silencing Science: National Security Controls and Scientific Communication (1994), Federal Information Policies in the 1990s (1996), The Executive Office of the President (1997), and United States Government Information: Policies and Sources (2002). He has served on the editorial board of Government Information Quarterly since its founding in 1984, and has held similar positions with several other journals in the past. An undergraduate of Drew University, he received his doctoral degree in government from American University.

Alasdair Roberts is director of the Campbell Public Affairs Institute at the Maxwell School of Syracuse University. A Canadian, Roberts has a law degree from the University of Toronto and a doctorate in public policy from Harvard University. He is a member of the Initiative for Policy Dialogue’s international Transparency Task Force. Roberts has written extensively about governmental openness. Recent articles have explored the impact on openness of a number of trends, such as reinvention and privatization, the growing role of international institutions, the expansion of information-sharing arrangements, and international defense cooperation. His latest paper, “Spin Control and Freedom of Information,” will appear in the British journal Public Administration later this year.

David Schanzer is Democratic staff director and chief counsel of the House Select Committee on Homeland Security. He joined the staff of Maine Sen. William S. Cohen, a Republican, in 1994, and served as counsel on the Senate Judiciary Committee and then as chief counsel to the Subcommittee on Government Oversight and the District of Columbia. Upon Cohen’s retirement, Schanzer moved to Delaware Democratic Sen. Joseph Biden’s staff on the Senate Judiciary Committee. In 1998, he moved to the Pentagon to serve as special counsel to the general counsel of the Department of Defense. He then served as legislative director for Sen. Jean Carnahan, D-Mo. After receiving his law degree in 1989, Schanzer served as a law clerk for the solicitor general and subsequently for Judge Norma L. Shapiro of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. From 1992-94, Schanzer practiced law as a trial attorney in the Federal Programs Branch of the Department of Justice. Among his most notable cases was the defeat of a litigant’s effort in 1992 to halt the transfer of the body of Polish composer and statesman Jan Paderewski from the U.S.S. Maine memorial in Arlington National Cemetery to Poland in fulfillment of President Kennedy’s promise that Paderewski would return once Poland “was free again.”

Jeffrey H. Smith is a partner at Arnold & Porter, LLP, in Washington, D.C. He is the partner responsible for the firm’s public-policy and legislative-practice group. He also practices in the government-contracts and international-practice groups. Smith rejoined the firm in 1996 after serving as general counsel of the Central Intelligence Agency from May 1995 to September 1996. In May 1993, Defense Secretary William Perry appointed Smith to the congressionally mandated Commission to Review the Roles and Missions of the Armed Services. Previously, he chaired the Joint Security Commission established by Defense Secretary Les Aspin and Director of Central Intelligence R. James Woolsey to review security policy and practices in the defense and intelligence communities. In late 1992 and early 1993, he served as chief of the Clinton transition team at the Defense Department. Before joining Arnold & Porter, Smith served as general counsel of the Senate Armed Services Committee. He also was Georgia Democratic Sen. Sam Nunn’s designee to the Iran/Contra Committee and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. He is a graduate of the U.S. Military Academy (1966) and University of Michigan Law School (1971).

David Sobel is general counsel of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in Washington, D.C., a nonprofit research organization that examines the privacy implications of computer networks, the Internet and other communications media. He has litigated numerous cases under the Freedom of Information Act, seeking the disclosure of government documents on privacy policy, including electronic surveillance and encryption controls. His current cases seek disclosure of information concerning the USA Patriot Act, the Total Information Awareness program and the privacy impact of aviation-security measures and other homeland-security initiatives. Sobel is also co-counsel in the pending challenge to government secrecy concerning post-Sept. 11 detentions. He participated in the recent submission of a civil liberties amicus brief in the first-ever proceeding of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court of Review. Sobel has a long-standing interest in civil liberties and information-policy issues and has written and lectured on these topics frequently since 1981. He was formerly counsel to the nonprofit National Security Archive, and his clients have included Coretta Scott King, The Nation magazine and ABC News. Sobel is a graduate of the University of Michigan and the University of Florida College of Law.

Lee S. Strickland, a professor at the University of Maryland’s College of Information Studies, is the director of the Center for Information Policy, jointly sponsored with the School of Public Affairs. The center is a multidisciplinary research organization that helps facilitate and provide solutions to policy issues involving the convergence of information and technology. Strickland also consults with various government agencies. He comes to the university after 30 years of service with the U.S. government as an intelligence officer and member of the Senior Intelligence Service. During that time, he held a broad range of senior positions at the Central Intelligence Agency, focusing on information law, policy, technology and management. At Maryland, Strickland has developed and taught numerous courses on information law, information policy, information warfare and competitive intelligence.

Pete Weitzel is the coordinator for the newly formed Coalition of Journalists for Open Government, an alliance of journalism organizations working to limit government secrecy and fight for citizens’ rights of access to government records and meetings. Weitzel is a former managing editor of The Miami Herald who became involved in freedom-of-information issues with the Florida Society of Newspaper Editors. He chaired that organization’s Freedom of Information Committee for 15 years and in 1984 helped found the Florida First Amendment Foundation, serving as president for its first 11 years. He also helped launch the National Freedom of Information Coalition and served as its second president. As president of the Florida First Amendment Foundation, Weitzel helped draft an amendment to the Florida Constitution that guarantees citizens a right of access to both records and governmental meetings. In 1997, he was selected as one of the initial inductees into Florida’s Freedom of Information Hall of Fame.

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