overview establishment clause
free-exercise clause
frequently asked questions cases & resources

  Cases & resources>
   
 

Ten Commandments, other displays & mottos

Supreme Court
Chabad of Southern Ohio v. City of Cincinnati, 123 S. Ct. 518 (2002) (cert. denied)
Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board v. Pinette, 114 S. Ct. 2481 (1995)
Lamb’s Chapel v. Center Moriches Union Free School District, 508 U.S. 384 (1993)
Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992)
County of Allegheny v. American Civil Liberties Union, Greater Pittsburgh Chapter, 492 U.S. 573 (1989)
Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668 (1984)
Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983)
Stone v. Graham, 449 U.S. 39 (1980)
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)
Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1 (1947)
Bradfield v. Roberts, 175 U.S. 291 (1899)
Church of Holy Trinity v. United States, 1892
Davis v. Beason, 133 U.S. 333 (1890)
Reynolds v. United States, 98 U.S. 145 (1879)
Vidal v. Girard’s Executors, 1844
Terrett v. Taylor, 1815

Other
Books v. Elkhart County (7th Cir. 2005)
Freethought Society of Greater Philadelphia v. Chester County, 2003 WL 21468470 (3rd Cir. June 26, 2003)
Glassroth v. Moore, 2003 WL 21499258 (11th Cir. July 1, 2003)
King v. Richmond County, 2003 WL 21250870 (11th Cir. May 30, 2003)
Newdow v. United States, 292 F.3d 597 (9th Cir. 2002)
Adland v. Russ, 307 F.3d 471 (6th Cir. 2002)
ACLU of Ohio Foundation, Inc. v. Ashbrook, 211 F. Supp. 2d 873 (N.D. Ohio 2002)
Indiana Civil Liberties Union v. O’Bannon, 259 F.3d 766 (7th Cir. 2001), cert. denied, 122 S. Ct. 1173 (2002)
ACLU v. Capitol Square Review and Advisory Board, 243 F.3d 289 (6th Cir. 2001) (en banc)
ACLU of New Jersey v. Schundler, 104 F.3d 1435 (3d Cir. 1997), cert. denied, 520 U.S. 1265 (1997)
Washegesic v. Bloomingdale Public Schools, 33 F.3d 679 (6th Cir. 1994), cert. denied, 514 U.S. 1095 (1995)
Sherman v. Community Consolidated School District 21 of Wheeling Township, 980 F.2d 437 (7th Cir. 1992), cert. denied, 508 U.S. 950 (1993)
North Carolina Civil Liberties Union Legal Foundation v. Constangy, 947 F.2d 1145 (4th Cir. 1991), cert. denied, 505 U.S. 1219 (1992)
Joki v. Board of Education of the Schuylerville Central School District, 745 F. Supp. 823 (N.D.N.Y. 1990)
Anderson v. Salt Lake City Corp., 475 F.2d 29 (10th Cir. 1973), cert. denied, 414 U.S. 879 (1973)
Aronow v. United States, 432 F.2d 242 (9th Cir. 1970)
State ex rel. Finger v. Weedman, 226 N.W. 348 (S.D. 1929)

36 U.S.C. Sect. 301 (re National Anthem)
H.R. Rep. No. 84-1959, 1956 U.S.C.C.A.N. 3720 (re National Anthem)
Pub. L. No. 623, Ch. 435, Sect. 7 (1942) (now 4 U.S.C. Sect. 4 (1998) (re Pledge of Allegiance)
Pub L. No. 396, Ch. 297 (1954) (re Pledge of Allegiance)
H.R. Rep. No. 83-1693 (1954), reprinted in 1954 U.S.C.C.A.N. 2339, 2340 (re Pledge of Allegiance)

Antieau, Chester James; Downey, Arthur T.; and Roberts, Edward C., Freedom from Federal Establishment: Formation and Early History of the First Amendment Religion Clauses (Milwaukee: Bruce Pub. Co., 1964)
Burrell, Brian, ed., The Words We Live By: The Creeds, Mottoes, and Pledges that Have Shaped America, (New York: Free Press, 1997)
Friedman, Lawrence M., American Law in the 20th Century (New Haven, Conn.: Yale Univ. Press, 2002)
Hamburger, Philip, Separation of Church and State (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 2002)
Kurland, Philip B., and Kenan, William R. Jr., eds., The Founders’ Constitution (Chicago, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1987)

Epstein, Steven B., “Rethinking the Constitutionality of Ceremonial Deism,” 96 Colum. L. Rev. 2083, 2091 (1996)
Stiltner, Jeffrey W., “Rethinking the Wall of Separation: Zobrest v. Catalina Foothills School District — Is this the End of Lemon?” 23 Cap. U. L. Rev. 823, 825 (1994)

History of “In God We Trust,” U.S. Dept. of Treasury
“How the ‘Pledge’ Was Written,” Syracuse Herald-Journal, 1954

Text of the Ten Commandments

   
 

Tax exemptions

Supreme Court
Texas Monthly, Inc. v. Bullock 489 U.S. 1 (1989)
Bob Jones University v. United States, 461 U.S. 574 (1983)
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)
Walz v. Tax Commission of City of New York, 397 U.S. 664 (1970)

Other
Branch Ministries v. Rossotti 211 F.3d 137 (D.C. Cir. 2000)

Adler, Donna, "The Internal Revenue Code, the Constitution, and the Courts: The Use of Tax Expenditure Analysis in Judicial Decision Making," Wake Forest Law Review, Winter 1993

Carrington, Claudia, "Texas Monthly, Inc. v. Bullock: An Argument for Strict Interpretation of the Lemon Test," University of San Francisco Law Review, Spring 1991

Garnett, Richard W., "A Quiet Faith? Taxes, Politics, and the Privatization of Religion," Boston College Law Review, 42 B.C.L. Rev 771 (July 2001)

King, Erika, "Tax Exemptions and the Establishment Clause," Syracuse Law Review, 1999

Whitehead, John, "Tax Exemption and Churches: A Historical and Constitutional Analysis," Cumberland Law Review, 1991-1992

Witte, John, "Tax Exemption of Church Property: Historical Anomaly or Valid Constitutional Practice?" Southern California Law Review, January 1991

"Tax-Break Case Awaits Ruling by Appeals Court," The Advocate, Baton Rouge, La., Dec. 18, 2002

Tax Information for Churches and Religious Organizations, IRS information Web site

'Houses of Worship Political Speech Protection Act,' Interfaith Alliance Fact Sheet

Wallbuilders Resources on 'Houses of Worship Political Speech Protection Act'

   
 

Legislative prayer

Supreme Court
Santa Fe I.S.D. v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290 (2000)
Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992)
Marsh v. Chambers, 463 U.S. 783 (1983)
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)

Other
Coles v. Cleveland Board of Education, 183 F.3d 538 (6th Cir. 1999)
Snyder v. Murray City Corp., 159 F.3d 1227 (10th Cir. 1999)
Kurtz v. Baker, 829 F.2d 1133 (D.C. Cir. 1987)
North Carolina Civil Liberties Union v. Constangy, 947 F.2d 1145 (4th Cir. 1991)
Wynne v. Town of Great Falls (4th Cir. 2004)

   
 

Workplace religious liberty

Supreme Court
Employment Division v. Smith,494 U.S. 872 (1990)
Thomas v. Review Board of Indiana Employment Security, 450 U.S. 707 (1981)
Wisconsin v. Yoder, 406 U.S. 205 (1972)
Pickering v. Board of Education, 391 U.S. 563 (1968)
Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963)

Other
Daniels v. City of Arlington, 246 F.3d 500 (5th Cir. 2001)
Altman v. Minnesota Dept. of Corrections, 251 F.3d 1199 (8th Cir. 2001)
Asselin v. Santa Clara County, 1999 U.S. App. LEXIS 10991 (5/25/1991) (9th Cir.)
Knight v. State of Connecticut Department of Public Health, 275 F.3d 156 (2nd Cir. 2001)
Gunning v. Runyon, 3 F.Supp. 2d 1423 (S.D. Fla. 1998)
Tucker v. State of California Department of Education, 97 F.3d 1204 (9th Cir. 1996)
Brown v. Polk County, Iowa, 61 F.3d 650, 658 (8th Cir. 1995)

Workplace Religious Freedom Act of 2002

Richards, Brian, "The Boundaries of Religious Speech in the Government Workplace," 1 U. Pa. J. Lab. & Emp. 745, 745 (1998)
Wolf, Michael, Friedman, Bruce and Sutherland, Daniel, Religion in the Workplace: A Comprehensive Guide to Legal Rights and Responsibilities, Chicago: American Bar Association, 1998, p. 150

"White House Guidelines on Religious Exercise and Religious Expression in the Federal Workplace"
Sen. John Kerry news release

   
 

Religious buildings & zoning

Supreme Court
Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997)
Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co., 272 US 365 (1926)

Other
Freedom Baptist Church v. Township of Middletown, U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania, No. 01-CV-5345
Charles v. Verhagen, U.S. District Court for the Western District of Wisconsin, No. 01-C-253-C

Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act of 2000 (RLUIPA) 42 U.S.C.A. Section 2000cc
Becket Fund

Hamilton, Marci, “Struggling with Churches as Neighbors: Land Use Conflicts Between Religious Institutions and Those Who Live Nearby”
Picarello, Anthony, and Storzer, Roman, “When Land Use Issues are Also Religious Freedom Issues”
Storzer, Roman, “Struggling as Churches with Neighbors: A Response to Marci Hamilton”

   
 

Blue laws

Supreme Court
Thornton v. Caldor, Inc., 472 U.S. 703 (1985)
Arlan’s Dept. Store v. Kentucky (Justice Douglas’ dissent) 371 U.S. 218 (1962)
Gallagher v. Crown Kosher Market, 366 U.S. 617 (1961)
Braunfeld v. Brown, 366 U.S. 599 (1961)
Two Guys v. McGinley, 366 U.S. 582 (1961)
McGowan v. Maryland, 366 U.S. 420 (1961)

Other
Granzeier v. Middleton, 173 F.3d 568 (6th Circuit) (1999)
Koenick v. Felton, 190 F.3d 259 (4th Circuit) (1999)
Harris County, Texas v. CarMax Auto Superstores, Inc., 177 F.3d 306 (5th Circuit) (1999)
Metzl v. Leininger, 57 F.3d 618 (7th Circuit) (1994)
Cammack v. Waihee, 932 F.2d 765 (9th Circuit) (1991)
Malibu Auto Parts v. Virginia, 218 Virginia 467 (Va. 1977)
New York v. Abrahams, 386 N.Y.S.2d 661 (N.Y. 1976)
Genesco, Inc. v. J.C. Penney Co., 313 So.2d 20 (Miss. 1975)
Minnesota v. Target Stores, Inc., 156 N.W.2d 908 (Minn. 1968)
City of Ashland v. Heck's, Inc., 407 S.W.2d 421 (Ky. App. 1966)
Henderson v. Antonacci, 62 So.2d 5 (Fla. 1952)

Laband, David N., and Heinbuch, Deborah Hendry, Blue Laws: The History, Economics and Politics of Sunday-Closing Laws. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1987

Brookman, Justin, “Constitutionality of the Good Friday Holiday,” New York University Law Review, April 1998
King, Andrew, “Sunday Law in the Nineteenth Century” Albany Law Review, 2000
Thompson, Charles, “Shoppers no longer ‘Blue’ on Sundays; Only auto dealers appreciate the day off,” The Patriot-News, Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 15, 2002
“Blue Laws may dry up: Albany considers proposal to allow Sunday liquor sale,” New York Daily News, Dec. 5, 2002

Massachusetts Department of Labor and Workforce Development Web site about Massachusetts blue laws
American Atheists editorial about blue laws
Louisiana newspaper story about blue laws

   
 

Prisoners' rights

Supreme Court
City of Boerne v. Flores, 521 U.S. 507 (1997)
Turner v. Safley, 482 U.S. 78 (1987)
O’Lone v. Estate of Shabazz, 482 U.S. 342 (1987)

Other
Cutter v. Wilkinson, 349 F.3d 257 (6th Cir. 2003)
Madison v. Riter, Nos. 03-6362, 03-6363 (7th Cir.)(12/8/2003)
Mayweathers v. Newland, 314 F.3d 1062 (9th Cir. 2002)
Johnson v. Martin, 223 F.Supp. 2d 820 (W.D. Mich. 2002)
Charles v. Verhagen, 348 F.3d 601 (7th Cir. 2003)
Ochs v. Thalacker, 90 F.3d 293 (8th Cir. 1996)

Davis, Heather, Inmates’ Religious Rights: Deference to Religious Leaders and Accommodation of Individualized Religious Beliefs, 64 Albany L. Rev. 773, 794 (2000)
American Correctional Association Legislative Position Statement on Religious Faith and Practice in Correctional Institutions

   
 

Vaccination & religious exemptions

Supreme Court
Zucht v. King, 260 U.S. 174 (1922)
Jacobson v. Massachusetts, 197 U.S. 11 (1905)

Other
McCarthy v. Boozman, 212 F. Supp. 2d 945 (2002)
Diana H. v. Arizona Department of Economic Security, 171 P. 3d 200 (2007)
Susan LePage v. State of Wyoming Department of Health,2001 WY 26 (2001)
Brown v. Stone, 378 So. 2d 218 (1979)

Aspinwall, Timothy J., Religious Exemptions to Childhood Immunization Statutes: Reaching for a More Optimal Balance Between Religious Freedom and Public Health, 29 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 109 (1997)
Blum, John D. and Talib, Norchaya, Balancing Individual Rights v. Collective Good in Public Health Enforcement, 25 MED. & L. 273 (2006)
Calandrillo, Steve P., Vanishing Vaccinations: Why Are So Many Americans Opting Out of Vaccinating Their Children?, 37 U. Mich. J. L. REFORM 353 (2004)
Coletti, Sean, Taking Account of Partial Exemptors in Vaccination Law, Policy, and Practice, 36 CONN. L. REV. 1341 (2004)
Feikin, Daniel R. et al., Individual and Community Risks of Measles and Pertussis Associated with Personal Exemptions to Immunization, 284 JAMA 3145 (2000)
Hinman, Alan R. et al., Childhood Immunization: Laws That Work, 30 J.L. MED. & ETHICS 122 (2002)
Hodge, James G. Jr. and Gostin, Lawrence O., School Vaccination Requirements: Historical, Social, and Legal Perspectives, 90 Ky. L.J. 831 (2001-2002)
LeFever, Linda E., Religious Exemptions from School Immunization: A Sincere Belief or a Legal Loophole?, 110 PENN. ST. L. REV. 1047 (2006)
Novak, Alicia, The Religious and Philosophical Exemptions to State-Compelled Vaccination: Constitutional and Other Challenges, 7 U. Pa. J. Const. L. 1101 (April 2005)
Rota, Jennifer S. et al., Processes for Obtaining Nonmedical Exemptions to State Immunization Laws, 91 AM. J. PUB. HEALTH 645 (2001)
Salmon, Daniel A. and Siegel, Andrew W., Religious and Philosophical Exemptions from Vaccination Requirements and Lessons Learned from Conscientious Objectors from Conscription, 116 Pub. Health Rep. 289 (2001)
Sanzo, Michael, Vaccines and the Law, 19 PEPP. L. REV. 29 (1991)
Severyn, Kristine M., Jacobson v. Massachusetts: Impact on Informed Consent and Vaccine Policy, 5 J. Pharmacy & L. 249 (1995)
Silverman, Ross D. and May, Thomas, Private Choice Versus Public Health: Religion, Morality, and Childhood Vaccination Law, 1 Margins 505 (2001)
Silverman, Ross D., No More Kidding Around: Restructuring Non-Medical Childhood Immunization Exemptions to Ensure Public Health Protection, 12 ANNALS HEALTH L. 277 (2003)
Skov, Rebecca E., Examining Mandatory HPV Vaccination for All School-Aged Children, 62 Food Drug L.J. 805 (2007)

   
 

Vouchers

Supreme Court
Everson v. Board of Education, 330 U.S. 1, 16 (1947)

Garnett, Nicole Stelle, and Garnett, Richard W., “School Choice, the First Amendment, and Social Justice,” 4 Tex. Rev. of Law and Pol. 301, 305-306 (2000)

The Heritage Foundation’s Choices in Education Web site

Wisconsin Education Association Council’s school-voucher resources page

The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life’s “School Vouchers: Settled Questions, Continuing Disputes”

 
print this   Print


Last system update: Friday, August 22, 2008 | 02:05:55
 SEARCH  MORE
religious liberty in public life issues >
ESTABLISHMENT CLAUSE
Ten Commandments, other displays & mottos
Tax exemptions
Charitable choice/faith-based initiatives
Legislative prayer
Vouchers
FREE-EXERCISE CLAUSE
Workplace religious liberty
RLUIPA, religious buildings & zoning
Blue laws
Prisoners' rights
Vaccination & religious exemptions