morning. It is an honor for me to be in Accra, and to speak to the
representatives of the people of Ghana. I am deeply grateful for the welcome
that I’ve received, as are Michelle, Malia, and Sasha Obama. Ghana’s history is
rich, the ties between our two countries are strong, and I am proud that this is
my first visit to sub-Saharan Africa as President of the United States.
speaking to you at the end of a long trip. I began in Russia, for a Summit
between two great powers. I traveled to Italy, for a meeting of the world’s
leading economies. And I have come here, to Ghana, for a simple reason: the
21st century will be shaped by what happens not just in Rome or
Moscow or Washington, but by what happens in Accra as
the simple truth of a time when the boundaries between people are overwhelmed by
our connections. Your prosperity can expand America’s. Your health and security
can contribute to the world’s. And the strength of your democracy can help
advance human rights for people everywhere.
So I do
not see the countries and peoples of Africa as a world apart; I see Africa as a
fundamental part of our interconnected world – as partners with America on
behalf of the future that we want for all our children. That partnership must be
grounded in mutual responsibility, and that is what I want to speak with you
start from the simple premise that Africa’s future is up to Africans.
this knowing full well the tragic past that has sometimes haunted this part of
the world. I have the blood of Africa within me, and my family’s own story
encompasses both the tragedies and triumphs of the larger African story.
grandfather was a cook for the British in Kenya, and though he was a respected
elder in his village, his employers called him "boy" for much of his life. He
was on the periphery of Kenya’s liberation struggles, but he was still
imprisoned briefly during repressive times. In his life, colonialism wasn’t
simply the creation of unnatural borders or unfair terms of trade – it was
something experienced personally, day after day, year after year.
father grew up herding goats in a tiny village, an impossible distance away from
the American universities where he would come to get an education. He came of
age at an extraordinary moment of promise for Africa. The struggles of his own
father’s generation were giving birth to new nations, beginning right here in
Ghana. Africans were educating and asserting themselves in new ways. History was
on the move.
despite the progress that has been made – and there has been considerable
progress in parts of Africa – we also know that much of that promise has yet to
be fulfilled. Countries like Kenya, which had a per capita economy larger than
South Korea’s when I was born, have been badly outpaced. Disease and conflict
have ravaged parts of the African continent. In many places, the hope of my
father’s generation gave way to cynicism, even despair.
easy to point fingers, and to pin the blame for these problems on others. Yes, a
colonial map that made little sense bred conflict, and the West has often
approached Africa as a patron, rather than a partner. But the West is not
responsible for the destruction of the Zimbabwean economy over the last decade,
or wars in which children are enlisted as combatants. In my father’s life, it
was partly tribalism and patronage in an independent Kenya that for a long
stretch derailed his career, and we know that this kind of corruption is a daily
fact of life for far too many.
course, we also know that is not the whole story. Here in Ghana, you show us a
face of Africa that is too often overlooked by a world that sees only tragedy or
the need for charity. The people of Ghana have worked hard to put democracy on a
firmer footing, with peaceful transfers of power even in the wake of closely
contested elections. And with improved governance and an emerging civil society,
Ghana’s economy has shown impressive rates of growth.
progress may lack the drama of the 20th century’s liberation
struggles, but make no mistake: it will ultimately be more significant. For just
as it is important to emerge from the control of another nation, it is even more
important to build one’s own.
believe that this moment is just as promising for Ghana – and for Africa – as
the moment when my father came of age and new nations were being born. This is a
new moment of promise. Only this time, we have learned that it will not be
giants like Nkrumah and
Kenyatta who will determine Africa’s future. Instead, it will be you – the men
and women in Ghana’s Parliament, and the people you represent. Above all, it
will be the young people – brimming with talent and energy and hope – who can
claim the future that so many in my father’s generation never found.
realize that promise, we must first recognize a fundamental truth that you have
given life to in Ghana: development depends upon good governance. That is the
ingredient which has been missing in far too many places, for far too long. That
is the change that can unlock Africa’s potential. And that is a responsibility
that can only be met by Africans.
America and the West, our commitment must be measured by more than just the
dollars we spend. I have pledged substantial increases in our foreign
assistance, which is in Africa’s interest and America’s. But the true sign of
success is not whether we are a source of aid that helps people scrape by – it
is whether we are partners in building the capacity for transformational change.
mutual responsibility must be the foundation of our partnership. And today, I
will focus on four areas that are critical to the future of Africa and the
entire developing world: democracy; opportunity; health; and the peaceful
resolution of conflict.
we must support strong and sustainable democratic governments.
said in Cairo, each nation gives life to democracy in its own way, and in line
with its own traditions. But history offers a clear verdict: governments that
respect the will of their own people are more prosperous, more stable, and more
successful than governments that do not.
about more than holding elections – it’s also about what happens between them.
Repression takes many forms, and too many nations are plagued by problems that
condemn their people to poverty. No country is going to create wealth if its
leaders exploit the economy to enrich themselves, or police can be bought off by
drug traffickers. No business wants to invest in a place where the government
skims 20 percent off the top, or the head of the Port Authority is corrupt. No
person wants to live in a society where the rule of law gives way to the rule of
brutality and bribery. That is not democracy, that is tyranny, and now is the
time for it to end.
21st century, capable, reliable and transparent institutions are the
key to success – strong parliaments and honest police forces; independent judges
and journalists; a vibrant private sector and civil society. Those are the
things that give life to democracy, because that is what matters in peoples’
and again, Ghanaians have chosen Constitutional rule over autocracy, and shown a
democratic spirit that allows the energy of your people to break through. We see
that in leaders who accept defeat graciously, and victors who resist calls to
wield power against the opposition. We see that spirit in courageous journalists
like Anas Aremeyaw Anas, who risked his life to report the truth. We see it in
police like Patience Quaye, who helped prosecute the first human trafficker in
Ghana. We see it in the young people who are speaking up against patronage, and
participating in the political process.
Africa, we have seen countless examples of people taking control of their
destiny, and making change from the bottom up. We saw it in Kenya, where civil
society and business came together to help stop post-election violence. We saw
it in South Africa, where over three quarters of the country voted in the recent
election – the fourth since the end of Apartheid. We saw it in Zimbabwe, where
the Election Support Network braved brutal repression to stand up for the
principle that a person’s vote is their sacred right.
mistake: history is on the side of these brave Africans, and not with those who
use coups or change Constitutions to stay in power. Africa doesn’t need strongmen, it needs strong institutions.
will not seek to impose any system of government on any other nation – the
essential truth of democracy is that each nation determines its own destiny.
What we will do is increase assistance for responsible individuals and
institutions, with a focus on supporting good governance – on parliaments, which
check abuses of power and ensure that opposition voices are heard; on the rule
of law, which ensures the equal administration of justice; on civic
participation, so that young people get involved; and on concrete solutions to
corruption like forensic accounting, automating services, strengthening
hotlines, and protecting whistle-blowers to advance transparency and
provide this support, I have directed my Administration to give greater
attention to corruption in our Human Rights report. People everywhere should
have the right to start a business or get an education without paying a bribe.
We have a responsibility to support those who act responsibly and to isolate
those who don’t, and that is exactly what America will do.
leads directly to our second area of partnership – supporting development that
provides opportunity for more people.
better governance, I have no doubt that Africa holds the promise of a broader
base for prosperity. The continent is rich in natural resources. And from cell
phone entrepreneurs to small farmers, Africans have shown the capacity and
commitment to create their own opportunities. But old habits must also be
broken. Dependence on commodities – or on a single export – concentrates wealth
in the hands of the few, and leaves people too vulnerable to downturns.
Ghana, for instance, oil brings great opportunities, and you have been
responsible in preparing for new revenue. But as so many Ghanaians know, oil
cannot simply become the new cocoa. From South Korea to Singapore, history shows
that countries thrive when they invest in their people and infrastructure; when
they promote multiple export industries, develop a skilled workforce, and create
space for small and medium-sized businesses that create jobs.
Africans reach for this promise, America will be more responsible in extending
our hand. By cutting costs that go to Western consultants and administration, we
will put more resources in the hands of those who need it, while training people
to do more for themselves. That is why our $3.5 billion food security initiative
is focused on new methods and technologies for farmers – not simply sending
American producers or goods to Africa. Aid is not an end in itself. The purpose
of foreign assistance must be creating the conditions where it is no longer
can also do more to promote trade and investment. Wealthy nations must open our
doors to goods and services from Africa in a meaningful way. And where there is
good governance, we can broaden prosperity through public-private partnerships
that invest in better roads and electricity; capacity-building that trains
people to grow a business; and financial services that reach poor and rural
areas. This is also in our own interest – for if people are lifted out of
poverty and wealth is created in Africa, new markets will open for our own
area that holds out both undeniable peril and extraordinary promise is energy.
Africa gives off less greenhouse gas than any other part of the world, but it is
the most threatened by climate change. A warming planet will spread disease,
shrink water resources, and deplete crops, creating conditions that produce more
famine and conflict. All of us – particularly the developed world – have a
responsibility to slow these trends – through mitigation, and by changing the
way that we use energy. But we can also work with Africans to turn this crisis
Together, we can partner on behalf of our planet and
prosperity, and help countries increase access to power while skipping the
dirtier phase of development. Across Africa, there is bountiful wind and solar
power; geothermal energy and bio-fuels. From the Rift Valley to the North
African deserts; from the Western coast to South Africa’s crops –Africa’s
boundless natural gifts can generate its own power, while exporting profitable,
clean energy abroad.
steps are about more than growth numbers on a balance sheet. They’re about
whether a young person with an education can get a job that supports a family; a
farmer can transfer their goods to the market; or an entrepreneur with a good
idea can start a business. It’s about the dignity of work. It’s about the
opportunity that must exist for Africans in the 21st century.
governance is vital to opportunity, it is also critical to the third area that I
will talk about – strengthening public health.
recent years, enormous progress has been made in parts of Africa. Far more
people are living productively with HIV/AIDS, and getting the drugs they need.
But too many still die from diseases that shouldn’t kill them. When children are
being killed because of a mosquito bite, and mothers are dying in childbirth,
then we know that more progress must be made.
because of incentives – often provided by donor nations – many African doctors
and nurses understandably go overseas, or work for programs that focus on a
single disease. This creates gaps in primary care and basic prevention.
Meanwhile, individual Africans also have to make responsible choices that
prevent the spread of disease, while promoting public health in their
communities and countries.
Africa, we see examples of people tackling these problems. In Nigeria, an
Interfaith effort of Christians and Muslims has set an example of cooperation to
confront malaria. Here in Ghana and across Africa, we see innovative ideas for
filling gaps in care – for instance, through E-Health initiatives that allow
doctors in big cities to support those in small towns.
will support these efforts through a comprehensive, global health strategy.
Because in the 21st century, we are called to act by our conscience
and our common interest. When a child dies of a preventable illness in Accra,
that diminishes us everywhere. And when disease goes unchecked in any corner of
the world, we know that it can spread across oceans and continents.
why my Administration has committed $63 billion to meet these challenges.
Building on the strong efforts of President Bush, we will carry forward the
fight against HIV/AIDS. We will pursue the goal of ending deaths from malaria
and tuberculosis, and eradicating polio. We will fight neglected tropical
disease. And we won’t confront illnesses in isolation – we will invest in public
health systems that promote wellness, and focus on the health of mothers and
partner on behalf of a healthier future, we must also stop the destruction that
comes not from illness, but from human beings – and so the final area that I
will address is conflict.
me be clear: Africa is not the crude caricature of a continent at war. But for
far too many Africans, conflict is a part of life, as constant as the sun. There
are wars over land and wars over resources. And it is still far too easy for
those without conscience to manipulate whole communities into fighting among
faiths and tribes.
conflicts are a millstone around Africa’s neck. We all have many identities – of
tribe and ethnicity; of religion and nationality. But defining oneself in
opposition to someone who belongs to a different tribe, or who worships a
different prophet, has no place in the 21st century. Africa’s
diversity should be a source of strength, not a cause for division. We are all
God’s children. We all share common aspirations – to live in peace and security;
to access education and opportunity; to love our families, our communities, and
our faith. That is our common humanity.
why we must stand up to inhumanity in our midst. It is never justifiable to
target innocents in the name of ideology. It is the death sentence of a society
to force children to kill in wars. It is the ultimate mark of criminality and
cowardice to condemn women to relentless and systematic rape. We must bear
witness to the value of every child in Darfur and the dignity of every woman in
Congo. No faith or culture should condone the outrages against them. All of us
must strive for the peace and security necessary for
Africans are standing up for this future. Here, too, Ghana
is helping to point the way forward. Ghanaians should take pride in your
contributions to peacekeeping from Congo to Liberia to Lebanon, and in your
efforts to resist the scourge of the drug trade. We welcome the steps that are
being taken by organizations like the African Union and ECOWAS to better resolve
conflicts, keep the peace, and support those in need. And we encourage the
vision of a strong, regional security architecture that can bring effective,
transnational force to bear when needed.
has a responsibility to advance this vision, not just with words, but with
support that strengthens African capacity. When there is genocide in Darfur or
terrorists in Somalia, these are not simply African problems – they are global
security challenges, and they demand a global response. That is why we stand
ready to partner through diplomacy, technical assistance, and logistical
support, and will stand behind efforts to hold war criminals accountable. And
let me be clear: our Africa Command is focused not on establishing a foothold in
the continent, but on confronting these common challenges to advance the
security of America, Africa and the world.
Moscow, I spoke of the need for an international system where the universal
rights of human beings are respected, and violations of those rights are
opposed. That must include a commitment to support those who resolve conflicts
peacefully, to sanction and stop those who don’t, and to help those who have
suffered. But ultimately, it will be vibrant democracies like Botswana and Ghana
which roll back the causes of conflict, and advance the frontiers of peace and
said earlier, Africa’s future is up to Africans.
people of Africa are ready to claim that future. In my country,
African-Americans – including so many recent immigrants – have thrived in every
sector of society. We have done so despite a difficult past, and we have drawn
strength from our African heritage. With strong institutions and a strong will,
I know that Africans can live their dreams in Nairobi and Lagos; in Kigali and
Kinshasa; in Harare and right here in Accra.
Fifty-two years ago, the eyes of the world were on Ghana.
And a young preacher named Martin Luther King traveled here, to Accra, to watch
the Union Jack come down and the Ghanaian flag go up. This was before the march
on Washington or the success of the civil rights movement in my country. Dr.
King was asked how he felt while watching the birth of a nation. And he said:
"It renews my conviction in the ultimate triumph of justice."
that triumph must be won once more, and it must be won by you. And I am
particularly speaking to the young people. In places like Ghana, you make up
over half of the population. Here is what you must know: the world will be what
you make of it.
have the power to hold your leaders accountable, and to build institutions that
serve the people. You can serve in your communities, and harness your energy and
education to create new wealth and build new connections to the world. You can
conquer disease, end conflicts, and make change from the bottom up. You can do
that. Yes you can. Because in this moment, history is on the move.
these things can only be done if you take responsibility for your future. It
won’t be easy. It will take time and effort. There will be suffering and
setbacks. But I can promise you this: America will be with you. As a partner. As
a friend. Opportunity won’t come from any other place, though – it must come
from the decisions that you make, the things that you do, and the hope that you
hold in your hearts.
is your inheritance. Now, it is your responsibility to build upon freedom’s
foundation. And if you do, we will look back years from now to places like Accra
and say that this was the time when the promise was realized – this was the
moment when prosperity was forged; pain was overcome; and a new era of progress
began. This can be the time when we witness the triumph of justice once more.