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Supreme Court
Morse v. Frederick, 06-278 (2007)
Board of Education of the Westside Community Schools v. Mergens, 496 U.S. 226 (1990)
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988)
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
Board of Education v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853 (1982)
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969)
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)

Calvert, Clay, “Free Speech and Public Schools in a Post Columbine World: Check Your Speech Rights at the Schoolhouse Metal Detector,” 77 Denv. U.L. Rev. 739 (2000)
Cary, Eve; Levine, Alan H., and Price, Janet, The Rights of Students (ACLU Handbook for Young Americans). New York: Puffin Books, 1997
Clarick, Gregory A., “Public School Teachers and the First Amendment: Protecting the Right to Teach,” 65 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 693 (1990)
Chemerinsky, Erwin, “Students Do Leave Their First Amendment Rights at the Schoolhouse Gates: What’s Left of Tinker?,” 48 Drake L. Rev. 527, 545 (2000)
Irons, Peter (ed.), May it Please the Court: Courts, Kids, and the Constitution. New York: New Press, 2000
Hudson, David L. Jr., The Silencing of Student Voices: Preserving Free Speech in American Schools, Nashville, Tenn.: First Amendment Center, 2004
Jacobs, Thomas A., What Are My Rights? 95 Questions and Answers About Teens and the Law.
Johnson, John W., The Struggle for Student Rights: Tinker v. Des Moines and the 1960s. Lawrence, Kan.: University Press of Kansas, 1997
Leviton, Stuart, “Is Anyone Listening To Our Students? A Plea For Respect and Inclusion,” 21 Fla. St. L. Rev. 35, 43 (1993)
Maring, Mary Muehlen, “‘Children Should Be Seen and Not Heard’: Do Children Shed Their Right to Free Speech at the Schoolhouse Gate?,” 74 N. Dak. L. Rev. 679 (1998)
Minneapolis: Free Spirit, 1997
Monk, Linda R., The Bill of Rights: A User’s Guide (2nd ed.). Alexandria, Va.: Close Up Publishing, 1995
Strossen, Nadine, “Students’ Rights and How They are Wronged,” 32 U. Rich. L. Rev. 457 (1998)
Zirkel, Perry A., “30th Anniversary of Tinker: A Courtside Interview.” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 81 (no.1), Sept. 1, 1999, p. 34

Student Press Law Center reports
American Civil Liberties Union
American Library Association
First Amendment Schools
First Amendment Rights in Education, newsletter edited and published by Kevin O'Shea

YALSA — Young Adult Library Services Association


K-12 newspapers & yearbooks

Supreme Court
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988)

Chiras v. Miller, (3:03-CV-2651-M)(N.D. Tex.)(7/23/04)
Draudt v. Wooster City School District Board of Education, (No. 5:03-CV-62) (N.D. Ohio)(2/14/93)
Fleming v. Jefferson County Sch. Dist., 298 F.3d 918 (10th Cir. 2002)
Searcey v. Harris, 888 F.2d 1314 (11th Cir. 1989)
Stanton v. Brunswick School Department, 577 F.Supp. 1560 (D. Maine 1984)

Ark. Stat. Ann. § 6-18-1201 – 1204
Calif. Educ. Code § 48950
Colo. Rev. Stat. Ann. § 22-1-120
Iowa Code § 280.22
Kan. Stat. Ann. § 72.1504 – 72.1506
Ore. Rev. Stat. § 336.477
Mass. Gen. Laws Ann. Ch. 71, Section 82

Annest, Janna J. “Only the News That’s Fit to Print: The Effect of Hazelwood on the First Amendment Viewpoint-Neutrality Requirement in Public School-Sponsored Forums,” 77 Wash. L. Rev. 1227 (2002)

Hudson, David L. Jr., "Cathy Cowan reflects on her high school journalism fight in Hazelwood case," First Amendment Center Online, 12/27/01

Leaming, Jeremy, Analysis of Hazelwood’s Impact on Student Press, First Amendment Center Online (1998)

Jordan, Samuel P., “Viewpoint Restrictions and School-Sponsored Student Speech: Avenues for Heightened Protection,” 70 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1555 (2003)

Law of the Student Press. (Washington, D.C.: Student Press Law Center, 1994)

Student Press Law Center
American Society of Newspaper Editors' High School Journalism Project
Journalism Education Association
JEA Press Rights


Clothing, dress codes & uniforms

Supreme Court
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
U.S. v. O'Brien, 391 U.S. 367 (1968)
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969)

Barber v. Dearborn Public Schools, 286 F.Supp. 2d 847 (E.D. Mich. 2003)
Newsom v. Albemarle County School Board, Nos. 03-1125 (4th Cir.)(12/1/2003)
Hurt v. Boonville R-1 School District Case, No. 02-4267-CV-C-SOW (W.D. Mo. 2002)
Boroff v. Van Wert City Board of Education, 240 F.3d 465 (6th Cir. 2000)
Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board, 240 F.3d 437 (5th Cir. 2001)
Chambers v. Babbitt, 145 F.Supp. 2d 1068 (D. Minn. 2001)
Littlefield v. Forney Independent School District, 268 F.3d 275 (5th Cir. 2001)
Bivens v. Albuquerque Public Schools, 899 F.Supp. 556 (D. N.M. 1995)
Broussard v. School Board of Norfolk, 801 F.Supp. 1526 (E.D. Va. 1992)
Davenport v. Randolph County Board of Education, 730 F.2d 1395 (11th Cir. 1984)
Domico v. Rapides Parish School Board, 675 F.2d 100, 102 (5th Cir. 1982)
Zeller v. Donegal Sch. Dist., 517 F.2d 600 (3rd Cir. 1975)
Hatch v. Goerke, 502 F.2d 1189 (10th Cir. 1974)
Dwen v. Barry, 483 F.2d 1126 (2nd Cir. 1973)
Karr v. Schmidt, 460 F.2d 609 (5th Cir. 1972)
Massie v. Henry, 455 F.2d 779 (4th Cir. 1972)
Arnold v. Carpenter, 459 F.2d 939 (7th Cir. 1972)
Bishop v. Colaw, 450 F.2d 1069 (8th Cir. 1971)
Gfell v. Rickelman, 441 F.2d 444 (6th Cir. 1971)
King v. Saddleback Jr. College Dist., 445 F.2d 932 (9th Cir. 1971), cert. denied, 404 U.S. 979 (1971)
Richards v. Thurston, 424 F.2d 1281 (1st Cir. 1970)

Barbarosh, Alison M. “Undressing the First Amendment in Public Schools: Do Uniform Dress Codes Violate Students’ First Amendment Rights,” 28 Loyola L. Rev. 1415 (1995)

DeMitchell, Todd A., Richard Fossey and Casey Cobb. “Dress Codes in the Public Schools: Principals, Policies and Precepts,” 29 J.L. & Educ. 31 (2000)

Haynes, Charles C., et al., The First Amendment in Schools. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003, p. 79

Mahling, Wendy. “Secondhand Codes: An Analysis of the Constitutionality of Dress Codes in Public Schools,” 80 Minn. L. Rev. 715 (1996)

Murphy, Paul D., “Restricting Gang Clothing in Public Schools: Does a Dress Code Violate A Student’s Right of Free Expression?” 64 U.S.C. L. Rev. 1321 (1991)

Sarke, Dena. “Coed Naked Constitutional Law: The Benefits and Harms of Uniform Dress Requirements in American Public Schools,” 78 B.U. L. Rev. 153 (1998)

Weisenberger, Clay, “Constitution or Conformity: When the Shirt Hits the Fan in Public Schools,” 29 J.L. & Educ. 51, 58, (2000)

Wilson, Amy Mitchell. “Public School Dress Codes: The Constitutional Debate,” 1998 B.Y.U. Educ. & L.J. 147

White, Kerry A. “Do School Uniforms Fit?” School Administrator (February 2000)

Zirkel, Perry A., “A Uniform Policy: Assessment of School Uniform Policies,” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 79, no. 7 (March 1998), p. 550

Asserting Parental Rights — organization of parents opposed to school uniforms


Underground papers & off-campus speech

Woodcock v. South Lyon Community Schools (E.D. Mich. 2002) No. 02-72314

Pangle v. Bend-Lapine School District, 10 P.3d 275 (Or. App. 2000)

Boucher v. School Board of the School District of Greenfield, 134 F.3d 821 (7th Cir. 1998)

Burch v. Barker, 861 F.Supp. 1149 (9th Cir. 1988)

Klein v. Smith, 635 F.Supp. 1440 (D. Me. 1986)

Shanley v. Northeast Independent School District, 462 F.2d 960 (5th Cir. 1972)

Thomas v. Board of Education, Granville Central School District, 607 F.2d 1043 (2nd Cir. 1979)

Student Press Law Center, SPLC Guide to Surviving Underground: A Legal Manual for Publishers of Independent Student Newspapers (2001)

Student Press Law Center, Law of the Student Press (2nd ed.)(1994)



Supreme Court
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988)
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 303 U.S. 593 (1969)

Beidler v. North Thurston School District, No. 99-2-00236-6 (Wash.Super.Ct.)(7/18/00)
Beussink v. Woodland R-IV School District, 30 F.Supp. 2d 1175 (E.D. Mo. 1998)
Coy v. Board of Education of North Canton Schools, 205 F.Supp. 2d 791 (N.D. Ohio 2002)
Doninger v. Niehoff, 527 F.3d 41 (2nd Cir. 2008)
Emmett v. Kent School District No. 415, 92 F.Supp. 2d 1089 (W.D. Wash. 2000)
J.S. v. Bethlehem Area School District, 807 A.2d 847 (Pa. 2002)
Klein v. Smith, 635 F.Supp. 1440 (D. Me. 1986)
Mahaffey v. Aldrich, 236 F.Supp. 2d 779 (E.D. Mich. 2002)
O’Brien v. Westlake City Sch. Bd. of Educ., No. 1:98CV647 (E.D. Ohio 1998)
Thomas v. Board of Education, Granville Central School District, 607 F.2d 1043 (2nd Cir. 1979)

Blumner, Robyn, “Censoring Students in Cyberspace.” St. Petersburg (Fla.) Times, Sept. 13, 1998, p. 4D

Calvert, Clay. “Off-Campus Speech, On-Campus Punishment: Censorship of the Emerging Internet Underground,” 7 B.U. J. Sci. & Tech. L. 243 (2001)

Caplan, Aaron. “Public School Discipline for Creating Uncensored Anonymous Internet Forums,” 39 Willamette L. Rev. 93 (2003)

Goulet, Mark C., “Schools Face A Discipline Dilemma: Proceed with Caution when Acting Against Students for Computer-Related Misconduct.” Texas Lawyer, vol. 17 (no. 23), Aug. 13, 2001, p.25

Harpaz, Leora, “Internet Speech and the First Amendment Rights of Public School Students,” B.Y.U. L. Rev. 123 (2000)

Hudson, David L. Jr., “Censorship of Student Internet Speech: The Effect of Diminishing Student Rights, Fear of the Internet and Columbine,” 2000 L. Rev. Mich. St. U. Det. C.L. 199 (2000)

Hudson, David L. Jr., "Student Online Expression: What Do the Internet and MySpace Mean for Students’ First Amendment Rights?"

Simpson, Robert E. “Limits on Students’ Speech in the Internet Age,” 105 Dick. L. Rev. 181 (2001)

Weng, K., “Type No Evil: The Proper Latitude of Public Educational Institutions in Restricting Expressions of Their Students on the Internet,” 20 Hastings Comm. & Ent. L.J. 751 (1998)

Rights Watch: Cyber Threats on the Rise NEAToday Online


Hate speech & speech codes

Marcus, Laurence R., Fighting words: the politics of hateful speech. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1996
Stader, David L., “Responding to Student Threats: Legal and Procedural Guidelines for High School Principals.” The Clearing House, vol. 74 (no. 4), March 1, 2001, p. 221


Book censorship

Supreme Court
Board of Education v. Pico, 457 U.S. 853 (1982)

American Library Association's Banned Books Web page

YALSA — Young Adult Library Services Association



Supreme Court
Westside Community Board of Education v. Mergens 496 U.S. 226 (1990)

Boyd County High School Gay Straight Alliance v. Board of Education of Boyd County, Ky., 258 F.Supp.2d 667 (E.D. Kent. 2003)
Ceniceros v. Board of Trustees of the San Diego Unified School District, 106 F.3d 878 (9th Cir. 1997)
Colin v. Orange Unified School District, 83 F.Supp.2d 1135 (C.D. Cal. 2000)
Donovan v. Punxsutawney Area School Board, 336 F.3d 211 (3rd Cir. 2003)
East High Gay/Straight Alliance v. Board of Education of Salt Lake City School District, 81 F.Supp.2d 1166 (D.Utah 1999)
Pope v. East Brunswick Board of Education, 12 F.3d 1244 (3rd Cir. 1993)
Prince v. Jacoby, 303 F.3d 1074 (9th Cir. 2002)

Equal Access Act, 20 U.S.C. 4071-4074 (1984).

Hagins, Todd, “Mother Goose and Father God: Extending the Equal Access Act to Pre-High-School Students,” 15 Regent U.L. Rev. 93 (2002).

Haynes, Charles, Sam Chaltain, John E. Ferguson Jr., David L. Hudson Jr. & Oliver Thomas. The First Amendment in Schools (Alexandria, Virg: ASCD 2003), p. 47-50.

Mawdsley, Ralph D., “The Equal Access Act and Public Schools: What Are the Legal Issues Related to Recognizing Gay Student Groups,” 2001 BYU Educ. & L.J. 1.


Pledge of Allegiance

Supreme Court
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)

Sherman v. Community Consolidated School District, 980 F.2d 437 (7th Cir. 1992)
Lipp v. Morris, 579 F.2d 834 (3rd Cir. 1978)

History and text of the Pledge of Allegiance

Pledge of Allegiance statutes, state by state

(See also cases & resources for “Pledge of Allegiance & religious liberty in public schools.”)


Speaking out in school

Supreme Court
Morse v. Frederick, 06-278 (2007)
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, 484 U.S. 260 (1988)
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School Dist., 393 U.S. 503 (1969)

Farish, Leah, Tinker v. Des Moines: Student Protest. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow, 1997

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Last system update: Monday, February 8, 2010 | 15:23:00
student expression issues >
Clothing, dress codes & uniforms
K-12 newspapers & yearbooks
Underground papers & off-campus speech
Book censorship
Hate speech & speech codes
Pledge of Allegiance in public schools
Speaking out in school