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Cases & resources

Pledge of Allegiance & religious liberty in public schools

Supreme Court
Elk Grove Unified School Dist. v. Newdow (2004)
Santa Fe Independent School District v. Doe, 530 U.S. 290 (2000)
Lee v. Weisman, 505 U.S. 577 (1992)
Wallace v. Jaffree, 472 U.S. 38 (1985)
Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668 (1984)
Abington School District v. Schempp, 374 U.S. 203 (1963)
Engel v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)
West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette, 319 U.S. 624 (1943)
Minersville School District v. Gobitis, 310 U.S. 586 (1940)

Myers v. Loudon County Public Schools, 418 F.3d 395 (4th Cir. 2005)

Newdow v. Congress, 383 F.Supp. 2d 1229 (E.D. Cal. 2005)

Circle School v. Pappert, 381 F.3d 172 (3rd Cir. 2004)

Newdow v. U.S. Congress, 292 F.3d 597 (9th Cir. 2002) and later rulings under Case No. 00-16423, D.C. No. CV-00-00495-MLS/PAN (9th Cir. Dec. 4, 2002, Feb. 28, 2003, and March 5, 2003)

Sherman v. Community Consolidated School District, 980 F.2d 437 (7th Cir. 1992)

Aronow v. United States, 432 F.2d 242 (9th Cir. 1970

Hamilton, Marci, “The Ongoing Fight for Religious Dominance: From the Secret Service Agent's Slur, to Critiques of the Ninth Circuit's Pledge of Allegiance Decision” (Aug. 1, 2002)
Lazarus, Edward, “In Defense of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals: Though the Ninth Circuit Is Frequently Reversed by the Supreme Court, that Does Not Mean It Is Frequently ‘Wrong’” (July 11, 2002)
Wolff, Tobias Barrington, “What the Recent Pledge of Allegiance Decision Really Means” (July 2, 2002)

Liberty magazine, November/December 2002, has multiple editorials exploring aspects of the Pledge controversy: “Under God Freedom,” by C. Welton Gaddy; “The Right Call,” by Barry W. Lynn; and “Is God an American Institution?” by John W. Whitehead.

History and text of the Pledge of Allegiance

Pledge of Allegiance statutes, state by state

(See also cases & resources for “Pledge of Allegiance in public schools.”)

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