firstamendmentcenter.org: Student expression in Speech - Cases & resources
Clothing, dress codes & uniforms

Clothing, dress codes & uniforms

Supreme Court
Bethel School District No. 403 v. Fraser, 478 U.S. 675 (1986)
U.S. v. O'Brien, 391 U.S. 367 (1968)
Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969)

Other
Barber v. Dearborn Public Schools, 286 F.Supp. 2d 847 (E.D. Mich. 2003)
Newsom v. Albemarle County School Board, Nos. 03-1125 (4th Cir.)(12/1/2003)
Hurt v. Boonville R-1 School District Case, No. 02-4267-CV-C-SOW (W.D. Mo. 2002)
Boroff v. Van Wert City Board of Education, 240 F.3d 465 (6th Cir. 2000)
Canady v. Bossier Parish School Board, 240 F.3d 437 (5th Cir. 2001)
Chambers v. Babbitt, 145 F.Supp. 2d 1068 (D. Minn. 2001)
Littlefield v. Forney Independent School District, 268 F.3d 275 (5th Cir. 2001)
Bivens v. Albuquerque Public Schools, 899 F.Supp. 556 (D. N.M. 1995)
Broussard v. School Board of Norfolk, 801 F.Supp. 1526 (E.D. Va. 1992)
Davenport v. Randolph County Board of Education, 730 F.2d 1395 (11th Cir. 1984)
Domico v. Rapides Parish School Board, 675 F.2d 100, 102 (5th Cir. 1982)
Zeller v. Donegal Sch. Dist., 517 F.2d 600 (3rd Cir. 1975)
Hatch v. Goerke, 502 F.2d 1189 (10th Cir. 1974)
Dwen v. Barry, 483 F.2d 1126 (2nd Cir. 1973)
Karr v. Schmidt, 460 F.2d 609 (5th Cir. 1972)
Massie v. Henry, 455 F.2d 779 (4th Cir. 1972)
Arnold v. Carpenter, 459 F.2d 939 (7th Cir. 1972)
Bishop v. Colaw, 450 F.2d 1069 (8th Cir. 1971)
Gfell v. Rickelman, 441 F.2d 444 (6th Cir. 1971)
King v. Saddleback Jr. College Dist., 445 F.2d 932 (9th Cir. 1971), cert. denied, 404 U.S. 979 (1971)
Richards v. Thurston, 424 F.2d 1281 (1st Cir. 1970)

Barbarosh, Alison M. “Undressing the First Amendment in Public Schools: Do Uniform Dress Codes Violate Students’ First Amendment Rights,” 28 Loyola L. Rev. 1415 (1995)

DeMitchell, Todd A., Richard Fossey and Casey Cobb. “Dress Codes in the Public Schools: Principals, Policies and Precepts,” 29 J.L. & Educ. 31 (2000)

Haynes, Charles C., et al., The First Amendment in Schools. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2003, p. 79

Mahling, Wendy. “Secondhand Codes: An Analysis of the Constitutionality of Dress Codes in Public Schools,” 80 Minn. L. Rev. 715 (1996)

Murphy, Paul D., “Restricting Gang Clothing in Public Schools: Does a Dress Code Violate A Student’s Right of Free Expression?” 64 U.S.C. L. Rev. 1321 (1991)

Sarke, Dena. “Coed Naked Constitutional Law: The Benefits and Harms of Uniform Dress Requirements in American Public Schools,” 78 B.U. L. Rev. 153 (1998)

Weisenberger, Clay, “Constitution or Conformity: When the Shirt Hits the Fan in Public Schools,” 29 J.L. & Educ. 51, 58, (2000)

Wilson, Amy Mitchell. “Public School Dress Codes: The Constitutional Debate,” 1998 B.Y.U. Educ. & L.J. 147

White, Kerry A. “Do School Uniforms Fit?” School Administrator (February 2000)

Zirkel, Perry A., “A Uniform Policy: Assessment of School Uniform Policies,” Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 79, no. 7 (March 1998), p. 550

Asserting Parental Rights — organization of parents opposed to school uniforms