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Burning the chance to educate youth about respect and rights
Inside the First Amendment

By Gene Policinski
First Amendment Center vice president/executive director

Editor’s note: On June 14, after the original version of this column was distributed, the Associated Press reported that district officials had reversed their decision to shut down the Shasta High School Volcano. This updated version reflects that development.

Just in time for Flag Day earlier this month, a California public school principal managed, in one swoop and in the name of respecting the Stars and Stripes, to show a lack of respect for the First Amendment’s protections for both free speech and a free press.

By a presidential proclamation in 1949, the nation officially recognized June 14 as Flag Day. Flags fly proudly from front porches. Politicians offer rhetorical salutes. In some years, Congress has been locked in debate that very day over a proposed constitutional amendment that would permit laws against flag desecration. Even the U.S. Supreme Court has gotten into the spirit, issuing a ruling on June 14, 1943, on a West Virginia compulsory flag-salute law, and another in 2004 in a case involving the phrase “under God” in the Pledge of Allegiance.

According to news reports, Shasta High School Principal Milan Woollard, in Redding, Calif., decided to short-circuit any public debate in his school over flag-burning by killing off the student newspaper, the Volcano, which carried a front-page photo collage including an image of a student holding an American flag burning at the edges. Woollard was quoted in the Redding Record Searchlight newspaper as saying the photo was embarrassing and that “the paper’s done … there’s not going to be a newspaper next year.”

On June 14, school officials reversed the decision to close the paper, deciding to fund another year of journalism education. Superintendent Mike Stuart reportedly said he had agreed to keep the program after the incoming editor-in-chief appealed to him for a chance to publish a serious, respectable paper. Stuart also said he would reevaluate the newspaper and interest in the journalism program at the end of the next school year.

Burning an American flag is, without a doubt, a repulsive thing to most Americans. But let’s take a closer look at what happened in Redding — both the decision to close the Volcano and the later decision to keep the paper and the program going.

School officials have been given wide latitude by the courts in recent years to restrict student speech or student press when either is proven disruptive to the educational process or when that speech intrudes on the rights of other students.

And, according to the principal, the school system already was looking at closing the newspaper to cut costs amid reduced state funding. But the decision by student editors to run the photo — accompanied by an editorial saying flag-burning was protected by the First Amendment — rather solidly “cements that decision,” Woollard was quoted as saying.

Nothing in news reports says the final edition, published in the last week of school, caused any disruption of education. And shutting down or censoring a student newspaper for any reason that smacks of convenience — fiscal, personal or political — runs counter to the lessons that young citizens should be learning about why America values a free press and freedom of expression.

The student editor said the photo and accompanying editorial were published because he and classmates had just studied the issue of flag-burning in their government class. An administrator said publishing the image was immature and self-indulgent. But whatever the students’ motivation in running the photo and editorial, the occasion affords a golden opportunity in the Golden State for education, not repression.

Far better that Principal Woollard, Superintendent Stuart, the next student editor and others write about their views in the first edition next term.

Would it not do good for all involved to read about why burning the American flag so offends the principal and so many other citizens; to hear from veterans who risked their lives under that banner to preserve the Constitution and the Bill of Rights? Would it not do good for students and others to discover and discuss what happens to people in other nations who deface their national symbols in order to express their views?

Would it also not do good to hear more from those who would explain why this distasteful act ought to be — as it is — protected by law partly as the ultimate demonstration to the world of how much the United States values the right of its citizens to express themselves?

Would it not be good for all sides to consider the words of Justice William Brennan, from a 1989 ruling in Texas v. Johnson that protects flag-burning, who said, “If there is a bedrock principle underlying the First Amendment, it is that the government may not prohibit the expression of an idea simply because society finds the idea itself offensive or disagreeable”?

More discussion and more information — in other words, more education — about controversial issues and views is what ought to occur at Shasta High and in the Volcano.

Gene Policinski is vice president and executive director of the First Amendment Center, 555 Pennsylvania Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20001. Web: E-mail:


Student newspaper shut down after publishing flag-burning photo

Teens' decision to showcase image 'cements the decision' to pull funding, says Shasta, Calif., High School principal. 06.11.08

Calif. high school newspaper wins reprieve

Superintendent said he agreed to keep program after incoming editor in chief appealed to him for chance to publish a serious, respectable publication. 06.16.08

2 Calif. high school newspapers shuttered

ACLU sues after Tomahawk is scrapped; students decry cancellation of Scots Express after one issue. 11.12.08

Mo. high school newspaper delayed over officials' review
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