Sudan Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration Programme (SDDRP)

Fast Facts:
Project document and reports available upon request
Location: National and State level, with staff and offices based in North and Southern Sudan.
Duration: Jan 2009 - June 2012
Focus area: Crisis Prevention and Recovery
Contributions(USD): Japan: 26,804,249
DFID: 10,175,627
Italy: 4,178,273
Norway: 11,143,907
Sweden (SIDA): 6,626,875
Germany : 2,409,639
Netherlands: 3,000,000
Canada: 9,832,842
UNDP - BCPR: 1,378,730
MDTF: 39,999,938
PBF: 4,680,010
Spain: 2,677,376
Total 122,904,820
Partners: • The North and Southern Sudan DDR Commissions, both at national and state levels;
• Implementing Partners, including international agencies (such as FAO and IOM), and national NGOs (such as CORD, ISRA, NMIAD and JASMAR.)
Delivery(USD): 2010: 34,711,870 (provisional)
2009: 580,754
Contact person in UNDP: Basil Massey, DDR Programme Director,

- Socioeconomic DDR Khartoum State

- Socio- economic mapping for River Nile and
   Northern states

- Socio-economic and opportunity mapping
   Assessment report for Sinnar State

- Socio-economic and opportunity mapping   Assessment report for North Kordofan State

- Socio-economic and opportunity mapping
  Assessment report for White Nile State

- Socio-economic and opportunity mapping
   Assessment report for Gazira State

Sudan has experienced one of the longest civil wars in Africa, which was brought to an end with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) by both The Government of Sudan and Sudan People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) on 9 January 2005. As part of an overall CPA implementation process, both sides have committed to a transparent and effective Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) processes which will support the transition of ex-combatants (XCs) and associated members from military to productive civilian life aimed at ensuring a secure, stable and peaceful Sudan. The National DDR Coordination Council was established by presidential decree to oversee the DDR process at the highest policy level followed by the formation of the Northern and Southern Sudan DDR Commissions to lead design and implementation of the DDR process.

As part of its role in supporting the implementation of the CPA, The United Nations Mission in Sudan, (UNMIS) was mandated by UN Security Council Resolution 1590 (24 March 2005) to assist in the establishment of the DDR programme and its implementation. In this context, the Integrated UN DDR Unit (UNMIS, UNDP, UNICEF, WFP and UNFPA) has been established within UNMIS to assist the relevant national institutions in the DDR process. UNDP takes the lead in support the implementation of the Reintegration component of the programme.

The Sudan DDR Programme (SDDRP) outlines a DDR programme for 180.000 XCs and associated members (90,000 SAF and 90,000 SPLA), which is part of the CPA implementation and paves the way to future human security, reconstruction and development activities.

Guided by the National DDR Strategic Plan (NDDRP) and National Reintegration Policy, the UNDAF, the DDRP also aims at contributing to North Sudan’s Strategic five year plan (2007-2011) and South Sudan’s Three Year Strategic Plan for recovery and development which emphasizes the effective and sustainable reintegration of XCs, while recognizing the need to support Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in all recovery and development spheres.

Specifically, the objective of the SDDRP is to provide direct support to the eligible participants to facilitate their reintegration into civilian communities. Due consideration is given to promoting community security and social cohesion through capacity development at local and national levels to ensure sustainability of the reintegration effort by:
• Supporting the social, economic, psychological and political reintegration of XCs and associated members, inclusive of all categories targeted and eligible for DDR from SAF and SPLA.
• Enhancing the capacity of relevant institutions to ensure sustainable reintegration of XCs.
This programme focuses on the reintegration of XCs and associated members including Special Needs Groups (SNGs) who meet the eligibility criteria, and links with other national recovery and priority programmes aimed at returnees, internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) and host communities to ensure community security and social cohesion and long term reintegration of XCs.

The programme design and implementation derives from a participatory methodology and benefits from a partnership approach and is jointly implemented by Government and UNDP, whereby the input of financial support, policy insight and programmatic oversight flows from a range of government partners, international stakeholders, development agencies, donors, NGOs, civil society organizations and the international financial institutions.

The primary responsibility for the positive outcome of the DDR process rests with national and local actors who are ultimately accountable for the peace, security and development of Sudan. In this context, the DDR process is nationally owned and led, with the reintegration component of the DDR programme following the UNDP finance and procurement rules with a total value of USD 358,143,959 over the course of its life (2008-2011)

Snapshots of the project's major achievements

In 2010, reintegration continued apace, with contracts awarded to new implementing partners (IPs) and ex-combatants (XCs) being matched and registered with these IPs, receiving training and packages. The project initiated a small capital grants facility, which added additional flexibility to targeting mechanisms, and is particularly relevant to states where small numbers of participants were settling. The project also launched a fast track process to standardize procurement procedures to expedite delivery. By the end of 2010, there were contracts and small grants in place to deliver reintegration support to 18,859 XCs throughout the CPA areas, and 14,905 XCs were registered with an IP, 10,368 XCs had completed the targeted training component of their reintegration option, and 6,589 XCs had received their reintegration packages. Also in 2010, the project introduced social reintegration and community security and arms control initiatives to complement individual reintegration, with 4 community projects being piloted in the Transitional Areas, to be replicated throughout ‘hot spot’ areas of Sudan in the future. To take stock of its work to date and readjust its course if required, in late 2010, UNDP, in cooperation with UNMIS and the National DDR Commissions, commissioned a Programme Review of the Sudan Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Programme (SDDRP). The review covered the entire DDR programme in the North, South and at the National level. The Review Team was tasked to explore programme options and provide recommendations for reformulating the approach to DDR in the post-referendum period, based on the national priorities as envisaged by the stakeholders in Sudan. The recommendations of the review have since been analyzed by the UNDP and NSDDRC, and are being taken into account in terms of future programming.

New community-focused initiatives: The project introduced social reintegration and community security and arms control (CSAC) initiatives in 2010. The CSAC project will also focus on providing peace dividends to conflict affected communities with a view to neutralizing potential triggers of armed conflict and also facilitating effective reintegration of ex-combatants.

Outreach: Stakeholder workshops with leaders from some 100 communities were held in Southern Kordofan and some 40 communities in Blue Nile State to raise awareness and build long term partnership with the DDR programme. Community perception surveys show the positive impact of the workshops, as initial resistance from communities has actually transformed into active participation.

Strengthening the capacity of local institutions and NGOs: The project has been working intensely with national NGOs to build their capacity to bid in a competitive process for reintegration contracts and to implement activities. Over 100 NGOs in North Sudan alone were targeted under capacity-building activities, of which 17 national NGOs and two international organizations have become UNDP’s Implementing Partners. The recent programme review report has noted this to be a substantial contribution from UNDP as some of these NGOs now also successfully compete for projects in other programmes.

New implementation mechanisms: The project has initiated a small capital grants facility. This facility is of particular relevance in both CPA and non-CPA northern states to deliver reintegration benefits, psycho-social training, civic education and small arms control activities to small pockets of participants residing in remote areas.
New approach towards issues related to WAAF: For the first time in a DDR project, UNDP has launched an exclusive project to target Women Associated with Armed Forces, (WAAF) in Blue NileState, with an aim to cover issues concerned to psycho – social sphere, trauma, civic education and gender based violence . The progress of this project has produced results which could be used as best practices in the DDR practice realm. The outputs of this project are planned to be replicated throughout Sudan.

Solid relationships with counterparts: The DDR project has built a solid relationship with the DDR Commissions. In addition ten international staff are seconded to the two commissions and recently, the NSDDRC Commissioner has requested that more UNDP staff be seconded. UNDP has been working hand-in-hand with the Commission to oversee the programme through multiple coordination fora and through the Technical Reintegration Committees, which have been established at the state and regional levels and are functioning successfully to monitor implementation.

Achievements in 2009: The Sudan DDR Programme was formally launched in Damazin, Blue Nile State, on 10 February 2009, with the start of demobilization activities. The reintegration component attracted its first major pledges at the DDR Roundtable in Juba on 16 February, with a pledge from the Japanese government of 1.575 billion yen (some USD 16 million) proving instrumental in encouraging other donors to come forward with pledges and demonstrating a firm commitment on the part of the international community to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. After funds for reintegration arrived UNDP’s staffing ramped up and reintegration formally kicked off in the second half of 2009, with counseling on reintegration options offered to ex-combatants in the Transitional Areas. Also in 2009, for the first time in a DDR project, UNDP launched a project exclusively targeting Women Associated with the Armed Forces (WAAF) in Blue Nile, with an aim to provide psychosocial support, civic education and gender-based violence. The project is funded by BCPR.
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