Status of MDGs in Sudan in 2010

Sudan is the largest country in Africa and the ninth largest in the world. It has international borders with 9 countries. Sudan's 2005 comprehensive peace agreement (CPA) which was signed by the government of Sudan and Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) put an end to the civil war and opened unprecedented opportunities for peace, development and prosperity. Sudan’s total population is estimated at approximately 39 million people (North: 30,894,000 at 78.9 percent; South: 8,260,490 at 21.1 percent), with a population growth rate of 2.1 percent per annum. Sudan has launched a Five-Year Development Plan within a 25 years strategy (2007-2031). The Five-Year Development Plan (2007-2011) intent to reduce poverty and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. The size of Sudan’s economy, in terms of its Gross National Product has grown fivefold – from USD10 billion in 1999 to USD 53 billion in 2008.

The Structure of the Sudanese Economy has shifted over time, from predominantly reliant on agriculture for growth and exports, to its current reliance on the oil sector which has much real structural change in the Sudanese economy with 12% of GDP from the oil sector since 2000. Overall per capita income of the Sudan increased from US$ 777 in 2004 to US$ 1,454 in 2009. However; the distribution of the income reflects regional disparities and imbalance growth among the states due to conflict in areas such as Darfur. Any objective assessment of Sudan's progress towards achieving the globally agreed socio-economic development goals should not be oblivious to the detrimental effects of conflicts towards realizing these objectives. For enhancing and accelerating progress in order to achieve the MDGs in the 5 years remaining to 2015; namely that - effective and efficient holistic interventions be made to address the challenges identified in this report regarding each of the MDGs, and - a task that must be given top priority is boosting and strengthening statistical capacity to furnish reliable and accurate data that enable monitoring, tracking and evaluation of performance regarding the MDGs and the broader socio-economic development domains.

  MDG 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

• 46.5% of the population in Sudan lives below the poverty line in Northern Sudan compare to 50.6% in southern Sudan, figures translating the fact that in each two persons living in Sudan one is poor.
• Southern Sudan, a region long-affected by conflict and by the lack of development efforts, expectedly has visibly high levels of poverty among the population.
• Poverty rates vary significantly between states – from three in four people in Northern Bahr el Ghazal state (75.6%) to only one in four people in Upper Nile state (25.7%).
• Employed to population ratio reported 39.5% based on populations at working age category (15-59). Unemployment rate among (15 -59 years) is 17 %. Youth (15-24) unemployment rate is 25.4%.
• MDER (daily minimum dietary energy requirement) per person in Sudan was 1751 Kcals.
• In northern Sudan, the proportion of the population below the minimum level of dietary consumption is estimated at 31.5%.
• The percentage in urban areas is almost similar to the rural areas 31% and 34% respectively.
• Across the Northern states, the level of food deprivation varies significantly. It registered 44% in the Red Sea, 15% in the Gazira and River Nile.
• The nutrition situation in Sudan is poor, characterized by high levels of underweight and chronic malnutrition, as well as persistently elevated levels of acute malnutrition.
• Nationally, one third (31%) of children under the age of five years in Sudan is moderately or severely underweight.
• In southern Sudan, 32.8% of children under five were underweight.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Estimated poverty incidence (% of total population)
23% 50.6% 45%
Prevalence of child malnutrition (underweight for age; % under 5)
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

 MDG 2 Achieve Universal Primary Education

• In Northern Sudan Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) has reached 71.1% with a wider disparity among states ranging from 93.75% in Khartoum down to only 36.1% in the Red Sea.
• 72% was the primary School Gross Enrolment Rate in Southern Sudan in 2009.
• In northern Sudan, considerable progress in literacy has been made as compared to its low rates of 27 .1% for adults in 1990. It was below 20% for women.
• Literacy rates have risen to 61% for both sexes in 2007. It has reached 71% for males and fell to 52% for females.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Gross primary enrolment ratio
100% 48% 100%
Adult literacy rate

 MDG 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

• In northern Sudan the data on general education show modest progress and variations of girls’ education compared to boys.
• In the year 2008-2009, the percentage of boy's enrolment has dropped slightly from 29.6% to 29.4%, where as it improved from 26.3% to 29.9% for girls.
• There are considerable gender disparities among the 15 northern states in regard to enrollment in secondary education.
• In Northern Sudan, women occupy 28% of the seats in the newly elected parliament in 2010.
• Women in the national legislative council increased from 9.7% in 2004, to 25% in the recently elected assembly.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Ratio girls to boys in primary education
100% 0.7% 100%
Share of women in employment in the non-agricultural sectors
Percentage of women in National Assembly/Council of States

 MDG 4 Reduce Child Mortality

• Pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea, and malnutrition usually still represent the major causes of under-five illness and deaths.
• U5MR (Under five Mortality Rate) in North Sudan drop to 102/1000 L.B in 2006.
• IMR (Infant Mortality Rate) in North Sudan increased to 71/1000 L.B in 2006.
• The overall picture shows inter-regional variations, where (U5MR) in Blue Nile, South Kordofan, West Darfur and Red Sea reached 178, 147, 138 and 126 per 1000 L.B (SHHS 2006), respectively.
• IMR remained high in the same states mentioned above in addition to Ghadarif (86/1000 LB).
• In Southern Sudan the young children face daily threats from Malaria, diarrheal diseases, Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI), vaccine preventable diseases and malnutrition.
• In southern Sudan U5M declined from an estimated 250 per 1,000 live births in 2001 to 135 in 2006.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000)
41 381 83
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
One-year-olds immunized against measles

MDG 5 Improve Maternal Health

• In northern Sudan there is an observed instability in MMR levels.
• In the figures in 1990, 1999 and 2006 the rate of MMR was 537, 509 and 638 respectively.
• Delivery by trained personnel in Northern Sudan accounts for 57% of deliveries (national average 49.2%) while institutional deliveries account for 19.4% of all births.
• The total fertility rate was 5.1 births per woman in 2006 with marked differences between urban and rural areas.
• MMR (Maternal Mortality Ratio) in Southern Sudan stood at 1,989 deaths out of 100,000 lives.
• In southern Sudan only 10.02% of all births were attended by “skilled” health staff or Skilled Birth Attendants.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
134 1,989 1680
Birth attended by skilled health staff
Contraceptive prevalence rate (current use)
Adolescent birth rate (12-14) years
Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits

MDG 6 Combat HIV Aids, Malaria and other diseases

• The estimated HIV prevalence among the general population 15-49 years in North Sudan is 0.67%.
• The average HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) is 0.19%.
• In southern Sudan the provisional estimate of HIV prevalence among the general population is slightly over 3 percent.
• Only 4% of the respondents knew all the three ways to prevent HIV transmission in Sudan.
• Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan.
• All states except Blue Nile (12.5%) and West Darfur (7.1%) reported prevalence of less than 3%.
• In northern Sudan, the percentage of households with at least one Insecticide Treated Net (ITNs) stood at 41% in 2009.
• Sudan carries 15% of the TB burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR).
• In 2009, the estimated incidence of new smear-positive TB cases was 60 per 100 thousand populations, translating to almost 18,536 new smear-positive cases.
• The actual detected were 8572 cases. This means a case detection rate of 46.2%.
• In Southern Sudan tuberculosis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years
0.5% males & 1.24% females
- 2.3% -
Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
4% (all the three ways to prevent HIV transmission in Sudan)
Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs
Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
3.1 million reported cases
8,844 death cases
80% at risk of malaria
Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets
Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
120 Per 100,000
79 Per 100,000
Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course
158 Per 100,000

MDG 7 Integrate the principles of sustainable development into
country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources

• Sudan is endowed with huge and diversified natural resources, fertile land, natural forests, fresh water, biodiversity, wild and domestic animal stock, marine ecosystems, mineral and soil resources.
• Sudan has achieved total compliance to Montreal protocol objectives (total phase out) of Ozone depleting potential. Zero consumption of Coloro-Floro Carbon (CFCs) was achieved by 2010.
• The consumed water is used for irrigation 67%, industry 5%, human and livestock drinking and domestic use 28%. The evapo-transpiration losses account for 17%.
• In Northern Sudan access to safe drinking water has decreased to 58.7% and access to improved sanitation increased to 39.9% in comparison with the baseline year access figures.
• In Southern Sudan, less than half of the population (about 48.30%) had access to improved sources of drinking water, and unprotected wells were still the most important sources of water.
• In Southern Sudan, on average, only 6% of the households use sanitary means of excreta disposal.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Access to improved drinking water source (% of population)
82% 48.3% 75%
Access to improved sanitation (% of population)

 MDG 8 Develop a Global Partnership for development

• ODA declined from 7.2% in 2005 to 4.8% in 2008, with a sharp decline in the growth rate from 44.7% in 2005 to -16% in 2007 to – 5.6% in 2008.
• On average, most of the exports revenues of Sudan come from oil (86% of total) and the rest 14% from agricultural and other industrial and non-oil exports during 2000-2009.
• Regarding the affordability of medicines, on average, a lowest paid Sudanese government worker would generally need less than 1 day’s wages for most model treatments when using generics in any of the health sectors.
• The total external debt of Sudan in 2009 amounted to US$ 35.7 billion, showing an increase of about US$ 2,145 billion compared to 2008.
• In Sudan the estimated Telephone lines per 100 populations was 0.9 % of populations in 2009.
• In Sudan the estimated Cellular subscribers per 100 population 28 % of population in 2009.
• In Sudan the estimated Internet users per 100 populations was 10.4 % of Population in 2010.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target Southern Sudan 2015 Target
Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Public health sector (40%- 55%) & private sector (90%)
- Combined North & South
Telephone lines per 100 population
0.9 % of populations
Access to improved sanitation (% of population)
28 % of population
Internet users per 100 population
10.4 % of Population


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