Environment and Energy for Sustainable Development

Sudan faces critical environmental issues, including severe land degradation, deforestation, desertification and other impacts of climate change that threaten the prospects of lasting peace and sustainable development. According to the United Nations Environment Programme’s (UNEP) 2007, ‘Sudan Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment’ Report clear linkages exist between environmental problems and the ongoing conflict in Darfur, as well as other historical and current conflicts in Sudan.

“Competition over oil and gas reserves, Nile waters and timber, as well as land use issues related to agricultural land, are important causative factors in the instigation and perpetuation of conflict in Sudan. Confrontations over rangeland and rain-fed agricultural land in the drier parts of the country are a particularly striking manifestation of the connection between natural resource scarcity and violent conflict.“.

In an attempt to join the international community’s endeavours to address environmental issues, Sudan has ratified the Global Environmental Conventions in line with the global environmental objectives agreed upon at the UN Conference on Environment and Development, Rio de Janeiro, in 1992, and related international instruments. In doing so, the country became a party to the United Nations Convention on Biodiversity (UNCBD) in 1995; a party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 1992; and in November 1995, was the 16th Party to ratify the United Nations Convention on Combating Desertification (UNCCD).

Over the past few years, and with the support of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), UNDP had assisted the Government of Sudan to prepare its National Biodiversity Strategic Action Plan and identify its country specific priorities in relation to Biodiversity Conservation.

In addition to helping the Government to prepare its Second National Communication on Climate Change, UNDP is currently supporting the Higher Council for Environment and Natural Resources to finalize the preparation of Sudan’s National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change and a National Implantation Plan to phase out Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). Both documents were endorsed by the Council of Ministers, approved by the Government of Sudan, and submitted to the appropriate global environment secretariat.

UNDP is also assisting national and international partners to formulate a strategic environmental framework for the management of transboundary waters and environmental challenges in the Nile River Basin.

The following projects provide detailed information on UNDP’s interventions in the environment field:
Sustainable Land Management to Combat Desertification and Land Degradation
Enabling Activities for the Preparation of Sudan’s second National Communication to the United Nations Framework for the Convention on Climate Change (SNC)
Protected Area Network Management and Building Capacity in Southern Sudan
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