Reduction of Resource Based Conflicts among Pastoralists and Farmers

Fast Facts:
• Project Document
Location: North Kordofan, Upper Nile, Sobat Basin
Duration: 2004- September 2009
Focus area: Energy and Environment for Sustainable Development
Contributions(USD): CIDA: 286,632.60
NET: 663,855
Partners: SOS SAHEL UK in North Kordofan, ACORD South Sudan; Oxfam GB. Ministry of Animal Resources and Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, Land and Water Comittee, Sudanese Environmental and Conservation Society, Sudan General Pastoralist Union, Sudan General Farmers Union, Pastoralist Society, Mandy Association.

At the national level, the project activities are co-coordinated and directly executed by UNDP.
Delivery(USD): 2008: 101,963.85
Contact person in UNDP: Mohy El Din Tohami, Project Manager,
Pastoralism in Sudan is a traditional way of life. It is a form of natural resource use and management that comprises a variety of movements ranging from pure nomadism, characterized by year-round camel breeding and long-distance migration, to seasonal movements over shorter distances. Some pastoralists combine seasonal farming with livestock-raising; these are known as agro-pastoralists.

Historically, there has always been tension along pastoral corridors over land and grazing rights between nomads and farmers. But recently, some parts of the country have been caught in a complex tangle of severe droughts and dwindling resources. Disputes flare up between farmers and pastoralists as migrating camel and livestock herders, in search of water and pasture for their animals during the dry season, would sometimes graze on farmers' lands and use their water points. Disputes over lost crops, and access to water and pastoralists’ routes are sometimes settled by tribal leaders. However, severe droughts, and increased mechanized farming have worsened the situation. Combined with a lack of institutionalized mechanisms for land and water rights and usage, all these factors lead to widespread seasonal tensions between pastoralists and farmers on the one hand and between traditional farmers and owners of big mechanized farms on the other.

To help address the root-causes of these tensions, in 2004, The Netherlands, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and UNDP launched the Reduction of Resource Based Conflicts project. Targeting the drought-prone areas, the four-year initiative was originally also carried out in North Darfur. However, due to the conflicts between farmers and nomads, that started over natural resources and escalated into a full-scale war, the project was forced to suspend its activities in Darfur. It has since focused on three states: North Kordofan, Upper Nile and Sobat Basin.

The overall development objective of the project is to contribute to the reduction of natural resource based conflict among pastoralists and between pastoralists and farmers in the Sudan.

The specific objectives of the project are as follows:
• To promote institutional and legal reform in natural resource management to improve productivity and reduce conflict.
• To strengthen capacity in government and civil society to manage natural resources and mitigate conflict.
• To design and promote measures to reduce and better manage risk in pastoral livelihood systems.
• To promote a culture of peace.
• To develop and promote clearer strategies for pastoral and agro-pastoral livelihood development.

Snapshots of the project's major achievements
Community-development funds:
• To support the local economy based on community development initiatives and priorities that have clear peace-building dimensions, the project established the Community Development Fund (CDF) that achieved the following:
• Rehabilitated Sharshar Health Unit in Bara Locality (W.N. El Obied) and Gereigkh Veterinary Centre.
• Protected animal resources in Kazgail area through provision of veterinary drugs and vaccines and equipments.
• Established permanent water points in Shiekan locality, located in south El Obied.
• Constructed Al Semieh agricultural school in Um Rawaba locality, near El Obied.
• Installed water units for 6 villages in the Um Habila area and Um Rawaba locality.
1000 Feddans reserve of Hasahab trees planted as a green belt in Um Galji Locality.
• Opened 1,000 km of fire lines in El Obied rural area, as part of natural resources management.
• Established veterinary service pharmacies in Skeikan and Bara.
• Constructed 7 veterinary pharmacies in Lul in Fashoda locality and Adong in Bailiet locality in the Upper Nile States, one health clinic in Shershar in Bara locality, El-Semeih Agricultural School, Um-Habila water provision unit; one high school in secondary school at Um Seimema; one primary school art Warshal village,
• Helped the LOMERICA women’s group to open a restaurant in Malakal.
• Helped the UNIRDO women’s group to open a milk centre in Malakal.

Participatory route demarcation and conflict prevention
• Demarcated and mapped 450 Km long livestock routes with 500 concrete posts. At each stock route, a local patrolling team was established comprising representatives of pastoralists, farmers, native administration, and the old system of pastoralists ‘Mandoub’ was also revived.
• Formulated 30 Community Resource Management Bodies (RMBs) (22 in Upper Nile and 8 in Kordofan State) and 2 RMBs at the state level where the project is operating
• Maps and secondary data for cattle routes and pastoralists movement were collected, checked and verified with different stakeholders.
• The Mobile Extension Teams were equipped with the necessary maps and equipments they started the demarcation process
• Rehabilitated a degraded rangeland adjacent to a demarcated route in El Hamadi area.
• Provided veterinary services at wet grazing areas east of El Deleng.

Empowering pastoralists and pastoral institutions
• Organized 18 joint workshops/forums/training sessions for pastoralists and farmers on natural resources management and conflict resolution, legal awareness about land tenure and conflict, and general discussions on common challenges.
• To empower pastoral institutions the project team conducted a rapid assessment for pastoral union branches at El Deleng & Rashad localities.
• Trained local mediators at Al- Rashad town, capital of eastern mountains, in natural resources management and conflict resolution.
• To strengthen the capacity of pastoralists to understand and argue in favour of tenure rights, the project also organized a tour to Kenya to witness a functioning conflict management system in operation.

Knowledge sharing and advocacy
• 3 major publications were published and 1500 copies were distributed to all government related Departments, UN Agencies, CSOs, Civic unions, INGOs at National and State levels. The three publications are posted on UNDP Sudan website:
• An Advocacy film was produced in partnership with the Embassy of the Netherlands: The 34 minutes video “Sources of Conflict, Resources for Peace” the plight nomadic, semi-nomadic, and farmer communities find themselves today and how the project is helping prevent more conflicts. 500 CDs of the video were shared with government, CSOs, INGOs, UN Agencies, and Civic Unions, and the video can be viewed though:
• In partnership with the Sudanese Environmental Conservation Society (SECS) published a book on land tenure in Sudan
• Support the federal ministry animal resources to produce Extension manual and produced 500 copies in Arabic.
• Broadcasted over 100 messages related to the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA), pastoralism issues and land tenure, through state-sponsored radio in North Kordofan and Upper Nile.
•To support dissemination of peace culture the project contracted South Kordofan Radio Service to broadcast as weekly magazine specialized on peace, conflict & pastoralists’ affairs and sound management of natural resources.
•Through several conferences and forums, the project revived the debate on land tenure putting land reform on the public agenda.
• Established an official partnership with the Sudanese Environment Conservation Society, Institute for Legal Training and Reform and Mandy (a Nuba NGO).
• In 2005, the project became a member of relevant globally and regionally established networks including Global Pastoral Network.
• In an effort aimed at building partnerships between pastoralists and farmers, and between pastoralists and local government around issues of joint concern, joint field trips and awareness sessions were organized and local Pastoralists' and Farmers' Unions were established.
• Conducted research and studies (13 in total) in different fields related to conflict, and pastoralists and farmers rights. This research was shared with the organizations concerned with the Darfur Crisis and land issues in Sudan, and is currently being published as a series of research work on the root causes of conflict in Sudan.

Dry lands Initiative
Funded by the Beirut-based UNDP Dry Lands Development Centre, and implemented by the RRBC Project, the Dry Lands Initiative achieved the following:
• Initiated partnership with ministry of Agriculture and Forests on the issue of dry lands.
Conducted 2 major studies: one on mainstreaming of dry land issues in the national development frameworks and the second on critical review of land laws. The finding of these studies served as a platform for debate through Sudan National Radio.
• Co-organized a national workshop with the Ministry of agriculture and forestry which was attended by 45 policy-makers and resulted with concrete policy recommendations
• Conducted a 5-day training workshop on dry lands and conflict management attended by 45 participants from CSOs, native administration, relevant governmental departments in South Kordofan.
• Co-organized a policy seminar on dry land issues in the South Kordofan State attended by 50 policy makers, including five Ministers.
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