Kordofan, Upper Nile, Sobat Basin
and Environment for Sustainable
SOS SAHEL UK in North
Kordofan, ACORD South Sudan; Oxfam
GB. Ministry of Animal Resources
and Fishery, Ministry of Agriculture
and Forestry, Land and Water Comittee,
Sudanese Environmental and Conservation
Society, Sudan General Pastoralist
Union, Sudan General Farmers Union,
Pastoralist Society, Mandy Association.
At the national level, the project
activities are co-coordinated
and directly executed by UNDP.
person in UNDP:
El Din Tohami, Project Manager,
Sudan is a traditional way of life.
It is a form of natural resource use
and management that comprises a variety
of movements ranging from pure nomadism,
characterized by year-round camel
breeding and long-distance migration,
to seasonal movements over shorter
distances. Some pastoralists combine
seasonal farming with livestock-raising;
these are known as agro-pastoralists.
Historically, there has always been
tension along pastoral corridors over
land and grazing rights between nomads
and farmers. But recently, some parts
of the country have been caught in
a complex tangle of severe droughts
and dwindling resources. Disputes
flare up between farmers and pastoralists
as migrating camel and livestock herders,
in search of water and pasture for
their animals during the dry season,
would sometimes graze on farmers'
lands and use their water points.
Disputes over lost crops, and access
to water and pastoralists’ routes
are sometimes settled by tribal leaders.
However, severe droughts, and increased
mechanized farming have worsened the
situation. Combined with a lack of
institutionalized mechanisms for land
and water rights and usage, all these
factors lead to widespread seasonal
tensions between pastoralists and
farmers on the one hand and between
traditional farmers and owners of
big mechanized farms on the other.
To help address the root-causes of
these tensions, in 2004, The Netherlands,
the Canadian International Development
Agency (CIDA) and UNDP launched the
Reduction of Resource Based Conflicts
project. Targeting the drought-prone
areas, the four-year initiative was
originally also carried out in North
Darfur. However, due to the conflicts
between farmers and nomads, that started
over natural resources and escalated
into a full-scale war, the project
was forced to suspend its activities
in Darfur. It has since focused on
three states: North Kordofan, Upper
Nile and Sobat Basin.
The overall development objective
of the project is to contribute to
the reduction of natural resource
based conflict among pastoralists
and between pastoralists and farmers
in the Sudan.
The specific objectives of the project
are as follows:
• To promote institutional and
legal reform in natural resource management
to improve productivity and reduce
• To strengthen capacity in
government and civil society to manage
natural resources and mitigate conflict.
• To design and promote measures
to reduce and better manage risk in
pastoral livelihood systems.
• To promote a culture of peace.
• To develop and promote clearer
strategies for pastoral and agro-pastoral
Snapshots of the project's major achievements
• To support the local
economy based on community development
initiatives and priorities that have
clear peace-building dimensions, the
project established the Community
Development Fund (CDF) that achieved
• Rehabilitated Sharshar Health
Unit in Bara Locality (W.N. El Obied)
and Gereigkh Veterinary Centre.
• Protected animal resources
in Kazgail area through provision
of veterinary drugs and vaccines and
• Established permanent water
points in Shiekan locality, located
in south El Obied.
• Constructed Al Semieh agricultural
school in Um Rawaba locality, near
• Installed water units for
6 villages in the Um Habila area and
Um Rawaba locality.
1000 Feddans reserve of Hasahab trees
planted as a green belt in Um Galji
• Opened 1,000 km of fire lines
in El Obied rural area, as part of
natural resources management.
• Established veterinary service
pharmacies in Skeikan and Bara.
• Constructed 7 veterinary pharmacies
in Lul in Fashoda locality and Adong
in Bailiet locality in the Upper Nile
States, one health clinic in Shershar
in Bara locality, El-Semeih Agricultural
School, Um-Habila water provision
unit; one high school in secondary
school at Um Seimema; one primary
school art Warshal village,
• Helped the LOMERICA women’s
group to open a restaurant in Malakal.
• Helped the UNIRDO women’s
group to open a milk centre in Malakal.
Participatory route demarcation
and conflict prevention
• Demarcated and mapped 450
Km long livestock routes with 500
concrete posts. At each stock route,
a local patrolling team was established
comprising representatives of pastoralists,
farmers, native administration, and
the old system of pastoralists ‘Mandoub’
was also revived.
• Formulated 30 Community Resource
Management Bodies (RMBs) (22 in Upper
Nile and 8 in Kordofan State) and
2 RMBs at the state level where the
project is operating
• Maps and secondary data for
cattle routes and pastoralists movement
were collected, checked and verified
with different stakeholders.
• The Mobile Extension Teams
were equipped with the necessary maps
and equipments they started the demarcation
• Rehabilitated a degraded rangeland
adjacent to a demarcated route in
El Hamadi area.
• Provided veterinary services
at wet grazing areas east of El Deleng.
Empowering pastoralists and
• Organized 18 joint workshops/forums/training
sessions for pastoralists and farmers
on natural resources management and
conflict resolution, legal awareness
about land tenure and conflict, and
general discussions on common challenges.
• To empower pastoral institutions
the project team conducted a rapid
assessment for pastoral union branches
at El Deleng & Rashad localities.
• Trained local mediators at
Al- Rashad town, capital of eastern
mountains, in natural resources management
and conflict resolution.
• To strengthen the capacity
of pastoralists to understand and
argue in favour of tenure rights,
the project also organized a tour
to Kenya to witness a functioning
conflict management system in operation.
Knowledge sharing and advocacy
• 3 major publications were
published and 1500 copies were distributed
to all government related Departments,
UN Agencies, CSOs, Civic unions, INGOs
at National and State levels. The
three publications are posted on UNDP
Sudan website: www.sd.undp.org
• An Advocacy film was produced
in partnership with the Embassy of
the Netherlands: The 34 minutes video
“Sources of Conflict, Resources
for Peace” the plight nomadic,
semi-nomadic, and farmer communities
find themselves today and how the
project is helping prevent more conflicts.
500 CDs of the video were shared with
government, CSOs, INGOs, UN Agencies,
and Civic Unions, and the video can
be viewed though: http://www.sd.undp.org/film.htm
• In partnership with the Sudanese
Environmental Conservation Society
(SECS) published a book on land tenure
• Support the federal ministry
animal resources to produce Extension
manual and produced 500 copies in
• Broadcasted over 100 messages
related to the Comprehensive Peace
Agreement (CPA), pastoralism issues
and land tenure, through state-sponsored
radio in North Kordofan and Upper
•To support dissemination of
peace culture the project contracted
South Kordofan Radio Service to broadcast
as weekly magazine specialized on
peace, conflict & pastoralists’
affairs and sound management of natural
•Through several conferences
and forums, the project revived the
debate on land tenure putting land
reform on the public agenda.
• Established an official partnership
with the Sudanese Environment Conservation
Society, Institute for Legal Training
and Reform and Mandy (a Nuba NGO).
• In 2005, the project became
a member of relevant globally and
regionally established networks including
Global Pastoral Network.
• In an effort aimed at building
partnerships between pastoralists
and farmers, and between pastoralists
and local government around issues
of joint concern, joint field trips
and awareness sessions were organized
and local Pastoralists' and Farmers'
Unions were established.
• Conducted research and studies
(13 in total) in different fields
related to conflict, and pastoralists
and farmers rights. This research
was shared with the organizations
concerned with the Darfur Crisis and
land issues in Sudan, and is currently
being published as a series of research
work on the root causes of conflict
Dry lands Initiative
Funded by the Beirut-based UNDP Dry
Lands Development Centre, and implemented
by the RRBC Project, the Dry Lands
Initiative achieved the following:
• Initiated partnership with
ministry of Agriculture and Forests
on the issue of dry lands.
Conducted 2 major studies: one on
mainstreaming of dry land issues in
the national development frameworks
and the second on critical review
of land laws. The finding of these
studies served as a platform for debate
through Sudan National Radio.
• Co-organized a national workshop
with the Ministry of agriculture and
forestry which was attended by 45
policy-makers and resulted with concrete
• Conducted a 5-day training
workshop on dry lands and conflict
management attended by 45 participants
from CSOs, native administration,
relevant governmental departments
in South Kordofan.
• Co-organized a policy seminar
on dry land issues in the South Kordofan
State attended by 50 policy makers,
including five Ministers.