Status of MDGs in Sudan in 2012

Sudan has had one of the highest growth rates amongst Sub-Saharan African countries and a rapidly rising per capita income, with per capita GDP of US$1,500. Nonetheless, the country’s human development outcomes remain weak. The road to sustainable broad-based development in Sudan has been hampered by a number of country-specific challenges that render Sudan’s experience unique from other post-conflict countries in the region. Since its independence in 1956, Sudan has mired in several conflicts, with the exception of 1972-1983; the period after the Addis Ababa Peace Agreement was signed.

These conflicts have led to huge loss of life and have severely debilitated the country’s capacity for development. The past and ongoing conflicts pose human and governance challenges in Sudan. The people and Government of Sudan will need to build institutions for peace and development and shift resources and attention from war to investing in the future.

The government of Sudan and the concerned international, regional and local partners are driving the resources and the capacities to support the country to overcome the challenges that face its people. The International Economic Conference on Sudan is considered as an opportunity for the so mentioned stakeholders to determine a partnership framework that can effectively help Sudan.

The diversification of exports, including the revival of traditional exports such as cotton, and the development of non-traditional, non-oil exports is imperative for sustained growth and employment creation in Sudan. The productive sector in general and the agriculture sector in particular have been neglected in Sudan following the advent of oil since the early 2000. Sudan’s growth process has been unbalanced, with the majority of its manufacturing firms and irrigated land concentrated in the center with a huge disparity in the development indicators between the best and worst performing regions in Sudan.
The low growth of employment, increasing unemployment and low levels of productivity remain at the root of high and persistent levels of poverty in the Sudan. Agriculture continues to be the main source of employment for the majority of the labor force. In rural areas, about 50% of the rural labor force is engaged in agricultural activities.

Sudan is highly indebted country where the debt stock reached nearly US$38 billion by the end of 2010. Such a huge debt burden has far reaching implication on the growth agenda, poverty reduction and realizing MDGs. The resulting heavy debt burden compounded by the renewed sanction has direct bearings on the evolution of the Sudanese economy and its prospects. According to the analysis of the World Bank and the IMF, the external debt of Sudan is unsustainable. That means that Sudan cannot service the debt and make progress on reducing poverty and achieving the MDGs. The Government of Sudan is currently negotiating the apportionment of the stock of external debt with the Government of South Sudan (GoSS).

Sudan has recently issued its Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (IPRSP) with the objective of securing debt relief and channel the resources saved from debt relief to priority poverty-reduction and growth enhancing infrastructure sectors. Thus, a resolution to the debt problem will improve prospects for sustained growth, employment creation, poverty reduction and achieving the MDGs.

  MDG 1 Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger

• The incidence of poverty in North Sudan stood at 46.5%. The poverty gap ratio and the poverty severity index stood at 16.2% and 7.8% %, respectively. This signifies how deep and severe poverty is in North Sudan.
• The incidence of poverty ranges from a little over a quarter of the population in the capital (Khartoum) to more than two thirds of the population in Northern Darfur.
• About 44.8% of the population of North Sudan are consuming below food poverty line of 69 SDG per month. Food poverty index is higher in rural (55%) than urban areas (28%).
• The overall inequality measured by Gini coefficient is estimated at 0.353 which is quite moderate compared to countries with similar level of development in SSA and the Middle East. Though there is disparity in income between rural and urban areas, there is no significant difference in the magnitude of the Gini Coefficient for rural (0.331) and urban (0.329) areas. While Gini coefficient is 0.31 in Northern Region, it is 0.38 in Darfur and 0.36 in Kordofan indicating poverty reduction will be difficult in regions with high income inequality such as Darfur and Kordofan.
• Employment-to-population rate stood at 31.06% and unemployment rate stood at 17%. Youth (15-24) unemployment rate stood at 25.4%.
• The nutrition situation in Sudan is poor, characterized by high levels of underweight and chronic malnutrition, as well as persistently elevated levels of acute malnutrition. Nationally, one third (32.2%) of children under the age of five years in Sudan is moderately or severely underweight

Sudan 2015 Target
Estimated poverty incidence (% of total population)
Prevalence of child malnutrition (underweight for age; % under 5)
Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

 MDG 2 Achieve Universal Primary Education

• The net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan is 67%.
• There is a significant difference between urban and rural population for net primary school enrolment with rates 82% and 60% respectively. Highest net primary school enrolment rate per state is 85 in Khartoum. Kassala and Western Darfur are the states with the lowest net primary school enrolment rates with 48% and 54% respectively.
• The net secondary school enrolment rate for the population 14-16 years old in Sudan is 22%.
• For the urban population, the net secondary enrolment rate is 37% compared to the rural population rate of 14%. The highest net secondary enrolment rates per state were reported in River Nile and Khartoum States with 41% and 37% respectively.
• The lowest net are in Southern Kordofan and Kassala States with rates 9% and 11% respectively.
• 62% of the population 15 years old or more in Sudan is literate. Urban literacy reached 79% of the population in this age group compared to 51% of the rural population.
• The range of the literacy rate spans from 81% in Khartoum State to 44% and 46% in Western Darfur and Kassala States respectively.
• The literacy gender gap ratio for the population 15 years and above is 0.71 with 73% of the male population literate compared to 52 percent of the females.

Sudan 2015 Target
Gross primary enrolment ratio
Adult literacy rate

 MDG 3 Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women

• The net primary school enrolment rate for the population 6-13 years old in Sudan was 69% for males and 64% females. For secondary education it was 21% males and 23% females.
• In terms of labor force participation, males constitute 38.3% while the share of females stood at 14.1%. According to the available recent data, unemployment among men stood at 13 % compared to 20% for women.
• Women occupy 28% of the seats in the newly elected parliament in 2010. Accordingly, proportion of women in the national legislative council increased from 10% in 2004 to 25% in the recently elected assembly.

Sudan 2015 Target
Ratio girls to boys in primary education
64% to 69%
Share of women in employment in the non-agricultural sectors
Percentage of women in National Assembly/Council of States

 MDG 4 Reduce Child Mortality

• Pneumonia, malaria, diarrhea, and malnutrition usually still represent the major causes of under-five illness and deaths.
• The result of SHHS (2010) showed clear decline in IMR in Sudan, where IMR it declined from nearly 80/1000 LB in mid 1990s to 57/1000 LB in 2010
• Under five Mortality Rate in Sudan was estimated at 130/1000 L.B in mid 1990s, it declined to 102/1000 L.B in 2006 (SHHS 2006), and finally stood at 78/1000 L.B in 2010 (SHHS 2010)
• The proportion of mothers who breast feed their newborns has increased from 37% in 2006 to 40% in 2010

Sudan 2015 Target
Under-5 mortality rate (per 1,000)
Infant mortality rate (per 1,000 live births)
One-year-olds immunized against measles

MDG 5 Improve Maternal Health

• The most recent survey (SHHS 2010) estimated maternal mortality rate (216/100.000 LB) at national level (225/100,000 rural and 194/100,000 urban).
• Delivery by trained personnel in Sudan stood at 72% (89% urban & 66 rural) in 2010 compared with 57% in 2006.
• Contraceptive prevalence rate is very low in Sudan. The most recent survey shows that only 9% of currently married women are using any form of contraceptive.
• The total fertility rate was estimated at 5.6 in 2010 SHHS while it was 5.1 births per woman (SHHS 2006) with marked differences between urban and rural areas.

Sudan 2015 Target
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100,000 live births)
Birth attended by skilled health staff
Contraceptive prevalence rate (current use)
Adolescent birth rate (12-14) years
Antenatal care coverage (at least one visit and at least four visits

MDG 6 Combat HIV Aids, Malaria and other diseases

• The estimated HIV prevalence among the general population 15-49 years in North Sudan is 0.67%.
• The average HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) is 0.19%
• Only 4% of the respondents knew all the three ways to prevent HIV transmission in Sudan.
• Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan.
• Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan. Symptomatic malaria accounts for 17.5 of out-patients clinic visits and approximately 11% of hospital admissions
• All states except Blue Nile (12.5%) and West Darfur (7.1%) reported prevalence of less than 3%.
• In Sudan, the percentage of households with at least one Insecticide Treated Net (ITNs) stood at 41%.
• Prevalence of all forms of TB in Sudan is 120 per 100,000 population or 37073 cases and the actual detected were 22,097 (59.6%)
• The actual detected were 8572 cases. This means a case detection rate of 46.2%.

Sudan 2015 Target
HIV prevalence among population aged 15-24 years
0.5% males & 1.24% females
Proportion of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDS
4% (all the three ways to prevent HIV transmission in Sudan)
Proportion of population with advanced HIV infection with access to antiretroviral drugs
Incidence and death rates associated with malaria
3.1 million reported cases
8,844 death cases
Proportion of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated bed nets
Incidence, prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
120 Per 100,000
Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course

MDG 7 Integrate the principles of sustainable development into
country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources

• Sudan is endowed with huge and diversified natural resources, fertile land, natural forests, fresh water, biodiversity, wild and domestic animal stock, marine ecosystems, mineral and soil resources. The country is has faced and is being faced with numerous environmental problems including: desertification and land degradation, water pollution, deforestation, soil erosion and deterioration in biodiversity.
• Deterioration in biodiversity and pressures on habitats are growing with more areas opened to development and investors. The impact of petroleum prospecting, drilling and transport on habitats, especially that of produced water on migratory birds is very disturbing.
• The marine protected sites protected areas covered approximately 10% of Sudan, including terrestrial and marine protected areas.
• According to SHHS 2010, almost 60.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved drinking water sources (66.6% in urban and 57.7% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 61.5% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 92.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 91% in Northern state, followed by Gazira and Khartoum states at 79.2% and 72.9% respectively. The lowest access was reported in Red Sea (27.4%).
• According to SHHS 2010, shares of 27.1% of the households in Sudan have access to improved sanitation (46.9% in urban and 17.9% in rural areas). Wealth index disaggregation also showed that only 2% of the poorest have access to improved drinking water compared to 69.8% among the richest. State disparities were also present; it reached 73.5% in Northern state, followed by Khartoum states at 51.3%. The lowest access was reported in Blue Nile (5.3%).

Sudan 2015 Target
Access to improved drinking water source (% of population)
Access to improved sanitation (% of population)

 MDG 8 Develop a Global Partnership for development

• ODA declined from 7.2% in 2005 to 4.8% in 2008, with a sharp decline in the growth rate from 44.7% in 2005 to -16% in 2007 to – 5.6% in 2008.
• The recent pre-secession CPA-period economic growth in Sudan had been driven by oil. Oil accounted for nearly 50% of domestic revenue and 95% of export earnings and 15% of industrial value added. However, the non-oil productive sector particularly agriculture has been on the decline since the advent of oil in the late 1990s.
• Real GDP growth rate averaged nearly 8 percent during the nine year period ending in 2009 and per capita income increased from US$776 in 2004 to US$1,570.4 in 2009.
• Apart from the direct impact, the receipts from petroleum exports and the related sharp increases in government revenues and expenditures as well as inflows of foreign direct investments (FDI) stimulated the construction and the service sectors.
• The service sector contributed 40 percent to GDP, surpassing agriculture as the leading sector in the economy. Trade, hotels and restaurants have flourished, mainly in the country’s capital (Khartoum) and generated about one-fifth of the GDP during 2004-2009.
• The total external debt of Sudan in 2009 amounted to US$ 35.7 billion, showing an increase of about US$ 2,145 billion compared to 2008.
• In Sudan the estimated Telephone lines per 100 populations was 0.9 % of populations in 2009.
• In Sudan the estimated Cellular subscribers per 100 population 28 % of population in 2009.
• In Sudan the estimated Internet users per 100 populations was 10.4 % of Population in 2010.

Northern Sudan 2015 Target
Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Public health sector (40%- 55%) & private sector (90%)
Telephone lines per 100 population
0.9 % of populations
Access to improved sanitation (% of population)
28 % of population
Internet users per 100 population
10.4 % of Population


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