Export Controlled Items

Overview of types of export controlled item and their listings, including the US Munitions List (USML), the Commerce Control List (CCL) and controlled pathogen/toxin and chemical lists.


Questions about this topic can be answered by:

Eisner, Steve

Director of Export Compliance and University Export Control Officer

Vice Provost and Dean of Research

(650) 724-7072

Munitions and Dual-Use Items

Items, information, and software subject to US Export Control Laws and used in a university environment are generally categorized on the following two lists:

US Munitions List (USML) - (ITAR)

Published by the US State Department in its International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)

  • Category I
    Firearms, Close Assault Weapons, and Combat Shotguns
  • Category II
    Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms, and Toxins
  • Category III
  • Category IV
    Launch Vehicles, Guided Missiles, Ballistic Missiles, Rockets, Torpedoes, Bombs, and Mines
  • Category V
    Explosives and Energetic Materials, Propellants, Incendiary Agents, and Their Constituents
  • Category VI
    Vessels of War and Special Naval Equipment
  • Category VII
    Tanks and Military Vehicles
  • Category VIII
    Aircraft and Associated Equipment
  • Category IX
    Military Training Equipment
  • Category X
    Protective Personnel Equipment
  • Category XI
    Military Electronics
  • Category XII
    Fire Control, Range Finder, Optical, Guidance, and Control Equipment
  • Category XIII
    Auxiliary Military Equipment
  • Category XIV
    Toxicological Agents, Including Chemical Agents, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment
  • Category XV
    Spacecraft Systems and Associated Equipment
  • Category XVI
    Nuclear Weapons, Design, and Testing Related Items
  • Category XVII
    Classified Articles, Technical Data, and Defense Services Not Otherwise Enumerated
  • Category XVIII
    Directed Energy Weapons
  • Category XX
    Submersible Vessels, Oceanographic, and Associated Equipment

Commerce Control List (CCL) - (EAR)

Published by the US Commerce Department in its Export Administration Regulations (EAR)

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Pathogens and Toxins

Department of Commerce dual-use export control-listed pathogens and toxins are listed below. These pathogens and toxins are found on the Commerce Control List (CCL) in Category 1 at ECCNs 1C351 through 1C360. Please note that export controls also apply to genetic elements and genetically modified organisms that contain DNA associated with the pathogenicity of these biological materials. Severe civil and/or criminal penalties apply to international shipments without an export license of ANY export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA.

You will need to contact Stanford's Export Control Officer if your research requires an export controlled pathogen or genetic material containing the controlled DNA to be sent outside of the US so that an export license application can be prepared. Export licenses take 4-6 weeks for approval, so please plan in advance.

Also note that the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) controls certain military-related toxins and pathogens at Category XIV of the US Munitions List (USML). The ITAR treats as a defense article any "biological agent or biologically derived substance specifically developed or modified to increase its capability to produce casualties in humans or livestock or to degrade equipment or damage crops." These ITAR export control-listed biological materials will also require an export license. Furthermore, foreign nationals may not access ITAR-controlled biological materials or their disclosure-restricted technologies in the US without government approval.

In the unlikely event that you need access to a disclosure-restricted ITAR controlled biological material or its technology at Stanford, you must first contact Steve Eisner as required by the RPH Chapter: Export Control before receipt.



African horse sickness virus
African swine fever virus 
Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)
Andes virus
Avian Influenza identified as having high pathogenicity *

Bacillus anthracis
Blue Tongue virus
Brucella abortus
Brucella melitensis
Brucella suis
Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)
Burkholderia pseudomallei

Botulinum toxins



Chapare virus
Chikungunya virus
Chlamydophilia psittaci (Chlamydia psittaci)
Choclo virus
Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus (Corynebacterium sepedonicum)
Clostridium Argentinense, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains (Clostricium botulinum Type G)
Clostridium baratii, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium butyricum
Clostridium perfringens (epsilon toxin producing type)
Coccidioides immitis
Coccidioides posadasii
Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
Colletotrichum kahawae (Colleototrichum coffeanum var. virulans)
Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus
Coxiella burnetii
Cholera toxin
Clostridium perfringens toxin

Dengue fever virus 
Dobrava-Belgrade virus

Diacetoxyscirpenol toxin


Eastern equine encephalitis virus
Ebola virus


Foot and Mouth Disease virus
Francisella tularensis


Goat Pox virus
Guanarito virus


Hantaan virus
Hendra virus

HT-2 toxin

none listed

Japanese Encephalitis virus
Junin virus 

Kyasanur Forest virus

Laguna Negra virus
Lassa fever virus
Louping Ill virus
Lujo virus
Lumpy Skin Disease virus
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
Lyssa virus


Machupo virus
Magnaporthea grisea (Pyricularia oryzae)
Marburg virus
Microcyclus ulei (Dothidella ulei)
Monkeypox virus
Murray Valley encephalitis virus
Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumonaie (strain F38)
Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides small colony (contagious bovine pleuroneumonia)

Microcystin (Cyanginosin)
Modeccin toxin

Newcastle disease virus
Nipah virus

Omsk haemorrhagic fefer virus
Oropouche Virus

Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)
Peste des Petitis Ruminants virus
Phoma glycinicola (Pyrenochaeta glycines)
Porcine enterovirus type 9 (swine vesicular disease virus)
Porcine herpes virus (Aujeszky's disease)
Potato spindle tuber viroid
Powassan virus
Puccinia Graminis (Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici)
Puccinia striiformis (Puccinia glumarum)
none listed

Ralstonia solanacearum Race 3, biovar 2
Rathayibacter toxicus
Reconstructed replication competent forms of the 1918 pandemic influenza virus           containing any portion of the coding regions of all eight gene segment
Rickettsia prowazekii
Rift Valley fever virus
Rinderpest virus
Rocio virus



Sabia virus
Salmonella typhi
SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
Sclerophthora rayssiae var.zeae
Seoul virus
Sheep Pox virus
Shigella dysenteriae
Sin Nombre virus
St. Louis encephalitis
Swine Fever virus (Hog cholera virus)
Synchytrium endobioticum

Shiga toxin
Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) of serogroups 026, 045, 0103, 0104, 0111, 0121, 0145, 0157, and other shiga toxin producing serogoups (EGEC or VTEC)
Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, hemolysin alpha toxin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin (Staphylococcus enterotoxin F)


Teschen Disease virus
Thecaphora solani
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Far Eastern Subtype)
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (Siberian Subtype)
Tilletia indica

T-2 toxin

none listed
Variola virus
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus
Vesicular stomatitis virus
Vibrio cholerae

Verotoxin and other Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins
Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)
Volkensin toxin

W, X, Y, Z
Western Equine Encephalitis virus
Xanthmonas alibilineans
Xanthmonas axonopodis pv. Citri (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri)
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae (Pseudomonas campestris pv. Oryzae)
Yellow fever virus
Yersinia pestis

*  AI viruses that have an intravenous pathogenicity index in 6-week-old chickens greater than 1.2; AI viruses that cause at least 75% mortality in 4 to 8 week old chickens infected intravenously; AI viruses of the H5 or H7 should be submitted to further testing

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Chemicals, Chemical Agent Precursors, Propellants, Explosives, and Energetic Materials

The ITAR controls certain military-related chemicals, chemical agent precursors, propellants, explosives and energetic materials at Category V and Category XIV of the US Munitions List (USML). In addition, under the provisions of the International Chemical Weapons Convention, the United States may require special declarations related to chemical shipments under either the ITAR or the EAR. For your convenience, we've created this reference list.

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