All Publications

  • Retrograde parotidectomy under local anesthesia for benign, malignant, and inflammatory lesions AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OTOLARYNGOLOGY Chang, M., Coughran, A., Lee, Y., Collins, J., Sirjani, D. 2019; 40 (2): 152–55
  • Retrograde parotidectomy under local anesthesia for benign, malignant, and inflammatory lesions. American journal of otolaryngology Chang, M., Coughran, A., Lee, Y., Collins, J., Sirjani, D. 2019


    OBJECTIVE: To report the patient selection, surgical technique, and outcomes of parotidectomy using local anesthesia under monitored anesthesia care (MAC).METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed for patients undergoing parotidectomy under local anesthesia at an academic head and neck surgery center.RESULTS: Six patients deemed high risk for general anesthesia (GA) due to medical comorbidities or with a strong preference to avoid GA underwent parotidectomy using local anesthesia and MAC. Parotidectomy was performed for several indications, including benign tumors, malignant tumors, and chronic sialadenitis. Mean age of patients was 78.0 ± 7.9 years, and all had an American Society of Anesthesia score ≥ 2 and Charlson comorbidity index ≥4. Mean operative time was 102.8 ± 38.3 min, comparable to that of parotidectomy under general anesthesia. No major complications occurred. Minor complications included three cases of temporary postoperative facial nerve weakness limited to 1-2 lower division branches. At most recent follow up (10 to 48 months), all patients were medically stable and disease free.CONCLUSION: In carefully selected patients, parotidectomy under local anesthesia is a viable treatment alternative that can be offered to patients. Successful outcomes require preoperative counseling, meticulous technique, and close collaboration with anesthesia colleagues.

    View details for PubMedID 30691973

  • Operative Management of Vocal Fold Avulsion Following Pediatric Laryngotracheal Separation. Ear, nose, & throat journal Chang, M. T., Schoppy, D. W., Schoppy, K. K., Sidell, D. R. 2019: 145561319866821


    Laryngotracheal disruption in children is rare but life-threatening, and endolaryngeal injuries may go overlooked. We present the case of a 10-year-old boy who sustained near-complete laryngotracheal separation, multiple laryngeal fractures, and arytenoid and vocal fold avulsion following blunt cervical trauma. These injuries were not identified radiographically and only became apparent intraoperatively. Following surgical repair, the patient was successfully decannulated, eating a normal diet, and had a serviceable speaking voice within 2 months. In children, the diagnosis of severe endolaryngeal injuries may be elusive and therefore require high degree of clinical suspicion. Surgical success requires accurate diagnosis and prompt intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0145561319866821

    View details for PubMedID 31558058

  • The 50 Most Cited Articles in Facial Plastic Surgery. Aesthetic plastic surgery Chang, M. T., Schwam, Z. G., Schutt, C. A., Kamen, E. M., Paskhover, B. 2017; 41 (5): 1202–7


    Bibliometric analysis is a common method to determine the most influential articles in medical specialties, as it is an objective measure of peer recognition of scientific work. This study is the first bibliometric analysis of the literature in facial plastic surgery, to determine the most cited papers in the field. Bibliometric analysis was performed using the Science Citation Index from the Institute for Scientific Information, accessed through the Web of Science™. Filter terms relevant to the field of facial plastic surgery were used to identify the 50 most cited journal articles between 1900 and 2016. The median number of citations was 150 (range 116-1091). The articles spanned a wide range of topics in the field, with the most common topics being free flap reconstruction (n = 10), nasal surgery (n = 9), and rhytidectomy (n = 6). The majority of these articles (n = 29) presented findings supported by level IV or V evidence. This analysis provides an overview of the most cited articles in facial plastic surgery, many of which introduced some of the most fundamental principles and techniques in the field. These landmark articles represent important educational points that should be reviewed by all clinicians and trainees in this field. Level of Evidence III This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00266-017-0908-x

    View details for PubMedID 28634701

  • NOTCH1 and SOX10 are Essential for Proliferation and Radiation Resistance of Cancer Stem-Like Cells in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research Panaccione, A., Chang, M. T., Carbone, B. E., Guo, Y., Moskaluk, C. A., Virk, R. K., Chiriboga, L., Prasad, M. L., Judson, B., Mehra, S., Yarbrough, W. G., Ivanov, S. V. 2016; 22 (8): 2083–95


    Although the existence of cancer stem cells (CSC) in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) has been proposed, lack of assays for their propagation and uncertainty about molecular markers prevented their characterization. Our objective was to isolate CSC from ACC and provide insight into signaling pathways that support their propagation.To isolate CSC from ACC and characterize them, we used ROCK inhibitor-supplemented cell culture, immunomagnetic cell sorting, andin vitro/in vivoassays for CSC viability and tumorigenicity.We identified in ACC CD133-positive CSC that expressed NOTCH1 and SOX10, formed spheroids, and initiated tumors in nude mice. CD133(+)ACC cells produced activated NOTCH1 (N1ICD) and generated CD133(-)cells that expressed JAG1 as well as neural differentiation factors NR2F1, NR2F2, and p27Kip1. Knockdowns ofNOTCH1, SOX10, and their common effectorFABP7had negative effects on each other, inhibited spheroidogenesis, and induced cell death pointing at their essential roles in CSC maintenance. Downstream effects ofFABP7knockdown included suppression of a broad spectrum of genes involved in proliferation, ribosome biogenesis, and metabolism. Among proliferation-linked NOTCH1/FABP7 targets, we identified SKP2 and its substrate p27Kip1. A γ-secretase inhibitor, DAPT, selectively depleted CD133(+)cells, suppressed N1ICD and SKP2, induced p27Kip1, inhibited ACC growthin vivo, and sensitized CD133(+)cells to radiation.These results establish in the majority of ACC the presence of a previously uncharacterized population of CD133(+)cells with neural stem properties, which are driven by SOX10, NOTCH1, and FABP7. Sensitivity of these cells to Notch inhibition and their dependence on SKP2 offer new opportunities for targeted ACC therapies.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2208

    View details for PubMedID 27084744

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4834904

  • Clinical and molecular insights into adenoid cystic carcinoma: Neural crest-like stemness as a target. Laryngoscope investigative otolaryngology Yarbrough, W. G., Panaccione, A., Chang, M. T., Ivanov, S. V. 2016; 1 (4): 60–77


    This review surveys trialed therapies and molecular defects in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), with an emphasis on neural crest-like stemness characteristics of newly discovered cancer stem cells (CSCs) and therapies that may target these CSCs.Articles available on Pubmed or OVID MEDLINE databases and unpublished data.Systematic review of articles pertaining to ACC and neural crest-like stem cells.Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary gland is a slowly growing but relentless cancer that is prone to nerve invasion and metastases. A lack of understanding of molecular etiology and absence of targetable drivers has limited therapy for patients with ACC to surgery and radiation. Currently, no curative treatments are available for patients with metastatic disease, which highlights the need for effective new therapies. Research in this area has been inhibited by the lack of validated cell lines and a paucity of clinically useful markers. The ACC research environment has recently improved, thanks to the introduction of novel tools, technologies, approaches, and models. Improved understanding of ACC suggests that neural crest-like stemness is a major target in this rare tumor. New cell culture techniques and patient-derived xenografts provide tools for preclinical testing.Preclinical research has not identified effective targets in ACC, as confirmed by the large number of failed clinical trials. New molecular data suggest that drivers of neural crest-like stemness may be required for maintenance of ACC; as such, CSCs are a target for therapy of ACC.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/lio2.22

    View details for PubMedID 28894804

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5510248

  • Applications of 3-Dimensional Printing in Facial Plastic Surgery. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Schwam, Z. G., Chang, M. T., Barnes, M. A., Paskhover, B. 2016; 74 (3): 427–28

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.joms.2015.10.016

    View details for PubMedID 26611375

  • Severe epistaxis due to aberrant vasculature in a patient with STAT-1 mutation. Head & neck Chang, M. T., Schwam, Z. G., Hajek, M. A., Paskhover, B., Judson, B. L. 2016; 38 (3): E68–70


    Signal transducer and activator 1 (STAT-1) mutations are rare and have been implicated in combined immunodeficiency, enhanced tumorigenesis, and vascular defects.A 60-year-old woman with a novel STAT-1 mutation and resulting immunodeficiency, squamous cell carcinoma, and vascular disease presented with profuse epistaxis secondary to rupture of an aberrant artery that she developed in part because of this mutation. After unsuccessful posterior packing, embolization was initiated but subsequently aborted because of a bovine origin carotid artery and a history of multiple carotid dissections.After repeat posterior packing, hemostasis was achieved. No additional episodes of epistaxis occurred in the subsequent 13 months.Vascular anomalies can present challenges in epistaxis management. In patients with conditions known to cause vascular anomalies, it is critical to obtain vascular imaging before intervention.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/hed.24165

    View details for PubMedID 26445901

  • High rate of bilaterality in internal auditory canal metastases. American journal of otolaryngology Chang, M. T., Michaelides, E. M. 2015; 36 (6): 798–804


    Presentation of three cases of metastatic carcinoma to the internal auditory canal bilaterally, as well as a systematic review of the literature regarding the characteristics of these lesions.Using a MEDLINE Ovid search (1946-2015), we identified and reviewed 102 cases of metastatic carcinoma to the internal auditory canal. Metrics recorded include: patient age, sex, tumor type, laterality, past oncologic history, co-occurring metastatic sites, clinical findings, radiographic findings, therapy received, and outcome. Cases of unilateral versus bilateral IAC were compared.Remarkably, 52.9% reported cases of internal auditory canal metastases have bilateral occurrence. The most common primary tumor sites for internal auditory canal metastases were lung (21.2%), skin (18.6%), and breast (16.7%), with lung and skin cancers having the highest rates of bilateral metastasis. Meningeal metastasis occurred at a much higher rate in bilateral cases (47.2%) versus unilateral cases (8.5%). Brain parenchymal metastasis also occurred at a higher rate in bilateral cases (38.2%) versus unilateral cases (19.2%). Outcomes for cases of internal auditory canal metastases are generally poor, with 56.3% of unilateral cases and 86.1% of bilateral cases reporting patient death within 5 years from diagnosis.In cases of internal auditory canal metastasis, clinicians should carefully assess for not only contralateral disease but also additional metastatic disease of the central nervous system. Rapid-onset hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, or facial palsy should raise suspicion for internal auditory canal metastasis, particularly in patients with a known oncologic history.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.amjoto.2015.06.002

    View details for PubMedID 26545474

  • Quantifying interhospital patient sharing as a mechanism for infectious disease spread. Infection control and hospital epidemiology Huang, S. S., Avery, T. R., Song, Y., Elkins, K. R., Nguyen, C. C., Nutter, S. K., Nafday, A. A., Condon, C. J., Chang, M. T., Chrest, D., Boos, J., Bobashev, G., Wheaton, W., Frank, S. A., Platt, R., Lipsitch, M., Bush, R. M., Eubank, S., Burke, D. S., Lee, B. Y. 2010; 31 (11): 1160–69


    Assessments of infectious disease spread in hospitals seldom account for interfacility patient sharing. This is particularly important for pathogens with prolonged incubation periods or carrier states.We quantified patient sharing among all 32 hospitals in Orange County (OC), California, using hospital discharge data. Same-day transfers between hospitals were considered "direct" transfers, and events in which patients were shared between hospitals after an intervening stay at home or elsewhere were considered "indirect" patient-sharing events. We assessed the frequency of readmissions to another OC hospital within various time points from discharge and examined interhospital sharing of patients with Clostridium difficile infection.In 2005, OC hospitals had 319,918 admissions. Twenty-nine percent of patients were admitted at least twice, with a median interval between discharge and readmission of 53 days. Of the patients with 2 or more admissions, 75% were admitted to more than 1 hospital. Ninety-four percent of interhospital patient sharing occurred indirectly. When we used 10 shared patients as a measure of potential interhospital exposure, 6 (19%) of 32 hospitals "exposed" more than 50% of all OC hospitals within 6 months, and 17 (53%) exposed more than 50% within 12 months. Hospitals shared 1 or more patient with a median of 28 other hospitals. When we evaluated patients with C. difficile infection, 25% were readmitted within 12 weeks; 41% were readmitted to different hospitals, and less than 30% of these readmissions were direct transfers.In a large metropolitan county, interhospital patient sharing was a potential avenue for transmission of infectious agents. Indirect sharing with an intervening stay at home or elsewhere composed the bulk of potential exposures and occurred unbeknownst to hospitals.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/656747

    View details for PubMedID 20874503

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3064463