Adriana Gonzalez is a postdoctoral researcher, who is part of the Walter & Berry Postdoctoral Fellowship Program. Her research is related to cancer and epigenetics, seeking for new therapeutic targets. Adriana holds a B.S in Genomic Sciences from the National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico and a PhD in Genetics form the University of Basel, Switzerland. She is the author of several publications related to silent chromatin organization. Adriana is eager to learn new techniques and immerse into the field of cancer and be able to contribute to it.

Honors & Awards

  • The Walter V. and Idun Berry Postdoctoral Fellowship, Walter V. and Idun Berry Foundation (2018/09-2020/09)
  • Peter und Traudl Engelhorn Fellowship, Peter und Traudl Stiftung (2017/01-2018/02)
  • Ph.D. Summa cum laude, University of Basel (2016/02)
  • NCCR PhD funding, NCCR Frontiers in Genetics (2010/11-2012/11)
  • Bachelor’s Degree with Honors, National Autonomous University of Mexico (2009/08)

Professional Education

  • Doctor of Philosophy, Universitat Basel (2016)
  • Licenciatura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma Mexico (2009)

Stanford Advisors

Research & Scholarship

Lab Affiliations


All Publications

  • On TADs and LADs: Spatial Control Over Gene Expression TRENDS IN GENETICS Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Gasser, S. M. 2016; 32 (8): 485–95


    The combinatorial action of transcription factors drives cell-type-specific gene expression patterns. However, transcription factor binding and gene regulation occur in the context of chromatin, which modulates DNA accessibility. High-resolution chromatin interaction maps have defined units of chromatin that are in spatial proximity, called topologically associated domains (TADs). TADs can be further classified based on expression activity, replication timing, or the histone marks or non-histone proteins associated with them. Independently, other chromatin domains have been defined by their likelihood to interact with non-DNA structures, such as the nuclear lamina. Lamina-associated domains (LADs) correlate with low gene expression and late replication timing. TADs and LADs have recently been evaluated with respect to cell-type-specific gene expression. The results shed light on the relevance of these forms of chromatin organization for transcriptional regulation, and address specifically how chromatin sequestration influences cell fate decisions during organismal development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tig.2016.05.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000380600900004

    View details for PubMedID 27312344

  • Histones and histone modifications in perinuclear chromatin anchoring: from yeast to man EMBO REPORTS Harr, J. C., Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Gasser, S. M. 2016; 17 (2): 139–55


    It is striking that within a eukaryotic nucleus, the genome can assume specific spatiotemporal distributions that correlate with the cell's functional states. Cell identity itself is determined by distinct sets of genes that are expressed at a given time. On the level of the individual gene, there is a strong correlation between transcriptional activity and associated histone modifications. Histone modifications act by influencing the recruitment of non-histone proteins and by determining the level of chromatin compaction, transcription factor binding, and transcription elongation. Accumulating evidence also shows that the subnuclear position of a gene or domain correlates with its expression status. Thus, the question arises whether this spatial organization results from or determines a gene's chromatin status. Although the association of a promoter with the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is neither necessary nor sufficient for repression, the perinuclear sequestration of heterochromatin is nonetheless conserved from yeast to man. How does subnuclear localization influence gene expression? Recent work argues that the common denominator between genome organization and gene expression is the modification of histones and in some cases of histone variants. This provides an important link between local chromatin structure and long-range genome organization in interphase cells. In this review, we will evaluate how histones contribute to the latter, and discuss how this might help to regulate genes crucial for cell differentiation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369960600006

    View details for PubMedID 26792937

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4783997

  • embryos. Worm Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Gasser, S. M. 2016; 5 (3)


    In eukaryotic organisms, gene regulation occurs in the context of chromatin. In the interphase nucleus, euchromatin and heterochromatin occupy distinct space during cell differentiation, with heterochromatin becoming enriched at the nuclear and nucleolar peripheries. This organization is thought to fine-tune gene expression. To elucidate the mechanisms that govern this level of genome organization, screens were carried out in C. elegans which monitored the loss of heterochromatin sequestration at the nuclear periphery. This led to the identification of a novel chromodomain protein, CEC-4 (Caenorhabditis elegans chromodomain protein 4) that mediates the anchoring of H3K9 methylation-bearing chromatin at the nuclear periphery in early to mid-stage embryos. Surprisingly, the loss of CEC-4 does not derepress genes found in heterochromatic domains, nor does it affect differentiation under standard laboratory conditions. On the other hand, CEC-4 contributes to the efficiency with which muscle differentiation is induced following ectopic expression of the master regulator, HLH-1. This is one of the first phenotypes specifically attributed to the ablation of heterochromatin anchoring.

    View details for PubMedID 27695653

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5022668

  • Perinuclear Anchoring of H3K9-Methylated Chromatin Stabilizes Induced Cell Fate in C. elegans Embryos CELL Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Towbin, B. D., Kalck, V., Cabianca, D. S., Gaidatzis, D., Hauer, M. H., Geng, L., Wang, L., Yang, T., Wang, X., Zhao, K., Gasser, S. M. 2015; 163 (6): 1333–47


    Interphase chromatin is organized in distinct nuclear sub-compartments, reflecting its degree of compaction and transcriptional status. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, H3K9 methylation is necessary to silence and to anchor repeat-rich heterochromatin at the nuclear periphery. In a screen for perinuclear anchors of heterochromatin, we identified a previously uncharacterized C. elegans chromodomain protein, CEC-4. CEC-4 binds preferentially mono-, di-, or tri-methylated H3K9 and localizes at the nuclear envelope independently of H3K9 methylation and nuclear lamin. CEC-4 is necessary for endogenous heterochromatin anchoring, but not for transcriptional repression, in contrast to other known H3K9 methyl-binders in worms, which mediate gene repression but not perinuclear anchoring. When we ectopically induce a muscle differentiation program in embryos, cec-4 mutants fail to commit fully to muscle cell fate. This suggests that perinuclear sequestration of chromatin during development helps restrict cell differentiation programs by stabilizing commitment to a specific cell fate. PAPERCLIP.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cell.2015.10.066

    View details for Web of Science ID 000366044800015

    View details for PubMedID 26607792

  • Mechanisms of heterochromatin subnuclear localization TRENDS IN BIOCHEMICAL SCIENCES Towbin, B. D., Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Gasser, S. M. 2013; 38 (7): 356–63


    Transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin becomes the dominant form of chromatin in most terminally differentiated cells. Moreover, in most cells, at least one class of heterochromatin is positioned adjacent to the nuclear lamina. Recent approaches have addressed the mechanism of heterochromatin localization, in order to determine whether spatial segregation contributes to gene repression. Findings in worms and human cells confirm a role for histone H3K9 methylation in heterochromatin positioning, identifying a modification that is also necessary for gene repression of worm transgenic arrays. These pathways appear to be conserved, although mutations in mammalian cells have weaker effects, possibly due to redundancy in positioning mechanisms. We propose a general model in which perinuclear anchoring is linked to an epigenetic propagation of the heterochromatic state, through histone modification.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.tibs.2013.04.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321479600006

    View details for PubMedID 23746617

  • The formation and sequestration of heterochromatin during development Delivered on 7 September 2012 at the 37th FEBS Congress in Sevilla, Spain FEBS JOURNAL Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Towbin, B. D., Gasser, S. M. 2013; 280 (14): 3212–19


    Chromatin is not randomly positioned in the nucleus, but is distributed in subdomains based on its degree of compaction and transcriptional status. Recent studies have shed light on the logic of chromatin distribution, showing that tissue-specific promoters drive distinct patterns of gene positioning during cell-type differentiation. In addition, the sequestration of heterochromatin at the nuclear envelope has been found to depend on lamin and lamin-associated proteins. On the chromatin side, H3K9 monomethylation, dimethylation and trimethylation were shown to be the critical signals for perinuclear anchoring in worm embryonic nuclei. Downregulation of an equivalent histone methyltransferase, G9a, in human cells has a similar effect. In worms, the sequestration of the terminal methyltransferase by repressed chromatin may facilitate the propagation of a heterochromatin compartment, much as the sequestration of the silent information regulatory complex does at telomeric foci in budding yeast. These results argue for conserved logic in eukaryotic nuclear organization.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/febs.12319

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327128700005

    View details for PubMedID 23648132

  • An EDMD Mutation in C. elegans Lamin Blocks Muscle-Specific Gene Relocation and Compromises Muscle Integrity CURRENT BIOLOGY Mattout, A., Pike, B. L., Towbin, B. D., Bank, E. M., Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Stadler, M. B., Meister, P., Gruenbaum, Y., Gasser, S. M. 2011; 21 (19): 1603–14


    In worms, as in other organisms, many tissue-specific promoters are sequestered at the nuclear periphery when repressed and shift inward when activated. It has remained unresolved, however, whether the association of facultative heterochromatin with the nuclear periphery, or its release, has functional relevance for cell or tissue integrity.Using ablation of the unique lamin gene in C. elegans, we show that lamin is necessary for the perinuclear positioning of heterochromatin. We then express at low levels in otherwise wild-type worms a lamin carrying a point mutation, Y59C, which in humans is linked to an autosomal-dominant form of Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Using embryos and differentiated tissues, we track the subnuclear position of integrated heterochromatic arrays and their expression. In LMN-1 Y59C-expressing worms, we see abnormal retention at the nuclear envelope of a gene array bearing a muscle-specific promoter. This correlates with impaired activation of the array-borne myo-3 promoter and altered expression of a number of muscle-specific genes. However, an equivalent array carrying the intestine-specific pha-4 promoter is expressed normally and shifts inward when activated in gut cells of LMN-1 Y59C worms. Remarkably, adult LMN-1 Y59C animals have selectively perturbed body muscle ultrastructure and reduced muscle function.Lamin helps sequester heterochromatin at the nuclear envelope, and wild-type lamin permits promoter release following tissue-specific activation. A disease-linked point mutation in lamin impairs muscle-specific reorganization of a heterochromatic array during tissue-specific promoter activation in a dominant manner. This dominance and the correlated muscle dysfunction in LMN-1 Y59C worms phenocopies Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.cub.2011.08.030

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295899600017

    View details for PubMedID 21962710

  • Dynamics of expression of ARID1A and ARID1B subunits in mouse embryos and in cells during the cell cycle CELL AND TISSUE RESEARCH Flores-Alcantar, A., Gonzalez-Sandoval, A., Escalante-Alcalde, D., Lomeli, H. 2011; 345 (1): 137–48


    The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes play essential roles in cell cycle control through the transcriptional regulation of cell-cycle-specific genes. These complexes depend on the energy of ATP hydrolysis provided by the BRG1 or BRM catalytic subunit. They contain seven or more noncatalytic subunits, some being constitutive components, with others having paralogs that assemble in a combinatory manner producing different SWI/SNF-related complexes with specific functions. ARID1A and ARID1B are mutually exclusive subunits of the BAF complex. The specific presence of these subunits in the complex has been demonstrated to determine whether SWI/SNF functions as a corepressor (ARID1A) or as a coactivator (ARID1B) of the cell cycle genes. Our aim has been to analyze the relevance of the ARID1 subunits in development. We have compared the patterns of expression of these two genes through various mouse embryonic stages. Arid1a is expressed widely and intensively, whereas Arid1b is poorly transcribed and expressed in selected regions. Moreover, ARID1A and ARID1B present different kinetics of expression in the cell cycle. ARID1A accumulates in G0 and is downregulated throughout the cell cycle phases but is completely eliminated during mitosis, whereas ARID1B is expressed at comparable levels at all phases, even during mitosis. These kinetics probably affect the incorporation patterns of the ARID1 proteins to the complex and hence modulate SWI/SNF activity during proliferation and arrest.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00441-011-1182-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293400300008

    View details for PubMedID 21647563