BIO 41: Genetics, Biochemistry, and Molecular Biology                                                                   Emphasis is on macromolecules (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids) and how their structure relates to function and higher order assembly; molecular biology, genome structure and dynamics, gene expression from transcription to translation. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33. Recommended: CHEM 35; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42.
Instructors:  Bergmann, Khalfan, and Mudgett
Autumn / Units: 5

BIO 43: Plant Biology, Evolution, and Ecology                                                                                   Principles of evolution: macro- and microevolution and population genetics. Ecology: the principles underlying the exchanges of mass and energy between organisms and their environments; population, community, and ecosystem ecology; populations, evolution, and global change. Equivalent to BIOHOPK 43. Prerequisites: CHEM 31X (or 31A,B), 33. Recommended: BIO 41, 42; CHEM 35; MATH 19, 20, 21 or 41, 42. 
Instructors:  Fraser, Khalfan, Mudgett, and Vitousek
  Spring / Units: 5

BIO 41A, 42A, 43A: Bio Solve-It                                                                                                                         Students enrolled in Bio41/42/43 lecture and regular discussion sections attend an additional 75 min section. The objective of the course is to help students to solidify basic concepts, identify areas to work on, and apply core concepts learned that week in Bio41/42/43 lecture and section. Space is limited, by application only.    
Instructors:  Khalfan, May, and Mudgett
  Autumn, Winter, and Spring / Units: 1

BIO177/277: Plant-Microbe Interaction                                                                                                 Molecular basis of plant symbiosis and pathogenesis. Topics include mechanisms of recognition and signaling between microbes and plant hosts, with examples such as the role of small molecules, secreted peptides, and signal transduction pathways in symbiotic or pathogenic interactions. Readings include landmark papers together with readings in the contemporary literature. Prerequisites: Biology core and two or more upper division courses in genetics, molecular biology, or biochemistry. Recommended: plant genetics or plant biochemistry.                                                                                                                         
Long and Mudgett
  Spring, alternate years / Units: 3

BIO157/257: Plant Biochemistry                                                                                               
Biochemical and molecular basis of plant growth and adaptation. Topics include: hormone signal transduction; photoreceptor chemistry and signaling; metabolite sensing and transport; dynamics of photosynthesis; plant innate immunity and symbiosis. Lectures and readings will emphasize research methods. Prerequisite: Biology core or equivalent, or consent of instructor.                                                                                                             
  Spring, alternate years / Units: 3