Dr. Ladd graduated from Dartmouth College with an AB in History, received her MD from SUNY Upstate Medical University, completed Orthopaedic Residency at the University of Rochester, and completed the Harvard Combined Hand Surgery Fellowship. She was a fellow at L'Institut de la Main in Paris, France prior to joining the Stanford University faculty in 1990.

Clinical Focus

  • Hand Surgery
  • Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery
  • Orthopaedic Surgery
  • Pediatric & congenital hand surgery

Academic Appointments

Administrative Appointments

  • Chief, Hand and Upper Extremity Section, Department of Surgery, Palo Alto VA Medical Center, Palo Alto, CA (1990 - 1998)
  • Head of Outreach, SUMMIT (Stanford University Medical Media Information Technologies) (2001 - 2004)
  • Chief of the Children's Hand Clinic, Lucile Salter Packard Children's Hospital at Stanford (1991 - Present)
  • Chief of Chase Hand & Upper Limb Center, Stanford University School of Medicine (2005 - Present)
  • Professor - Med Center Line (by courtesy), Plastic/Reconstructive Surgery (2005 - Present)
  • Assistant Dean for Student Advising, Stanford University School of Medicine (2013 - Present)
  • Vice-Chair, Academic Affairs, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (2014 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Andrew J. Weiland Medal, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2017)
  • Nicolas Andry Award: "significant contribution to musculoskeletal research", Association of Bone and Joint Surgeons (2014)
  • Compere Award, Outstanding Scientific Paper, Twentieth Century Orthopaedic Association (2012)
  • Emanuel B. Kaplan Excellence in Anatomy Award, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2012)
  • Career Development Award, OREF/RJOS/DePuy (2010)
  • Dean's Award for Distinguished Teaching, Stanford University (2010)
  • Best Doctors in America database, Selected by peers (2007-2013)
  • Iris Litt Fund, Instititute for Women & Gender at Stanford (2004)
  • Poster Exhibit Award, Best Scientific Content Honorable Mention, American Society for Surgery of the Hand Annual Meeting (2003)
  • Sterling Bunnell Traveling Fellowship, American Society for Surgery of the Hand (2000-2001)
  • Outstanding Faculty Physician Award, Cowell Student Health Center, Stanford University (1998)
  • Woman of Achievements award, San Jose Mercury News & Women’s Fund (1997)

Boards, Advisory Committees, Professional Organizations

  • President, Ruth Jackson Orthopaedic Society (2013 - 2014)
  • Secretary, Board of Specialties, American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons (2016 - Present)
  • Board Member, Perry Outreach Initiative (2013 - Present)
  • Board Member, California Orthopaedic Association (2009 - 2013)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (1990) MA
  • Internship:Pacific Medical Center Seattle (1986)
  • Board Certification: Hand Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (1994)
  • Board Certification: Orthopaedic Surgery, American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (1992)
  • Residency:University of Rochester School of Medicine (1989) NY
  • Medical Education:SUNY Upstate Medical University (1984) NY
  • AB, Dartmouth College, History (1980)
  • MD, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Medicine (1984)

Community and International Work

  • Chinle Navajo Reservation, Chinle, AZ



    Partnering Organization(s)

    US Dept of Interior

    Populations Served

    Navajo Nation



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Interplast, VIetnam


    surgical care of children with hand anomalies and problems

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement



  • APC Weiss, AL Ladd, R Fiebiger, GB Hulme, JJ Christian. "United States Patent US2017/0231674 A1 Wedge Shaped Fracture Fixation Devices and Methods for Using the Same", Stryker, Inc, Aug 17, 2017
  • J Rose, DW Meister, AL Ladd, KM Steele. "United States Patent 2014/0257538 Methods for analyzing and providing feedback for improved power generation in a golf swing", Leland Stanford Junior University, Apr 1, 2017
  • Amy Ladd. "United States Patent Registered Trademark No. 5,129,413, Serial number 86270352, Int. Cl 14, 25, 35,36 Design of Looped Ribbon for bone health awareness", Amy Ladd, Jan 24, 2017
  • Amy Ladd. "United States Patent TM 86/270,352 Bone Ribbon Graphic, bone health awareness", Amy Ladd, Dec 9, 2014
  • Amy Ladd. "United States Patent 20130211522 Wedge Shaped Fracture Fixation Devices and Methods for Using the Same", APC Weiss, AL Ladd, R Fiebiger, GB Hulme, JJ Christian, Aug 15, 2013
  • J Rose, DW Meister, AL Ladd, KM Steele. "United States Patent 8696450 Methods for analyzing and providing feedback for improved power generation in a golf swing", Leland Stanford Junior University, Jul 27, 2012
  • AL Ladd, APC Weiss, GB Hulme, M Thompson, JJ Christian. "United States Patent 20120035666 Reduced Bone Fracture Fixation Device", AL Ladd, APC Weiss, GB Hulme, M Thompson, JJ Christian, Feb 9, 2011
  • Amy Ladd. "United States Patent 20100217391 Tensioning Bone Implant Device", Amy Ladd, Nov 1, 2009

Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

1. The kinematics and forces associated with thumb carpometcarpal (CMC) function and pathology: current RO1 NIH grant evaluating the thumb position for normal functional tasks as determined with CT scans. The study evaluates normal subjects, and subjects with early arthritis over a 3 year period. Several related studies are underway.

2. The anatomy, microstructure, and immunofluorescent characteristics of the thumb CMC joint: The ligaments of the thumb CMC joint are purportedly looser in women, and wear out in arthritis. Our studies to date do not fully support this concept, and we approach further study through a variety of quantitative techniques. These include anatomical dissection, histomorphometric analysis, immunofluorescent staining to determine proprioceptive mechanoreceptors, and the histology and micro-CT analysis of trabecular wear.

3. Pathomechaniics of CMC arthritis: biomechanical wear, injury, genetic, and environmental causes: A variety of studies, including biomechanical testing, demographic analysis, and co-institutional study is underway.

4. Archiving, vitalizing, and innovating medical and surgical knowledge, most recently with innovative iBook monographs: a thumb CMC arthritis iBook and Anatomy iBook for patient education will be published in 2013, and the next iBook planned is congenital anomalies of the hand.


  • Thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) Arthritis

    Multiple projects related to the analysis of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) Arthritis. These include patient demographics, kinematic analysis, pathoanatomy analysis.


    Stanford University


2017-18 Courses

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

  • Hand Surgery (Fellowship Program)


All Publications

  • Reduction in Cylindrical Grasp Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Coughlan, M. J., Bourdillon, A., Crisco, J. J., Kenney, D., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2017; 475 (2): 522-528
  • Reduction in Cylindrical Grasp Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Coughlan, M. J., Bourdillon, A., Crisco, J. J., Kenney, D., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2016: -?


    Advanced thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) osteoarthritis (OA) can cause substantial impairment in hand function, from grasping heavy objects to fine manipulation of implements and tools. In the clinical setting, we commonly measure the grip strength of gross grasp with a hand dynamometer in patients with CMC OA. Cylindrical grasp, which requires more thumb contribution than gross grasp, is an alternative method of measuring grip strength and one that may provide insight into thumb-related conditions. Because gross grasp and cylindrical grasp use the thumb in different planes, measurement of gross grasp alone might underestimate impairment. Therefore, it is important to evaluate cylindrical grasp as well. To our knowledge this tool has yet to be examined in a population with early thumb CMC OA.(1) Is cylindrical grasp and gross grasp strength reduced in subjects with early thumb CMC OA compared with asymptomatic control subjects? (2) What is the association of cylindrical and gross grasp to thumb CMC OA after adjusting for age, sex, and hand dominance?We recruited 90 subjects with early symptomatic and radiographic thumb CMC OA and 38 asymptomatic healthy control subjects for this multisite controlled study. Demographic information, hand examination, comprehensive histories, plain film radiographs, and cylindrical and gross grasp strength data were collected on all 128 subjects. Mean grasp strength was calculated for cylindrical and gross grasp in the population with early CMC OA and the control population. A t-test was performed on cylindrical and gross grasp to evaluate the difference between the mean in the control and early CMC OA populations. We used separate linear regression models for the two types of grasp to further quantify the association of grasp with a diagnosis of early thumb CMC OA controlling for age, sex, and whether the subject used their dominant or nondominant hand in the study.Cylindrical grasp was weaker in the population with thumb CMC OA compared with healthy control subjects (6.3 ± 2.7 kg versus 8.4 ± 2.5 kg; mean difference, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.1; p < 0.001), but there was no difference in gross grasp force (29.6 ± 11.6 kg versus 31.4 ± 10.1 kg; mean difference, 1.7; 95% CI, -2.5 to 6.0; p = 0.425). When adjusting for age, sex, and handedness, cylindrical grasp reduction was related to CMC OA (β = -2.3; standard error [SE], 0.46; p < 0.001) (Y-intercept = 8.2; SE, 1.8; R(2) = 0.29), whereas gross grasp was not reduced in early thumb CMC OA (β = -2.8; SE, 1.6; p = 0.072) (Y-intercept = 34.3; SE, 6.3; R(2) = 0.48).A reduction in cylindrical grasp is associated with early symptomatic and radiographic CMC OA, whereas gross grasp is not associated with early thumb CMC OA, suggesting that cylindrical grasp may be a better tool to detect changes in thumb and hand function seen during early disease stages.Cylindrical grasp may serve as a more-sensitive measure for detecting early changes in early CMC OA. The associated decline in hand function also might provide an opportunity for measuring the effectiveness of treatment and intervention.

    View details for PubMedID 27822895

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5213951

  • Quality Measures That Address the Upper Limb JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Kamal, R. N., Ring, D., Akelman, E., Ruch, D. S., Richard, M. J., Ladd, A., Got, C., Blazar, P., Yao, J., Kakar, S. 2016; 41 (11): 1041-1048


    Physicians, health care systems, and payers use quality measures to judge performance and monitor the outcomes of interventions. Practicing upper-limb surgeons desire quality measures that are important to patients and feasible to use, and for which it is fair to hold them accountable.Nine academic upper-limb surgeons completed a RAND/University of California-Los Angeles Delphi Appropriateness process to evaluate the importance, feasibility, and accountability of 134 quality measures identified from systematic review. Panelists rated measures on an ordinal scale between 1 (definitely not valid) and 9 (definitely valid) in 2 rounds (preliminary round and final round) with an intervening face-to-face discussion. Ratings from 1 to 3 were considered not valid, 4 to 6 were equivocal or uncertain, and 7 to 9 were valid. If no more than 2 of the 9 ratings were outside the 3-point range that included the median (1-3, 4-6, or 7-9), panelists were considered to be in agreement. If 3 or more ratings of a measure were within the 1 to 3 range whereas 3 or more ratings were in the 7 to 9 range, panelists were considered to be in disagreement.There was agreement that 58 of the measures are important (43%), 74 are feasible (55%), and surgeons can be held accountable for 39 (29%). All 3 thresholds were met for 33 measures (25%). A total of 36 reached agreement for being unimportant (48%) and 57 were not suited for surgeon accountability (43%).A minority of upper-limb quality measures were rated as important for care, feasible to complete, and suitable for upper-limb surgeon accountability.Before health systems and payers implement quality measures, we recommend ensuring their importance and feasibility to safeguard against measures that may not improve care and might misappropriate attention and resources.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.07.107

    View details for Web of Science ID 000387632600001

    View details for PubMedID 27577525

  • The Perry Initiative's Medical Student Outreach Program Recruits Women Into Orthopaedic Residency CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Lattanza, L. L., Meszaros-Dearolf, L., O'Connor, M. I., Ladd, A., Bucha, A., Trauth-Nare, A., Buckley, J. M. 2016; 474 (9): 1962-1966


    Orthopaedic surgery lags behind other surgical specialties in terms of gender diversity. The percentage of women entering orthopaedic residency persistently remains at 14% despite near equal ratios of women to men in medical school classes. This trend has been attributed to negative perceptions among women medical students of workplace culture and lifestyle in orthopaedics as well as lack of exposure, particularly during medical school when most women decide to enter the field. Since 2012, The Perry Initiative, a nonprofit organization that is focused on recruiting and retaining women in orthopaedics, had conducted extracurricular outreach programs for first- and second-year female medical students to provide exposure and mentoring opportunities specific to orthopaedics. This program, called the Medical Student Outreach Program (MSOP), is ongoing at medical centers nationwide and has reached over 300 medical students in its first 3 program years (2012-2014).(1) What percentage of MSOP participants eventually match into orthopaedic surgery residency? (2) Does MSOP impact participants' perceptions of the orthopaedics profession as well as intellectual interest in the field?The percentage of program alumnae who matched into orthopaedics was determined by annual followup for our first two cohorts who graduated from medical school. All program participants completed a survey immediately before and after the program that assessed the impact of MSOP on the student's intention to pursue orthopaedics as well as perceptions of the field and intellectual interest in the discipline.The orthopaedic surgery match rate for program participants was 31% in our first graduating class (five of 16 participants in 2015) and 28% in our second class (20 of 72 participants in 2016). Pre/post program comparisons showed that the MSOP influenced students' perceptions of the orthopaedics profession as well as overall intellectual interest in the field.The results of our study suggest that The Perry Initiative's MSOP positively influences women to choose orthopaedic surgery as a profession. The match rate for program alumnae is twice the percentage of females in current orthopaedic residency classes. Given these positive results, MSOP can serve as a model, both in its curricular content and logistic framework, for other diversity initiatives in the field.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-016-4908-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000380669800014

    View details for PubMedID 27245771

  • Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science: Hollywood and Orthopaedics: Through the Glass Ceiling-Darkly CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L. 2016; 474 (6): 1379-1382

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-016-4786-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375617800006

    View details for PubMedID 26987864

  • Quality Measurement: A Primer for Hand Surgeons JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Kamal, R. N., Kakar, S., Ruch, D., Richard, M. J., Akelman, E., Got, C., Blazar, P., Ladd, A., Yao, J., Ring, D. 2016; 41 (5): 645-651


    As the government and payers place increasing emphasis on measuring and reporting quality and meeting-specific benchmarks, physicians and health care systems will continue to adapt to meet regulatory requirements. Hand surgeons' involvement in quality measure development will help ensure that our services are appropriately assessed. Moreover, by embracing a culture of quality assessment and improvement, we will improve patient care while demonstrating the importance of our services in a health care system that is transitioning from a fee-for-service model to a fee-for-value model. Understanding quality and the tools for its measurement, and the application of quality assessment and improvement methods can help hand surgeons continue to deliver high-quality care that aligns with national priorities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.10.002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375509500008

    View details for PubMedID 26576831

  • A Unified Approach to Outcomes Assessment for Distal Radius Fractures JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Waljee, J. F., Ladd, A., MacDermid, J. C., Rozental, T. D., Wolfe, S. W. 2016; 41 (4): 565-573


    Distal radius fractures are one of the most common upper extremity injuries. Currently, outcome assessment after treatment of these injuries varies widely with respect to the measures that are used, timing of assessment, and the end points that are considered. A more consistent approach to outcomes assessment would provide a standard by which to assess treatment options and best practices. In this summary, we review the consensus regarding outcomes assessment after distal radius fractures and propose a systematic approach that integrates performance, patient-reported outcomes, pain, complications, and radiographs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2016.02.001

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374278600008

    View details for PubMedID 26952734

  • Quality Measures in Upper Limb Surgery. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Kamal, R. N., Ring, D., Akelman, E., Yao, J., Ruch, D. S., Richard, M., Ladd, A., Got, C., Blazar, P., Kakar, S. 2016; 98 (6): 505-510


    Quality measures are now commonplace and are increasingly tied to financial incentives. We reviewed the existing quality measures that address the upper limb and tested the null hypothesis that structure (capacity to deliver care), process (appropriate care), and outcome (the result of care) measures are equally represented.We systematically reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines, the National Quality Forum, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and the Physician Quality Reporting System for quality measures addressing upper limb surgery. Measures were characterized as structure, process, or outcome measures and were categorized according to their developer and their National Strategy for Quality Improvement in Health Care (National Quality Strategy) priority as articulated by the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.We identified 134 quality measures addressing the upper limb: 131 (98%) process and three (2%) outcome measures. The majority of the process measures address the National Quality Strategy priority of effective clinical care (90%), with the remainder addressing communication and care coordination (5%), person and caregiver-centered experience and outcomes (4%), and community/population health (1%).Our review identified opportunities to develop more measures in the structure and outcome domains as well as measures addressing patient and family engagement, public health, safety, care coordination, and efficient use of resources. The most common existing measures-process measures addressing care-might not be the best measures of upper limb surgery quality given the relative lack of evidence for their use in care improvement.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.15.00651

    View details for PubMedID 26984919

  • Weaker Functional Pinch Strength Is Associated With Early Thumb Carpometacarpal Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH McQuillan, T. J., Kenney, D., Crisco, J. J., Weiss, A., Ladd, A. L. 2016; 474 (2): 557-561
  • Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science: Sex, Lies, and Stereotype: In Praise of the Systematic Review CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L. 2016; 474 (1): 27-30
  • Early osteoarthritis of the trapeziometacarpal joint is not associated with joint instability during typical isometric loading. Journal of orthopaedic research Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T. K., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2015; 33 (11): 1639-1645


    The saddle-shaped trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint contributes importantly to the function of the human thumb. A balance between mobility and stability is essential in this joint, which experiences high loads and is prone to osteoarthritis (OA). Since instability is considered a risk factor for TMC OA, we assessed TMC joint instability during the execution of three isometric functional tasks (key pinch, jar grasp, and jar twist) in 76 patients with early TMC OA and 44 asymptomatic controls. Computed tomography images were acquired while subjects held their hands relaxed and while they applied 80% of their maximum effort for each task. Six degree-of-freedom rigid body kinematics of the metacarpal with respect to the trapezium from the unloaded to the loaded task positions were computed in terms of a TMC joint coordinate system. Joint instability was expressed as a function of the metacarpal translation and the applied force. We found that the TMC joint was more unstable during a key pinch task than during a jar grasp or a jar twist task. Sex, age, and early OA did not have an effect on TMC joint instability, suggesting that instability during these three tasks is not a predisposing factor in TMC OA. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jor.22936

    View details for PubMedID 25941135

  • Altered Innervation Pattern in Ligaments of Patients with Basal Thumb Arthritis. Journal of wrist surgery Ludwig, C. A., Mobargha, N., Okogbaa, J., Hagert, E., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 4 (4): 284-291


    Purpose The population of mechanoreceptors in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) lacks detailed characterization. In this study, we examined the distribution and type of mechanoreceptors of two principal ligaments in surgical subjects with OA of the first carpometacarpal joint (CMC1). Methods We harvested two ligaments from the CMC1 of eleven subjects undergoing complete trapeziectomy and suspension arthroplasty: the anterior oblique (AOL) and dorsal radial ligament (DRL). Ligaments were divided into proximal and distal portions, paraffin-sectioned, and analyzed using immunoflourescent triple staining microscopy. We performed statistical analyses using the Wilcoxon Rank Sum test and ANOVA with post-hoc Bonferroni and Tamhane adjustments. Results The most prevalent nerve endings in the AOL and DRL of subjects with OA were unclassifiable mechanoreceptors, which do not currently fit into a defined morphological scheme. These were found in 11/11 (100%) DRLs and 7/11 (63.6%) AOLs. No significant difference existed with respect to location within the ligament (proximal versus distal) of mechanoreceptors in OA subjects. Conclusion The distribution and type of mechanoreceptors in cadavers with no to mild OA differ from those in surgical patients with OA. Where Ruffini endings predominate in cadavers with no to mild OA, unclassifiable corpuscles predominate in surgical patients with OA. These findings suggest an alteration of the mechanoreceptor population and distribution that accompanies the development of OA. Clinical Relevance Identification of a unique type and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the CMC1 of symptomatic subjects provides preliminary evidence of altered proprioception in OA.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0035-1564982

    View details for PubMedID 26649261

  • Older asymptomatic women exhibit patterns of thumb carpometacarpal joint space narrowing that precede changes associated with early osteoarthritis. Journal of biomechanics Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T. K., Laidlaw, D. H., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2015; 48 (13): 3643-3649


    In small joints, where cartilage is difficult to image and quantify directly, three-dimensional joint space measures can be used to gain insight into potential joint pathomechanics. Since the female sex and older age are risk factors for carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA), the purpose of this in vivo computed tomography (CT) study was to determine if there are any differences with sex, age, and early OA in the CMC joint space. The thumbs of 66 healthy subjects and 81 patients with early stage CMC OA were scanned in four range-of-motion, three functional-task, and one neutral positions. Subchondral bone-to-bone distances across the trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were computed for all the positions. The joint space area, defined as the articular surface that is less than 1.5mm from the mating bone, was used to assess joint space. A larger joint space area typically corresponds to closer articular surfaces, and therefore a narrower joint space. We found that the joint space areas are not significantly different between healthy young men and women. Trends indicated that patients with early stage OA have larger CMC joint space areas than healthy subjects of the same age group and that older healthy women have larger joint space areas than younger healthy women. This study suggests that aging in women may lead to joint space narrowing patterns that precede early OA, which is a compelling new insight into the pathological processes that make CMC OA endemic to women.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.08.010

    View details for PubMedID 26323995

  • Older asymptomatic women exhibit patterns of thumb carpometacarpal joint space narrowing that precede changes associated with early osteoarthritis JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T. K., Laidlaw, D. H., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2015; 48 (13): 3634-3640
  • Men and women have similarly shaped carpometacarpal joint bones JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Schneider, M. T., Zhang, J., Crisco, J. J., Weiss, A. P., Ladd, A. L., Nielsen, P., Besier, T. 2015; 48 (12): 3420-3426
  • Denosumab, a Potential Alternative to the Surgical Treatment of Distal Radius Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Case Report. journal of hand surgery Park, M. J., Ganjoo, K. N., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 40 (8): 1620-1624


    Juxta-articular giant cell tumors can pose major surgical challenges. Aggressive distal radius giant cell tumors often require complex reconstructive procedures that are associated with numerous complications. We present a case of a 25-year old man with a Campanacci grade 3 giant cell tumor of the distal radius that was successfully treated with denosumab without complex reconstructive procedures. At 3.5-year follow-up and 1-year drug free period, the patient remained asymptomatic without histologic evidence of recurrent tumor. With denosumab therapy, patients can potentially avoid surgery and achieve a successful outcome.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2015.03.018

    View details for PubMedID 25935517

  • In vivo recruitment patterns in the anterior oblique and dorsoradial ligaments of the first carpometacarpal joint JOURNAL OF BIOMECHANICS Halilaj, E., Rainbow, M. J., Moore, D. C., Laidlaw, D. H., Weiss, A. C., Ladd, A. L., Crisco, J. J. 2015; 48 (10): 1893-1898


    The anterior oblique ligament (AOL) and the dorsoradial ligament (DRL) are both regarded as mechanical stabilizers of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint, which in older women is often affected by osteoarthritis. Inferences on the potential relationship of these ligaments to joint pathomechanics are based on clinical experience and studies of cadaveric tissue, but their functions has been studied sparsely in vivo. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the functions of the AOL and DRL using in vivo joint kinematics data. The thumbs of 44 healthy subjects were imaged with a clinical computed tomography scanner in functional-task and thumb range-of-motion positions. The origins and insertion sites of the AOL and the DRL were identified on the three-dimensional bone models and each ligament was modeled as a set of three fibers whose lengths were the minimum distances between insertion sites. Ligament recruitment, which represented ligament length as a percentage of the maximum length across the scanned positions, was computed for each position and related to joint posture. Mean AOL recruitment was lower than 91% across the CMC range of motion, whereas mean DRL recruitment was generally higher than 91% in abduction and flexion. Under the assumption that ligaments do not strain by more than 10% physiologically, our findings of mean ligament recruitments across the CMC range of motion indicate that the AOL is likely slack during most physiological positions, whereas the DRL may be taut and therefore support the joint in positions of CMC joint abduction and flexion.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2015.04.028

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358459800029

  • Male and Female Differences in Musculoskeletal Disease JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS Wolf, J. M., Cannada, L., Van Heest, A. E., O'Connor, M. I., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 23 (6): 339-347


    Gender differences exist in the presentation of musculoskeletal disease, and recognition of the differences between men and women's burden of disease and response to treatment is key in optimizing care of orthopaedic patients. The role of structural anatomy differences, hormones, and genetics are factors to consider in the analysis of differential injury and arthritic patterns between genders.

    View details for DOI 10.5435/JAAOS-D-14-00020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354975900003

  • Management of Complications of Congenital Hand Disorders HAND CLINICS Comer, G. C., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 31 (2): 361-?

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2015.01.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355028300021

    View details for PubMedID 25934210

  • Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science: Civil Liberties, Darwin, and the Evolution of Science CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L. 2015; 473 (5): 1560-1565

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-015-4178-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352280100006

    View details for PubMedID 25666144

  • Management of complications of congenital hand disorders. Hand clinics Comer, G. C., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 31 (2): 361-375


    This article reviews treatment and presents complications seen in the treatment of 7 common congenital hand differences, including syndactyly, camptodactyly, ulnar and radial polydactyly, thumb hypoplasia, radial longitudinal deficiency, and epidermolysis bullosa. The management of these conditions is challenging but has evolved over the last several decades with refined understanding of the disease processes and treatments. The goal of this article is to synthesize prior knowledge and provide further insights into these conditions that will help the surgeon avoid treatment complications.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.hcl.2015.01.011

    View details for PubMedID 25934210

  • Correlation of clinical disease severity to radiographic thumb osteoarthritis index. journal of hand surgery Ladd, A. L., Messana, J. M., Berger, A. J., Weiss, A. C. 2015; 40 (3): 474-482


    To determine if a slight modification of the 1987 Eaton-Glickel staging and interpreting 4 standardized radiographs for trapeziometacarpal (TMC) osteoarthritis (OA) improved analysis, to determine if a quantifiable index measurement from a single Robert (pronated anteroposterior) view enhanced reproducibility, and to examine whether improved radiographic staging correlated to clinically relevant disease and thus support validity.We analyzed 4 thumb radiographs (posteroanterior, lateral, Robert, and stress views) in 60 consecutive subjects representing an adult population spectrum of asymptomatic to advanced disease. Two experienced hand surgeons (A.L.L. and A.P.C.W.), 1 chief resident (A.J.B.), and 1 medical student (J.M.M.) performed the analysis on each subject's radiographs. We analyzed all 4 radiographs for Eaton and modified Eaton staging and then later analyzed only the Robert view for the thumb osteoarthritis (ThOA) index measurement. The radiographs were randomized and reread a week later for each classification at separate times. Surgically excised trapeziums from 20/60 subjects were inspected for first metacarpal surface disease and correlated to the 3 classifications.All 3 staging classifications demonstrated high reproducibility, with the intraclass correlation coefficient averaging 0.73 for the Eaton, 0.83 for the modified Eaton, and 0.95 for the ThOA index. Articular wear and metacarpal surface eburnation correlated highest to the ThOA index, with advanced disease 1.55 or greater correlating to Eaton III/IV and modified Eaton stage 3/4 in a linear relationship.The ThOA index based on a Robert view provided a measurable alternative to Eaton staging and correlated to severity of surgically relevant thumb TMC OA.A simple reproducible radiographic measurement may enhance TMC OA classification and provide a reliable means to predict clinical disease.Diagnostic II.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.11.021

    View details for PubMedID 25617217

  • In Vivo kinematics of the trapeziometacarpal joint during thumb extension-flexion and abduction-adduction. journal of hand surgery Crisco, J. J., Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T., Weiss, A. C., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 40 (2): 289-296


    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the in vivo kinematics of the trapeziometacarpal (TMC) joint differ as a function of age and sex during thumb extension-flexion (Ex-Fl) and abduction-adduction (Ab-Ad) motions.The hands and wrists of 44 subjects (10 men and 11 women with ages 18-35 y and 10 men and 13 women with ages 40-75 y) with no symptoms or signs of TMC joint pathology were imaged with computed tomography during thumb extension, flexion, abduction, and adduction. The kinematics of the TMC joint were computed and compared across direction, age, and sex.We found no significant effects of age or sex, after normalizing for size, in any of the kinematic parameters. The Ex-Fl and Ab-Ad rotation axes did not intersect, and both were oriented obliquely to the saddle-shaped anatomy of the TMC articulation. The Ex-Fl axis was located in the trapezium and the Ab-Ad axis was located in the metacarpal. Metacarpal translation and internal rotation occurred primarily during Ex-Fl.Our findings indicate that normal TMC joint kinematics are similar in males and females, regardless of age, and that the primary rotation axes are nonorthogonal and nonintersecting. In contrast to previous studies, we found Ex-Fl and Ab-Ad to be coupled with internal-external rotation and translation. Specifically, internal rotation and ulnar translation were coupled with flexion, indicating a potential stabilizing screw-home mechanism.The treatment of TMC pathology and arthroplasty design require a detailed and accurate understanding of TMC function. This study confirms the complexity of TMC kinematics and describes metacarpal translation coupled with internal rotation during Ex-Fl, which may explain some of the limitations of current treatment strategies and should help improve implant designs.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2014.10.062

    View details for PubMedID 25542440

  • A comprehensive overview of osteoporotic fracture treatment. Instructional course lectures Wolf, J. M., Cannada, L. K., Lane, J. M., Sawyer, A. J., Ladd, A. L. 2015; 64: 25-36


    Osteoporosis is a worldwide epidemic, affecting more than 75 million people in the United States, Europe, and Japan. At a consensus conference in 1990, European and American leaders defined osteoporosis as a disease characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, and a resulting increase in fracture risk. In 2000, the National Institutes of Health modified this definition, describing osteoporosis as a skeletal disorder characterized by compromised bone strength and a predisposition for increased fracture risk. It was emphasized that bone strength, which is a more comprehensive concept than bone mass, integrates the concepts of both bone density and bone quality. As orthopaedic surgeons, recognizing osteoporosis and its healthcare implications is critical to optimize the musculoskeletal health of patients of all ages and both sexes.

    View details for PubMedID 25745892

  • The 2014 ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: The Puzzle of the Thumb: Mobility, Stability, and Demands in Opposition CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L., Crisco, J. J., Hagert, E., Rose, J., Weiss, A. C. 2014; 472 (12): 3605-3622
  • Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science: From Access to Zygote: A Gender and Orthopaedics Lexicon CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (12): 3629-3631

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-014-3987-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344647200005

    View details for PubMedID 25300512

  • Editor's Spotlight/Take 5: The 2014 ABJS Nicolas Andry Award: The Puzzle of the Thumb: Mobility, Stability, and Demands in Opposition CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Leopold, S. S. 2014; 472 (12): 3601-3604

    View details for Web of Science ID 000344647200002

    View details for PubMedID 25287522

  • Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science: Title IX Education: Book Learnin' and Bone Mendin'. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (9): 2586-2589

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-014-3738-z

    View details for PubMedID 24964885

  • The morphology of the thumb carpometacarpal joint does not differ between men and women, but changes with aging and early osteoarthritis. Journal of biomechanics Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Laidlaw, D. H., Got, C. J., Weiss, A. C., Ladd, A. L., Crisco, J. J. 2014; 47 (11): 2709-2714


    The high prevalence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in women has been previously linked to the articular morphology of the trapezium. Studies report conflicting results on how the articular shapes of male and female trapezia compare to one another, however, mainly because their findings are based on data from older cadaveric specimens. The purpose of this in vivo study was to dissociate the effect of sex from that of aging and early OA by using cohorts of healthy young and healthy older subjects, as well as patients with early stage OA. Computed tomography scans from 68 healthy subjects and 87 arthritic subjects were used to obtain 3-D bone models. The trapezial and metacarpal articular surfaces were manually delineated on scaled bone models and compared between sex, age, and health groups by using polar histograms of curvature and average curvatures. We found no sex-related differences, but significant age-group and health-group differences, in the articular surfaces of both bones. Older healthy subjects had higher curvature in the concave and lower curvature in the convex directions of both the trapezial and metacarpal saddles than healthy young subjects. Subjects with early OA had significantly different metacarpal and trapezial articular shapes from healthy subjects of the same age group. These findings suggest that aging and OA affect the articular shape of the CMC joint, but that, in contrast to previously held beliefs, inherent sex differences are not responsible for the higher incidence of CMC OA in women.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2014.05.005

    View details for PubMedID 24909332

  • The Sports Bra, the ACL, and Title IX - The Game in Play CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (6): 1681-1684

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-014-3606-x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335668500004

    View details for PubMedID 24723143

  • Ultrastructure and Innervation of Thumb Carpometacarpal Ligaments in Surgical Patients With Osteoarthritis CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Mobargha, N., Ludwig, C., Ladd, A. L., Hagert, E. 2014; 472 (4): 1146-1154


    BACKGROUND: The complex configuration of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC-1) joint relies on musculotendinous and ligamentous support for precise circumduction. Ligament innervation contributes to joint stability and proprioception. Evidence suggests abnormal ligament innervation is associated with osteoarthritis (OA) in large joints; however, little is known about CMC-1 ligament innervation characteristics in patients with OA. We studied the dorsal radial ligament (DRL) and the anterior oblique ligament (AOL), ligaments with a reported divergent presence of mechanoreceptors in nonosteoarthritic joints. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: This study's purposes were (1) to examine the ultrastructural architecture of CMC-1 ligaments in surgical patients with OA; (2) to describe innervation, specifically looking at mechanoreceptors, of these ligaments using immunohistochemical techniques and compare the AOL and DRL in terms of innervation; and (3) to determine whether there is a correlation between age and mechanoreceptor density. METHODS: The AOL and DRL were harvested from 11 patients with OA during trapeziectomy (10 women, one man; mean age, 67 years). The 22 ligaments were sectioned in paraffin and analyzed using immunoflourescent triple staining microscopy. RESULTS: In contrast to the organized collagen bundles of the DRL, the AOL appeared to be composed of disorganized connective tissue with few collagen fibers and little innervation. Mechanoreceptors were identified in CMC-1 ligaments of all patients with OA. The DRL was significantly more innervated than the AOL. There was no significant correlation between innervation of the DRL and AOL and patient age. CONCLUSIONS: The dense collagen structure and rich innervation of the DRL in patients with OA suggest that the DRL has an important proprioceptive and stabilizing role. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Ligament innervation may correlate with proprioceptive and neuromuscular changes in OA pathophysiology and consequently support further investigation of innervation in disease prevention and treatment strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3083-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332576400016

    View details for PubMedID 23761171

  • In Vivo Kinematics of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint During Three Isometric Functional Tasks CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Halilaj, E., Rainbow, M. J., Got, C., Schwartz, J. B., Moore, D. C., Weiss, A. C., Ladd, A. L., Crisco, J. J. 2014; 472 (4): 1114-1122


    The thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is often affected by osteoarthritis--a mechanically mediated disease. Pathomechanics of the CMC joint, however, are not thoroughly understood due to a paucity of in vivo data.We documented normal, in vivo CMC joint kinematics during isometric functional tasks. We hypothesized there would be motion of the CMC joint during these tasks and that this motion would differ with sex and age group. We also sought to determine whether the rotations at the CMC joint were coupled and whether the trapezium moved with respect to the third metacarpal.Forty-six asymptomatic subjects were CT-scanned in a neutral position and during three functional tasks (key pinch, jar grasp, jar twist), in an unloaded and a loaded position. Kinematics of the first metacarpal, third metacarpal, and the trapezium were then computed.Significant motion was identified in the CMC joint during all tasks. Sex did not have an effect on CMC joint kinematics. Motion patterns differed with age group, but these differences were not systematic across the tasks. Rotation at the CMC joint was generally coupled and posture of the trapezium relative to the third metacarpal changed significantly with thumb position.The healthy CMC joint is relatively stable during key pinch, jar grasp, and jar twist tasks, despite sex and age group.Our findings indicate that directionally coupled motion patterns in the CMC joint, which lead to a specific loading profile, are similar in men and women. These patterns, in addition to other, nonkinematic influences, especially in the female population, may contribute to the pathomechanics of the osteoarthritic joint.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3063-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332576400012

    View details for PubMedID 23681597

  • Functional task kinematics of the thumb carpometacarpal joint. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Luker, K. R., Aguinaldo, A., Kenney, D., Cahill-Rowley, K., Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (4): 1123-1129


    Abnormal biomechanical loading has been identified as an associated risk factor of osteoarthritis in the wrist and hand. Empirical data to date are insufficient to describe the role of altered biomechanics in thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis.This is a pilot study to evaluate motion analysis of the upper extremity while performing functional tasks. We wished to describe the in vivo kinematics of the thumb and hand in relation to the larger joints of the upper extremity in subjects without arthritis in functional positions at rest and while loading the CMC joint. If reproducible, we then planned to compare kinematics between these subjects and a subject with advanced thumb CMC arthritis.In vivo kinematics of the hand and upper extremity during the functional tasks of grasp, jar opening, and pinch with and without loading of the CMC joint were evaluated using cameras and a motion-capture system in four asymptomatic female subjects and one female subject with advanced radiographic (Eaton Stage IV) osteoarthritis.Kinematics of the hand and upper extremity can be reliably quantified. Loading of the CMC joint did not alter the hand and forearm kinematics in control subjects. In the subject with osteoarthritis, the adduction-extension deformity at the CMC joint resulted in kinematic alterations as compared with the four control subjects.This study represents preliminary steps in defining thumb CMC position, motion, and loading associated with activities of daily living. These findings enhance our understanding of motion at the CMC joint and how it differs in arthritic patients.Level II, prognostic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-2964-0

    View details for PubMedID 23549712

  • Guest Editorial : The Robert's View: A Historical and Clinical Perspective. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (4): 1097-1100

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3428-2

    View details for PubMedID 24363184

  • Editorial comment: symposium: thumb carpometacarpal arthritis. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (4): 1093-1094

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3348-1

    View details for PubMedID 24186467

  • Intra- and interobserver reliability of the eaton classification for trapeziometacarpal arthritis: a systematic review. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Berger, A. J., Momeni, A., Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (4): 1155-1159


    Trapeziometacarpal, or thumb carpometacarpal (CMC), arthritis is a common problem with a variety of treatment options. Although widely used, the Eaton radiographic staging system for CMC arthritis is of questionable clinical utility, as disease severity does not predictably correlate with symptoms or treatment recommendations. A possible reason for this is that the classification itself may not be reliable, but the literature on this has not, to our knowledge, been systematically reviewed.We therefore performed a systematic review to determine the intra- and interobserver reliability of the Eaton staging system.We systematically reviewed English-language studies published between 1973 and 2013 to assess the degree of intra- and interobserver reliability of the Eaton classification for determining the stage of trapeziometacarpal joint arthritis and pantrapezial arthritis based on plain radiographic imaging. Search engines included: PubMed, Scopus(®), and CINAHL. Four studies, which included a total of 163 patients, met our inclusion criteria and were evaluated. The level of evidence of the studies included in this analysis was determined using the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine Levels of Evidence Classification by two independent observers.A limited number of studies have been performed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability of the Eaton classification system. The four studies included were determined to be Level 3b. These studies collectively indicate that the Eaton classification demonstrates poor to fair interobserver reliability (kappa values: 0.11-0.56) and fair to moderate intraobserver reliability (kappa values: 0.54-0.657).Review of the literature demonstrates that radiographs assist in the assessment of CMC joint disease, but there is not a reliable system for classification of disease severity. Currently, diagnosis and treatment of thumb CMC arthritis are based on the surgeon's qualitative assessment combining history, physical examination, and radiographic evaluation. Inconsistent agreement using the current common radiographic classification system suggests a need for better radiographic tools to quantify disease severity.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3208-z

    View details for PubMedID 23917991

  • Let's Talk About Sex, Baby: Gendered Innovations in Orthopaedic Science. Clinical orthopaedics and related research Ladd, A. L. 2014; 472 (3): 793-795

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3456-y

    View details for PubMedID 24442840

  • Recommendation for measuring clinical outcome in distal radius fractures: a core set of domains for standardized reporting in clinical practice and research ARCHIVES OF ORTHOPAEDIC AND TRAUMA SURGERY Goldhahn, J., Beaton, D., Ladd, A., MacDermid, J., Hoang-Kim, A. 2014; 134 (2): 197-205


    Lack of standardization of outcome measurement has hampered an evidence-based approach to clinical practice and research.We adopted a process of reviewing evidence on current use of measures and appropriate theoretical frameworks for health and disability to inform a consensus process that was focused on deriving the minimal set of core domains in distal radius fracture.We agreed on the following seven core recommendations: (1) pain and function were regarded as the primary domains, (2) very brief measures were needed for routine administration in clinical practice, (3) these brief measures could be augmented by additional measures that provide more detail or address additional domains for clinical research, (4) measurement of pain should include measures of both intensity and frequency as core attributes, (5) a numeric pain scale, e.g. visual analogue scale or visual numeric scale or the pain subscale of the patient-reported wrist evaluation (PRWE) questionnaires were identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures to measure these concepts, (6) for function, either the Quick Disability of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire or PRWE-function subscale was identified as reliable, valid and feasible measures, and (7) a measure of participation and treatment complications should be considered core outcomes for both clinical practice and research.We used a sound methodological approach to form a comprehensive foundation of content for outcomes in the area of distal radius fractures. We recommend the use of symptom and function as separate domains in the ICF core set in clinical research or practice for patients with wrist fracture. Further research is needed to provide more definitive measurement properties of measures across all domains.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00402-013-1767-9

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330729700007

    View details for PubMedID 23728832

  • Thumb carpometacarpal joint congruence during functional tasks and thumb range-of-motion activities. Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference Halilaj, E., Moore, D. C., Patel, T. K., Laidlaw, D. H., Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J. 2014; 2014: 4354-4357


    Joint incongruity is often cited as a possible etiological factor for the high incidence of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint osteoarthritis (OA) in older women. There is evidence suggesting that biomechanics plays a role in CMC OA progression, but little is known about how CMC joint congruence, specifically, differs among different cohorts. The purpose of this in vivo study was to determine if CMC joint congruence differs with sex, age, and early stage OA for different thumb positions. Using CT data from 155 subjects and a congruence metric that is based on both articular morphology and joint posture, we did not find any differences in CMC joint congruence with sex or age group, but found that patients in the early stages of OA exhibit lower congruence than healthy subjects of the same age group.

    View details for DOI 10.1109/EMBC.2014.6944588

    View details for PubMedID 25570956

  • Trapezial topography in thumb carpometacarpal arthritis. Journal of wrist surgery Van Nortwick, S., Berger, A., Cheng, R., Lee, J., Ladd, A. L. 2013; 2 (3): 263-270


    Objective Contradictory reported arthritic patterns of the metacarpal surface of the trapezium include preferential volar wear, radial wear, and dorsal-ulnar sparing. We investigated whether a predominant wear pattern exists in surgical trapeziectomy for advanced thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. Methods We examined 36 intact trapezia from 34 thumb CMC arthroplasty patients over an 18-month period. The first metacarpal articular surface revealed three consistent morphology patterns: (1) saddle, (2) dish, and (3) cirque. The saddle represented cartilage loss with preservation of the normal trapezial morphology. The dish shape represented concave curvature, with loss of the normal saddle configuration. The cirque shape represented preferential volar concave wear, disrupting the convex volardorsal arc. Two surgeons classified the randomized specimens twice, blinded to patient identity and each other's categorization. Radiographic Eaton staging was correlated retrospectively for 35 of 36 of the trapezial specimens. Eight specimens were further quantified with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Results Thirty-six trapezia were classified as follows: 17 (47%) saddle, 12 (33%) dish, and 7 (19%) cirque. Intra-rater reliability was 0.97 and 0.95; inter-rater reliability in the second round was 0.95. The 36 trapezia represented 27 female (75%) and 9 male (25%) patients; 18 (50%) represented the dominant hand. Age at surgery averaged 64 (33-76). Complete cartilage loss of the entire metacarpal surface was seen in 15 (42%) of all specimens. Osteophyte presence was typically minimal in the saddle group; the dish group had characteristic extensive rimming osteophytes in a 91% female population (11/12), and the cirque group had volar osteophytes. Radiographic severity ranged from Eaton stage II to IV; less severe radiographic staging (Eaton II) predominated in the saddle configuration; advanced Eaton III-IV disease predominated in both cirque and dish shapes. Micro-CT verified the three discrete shapes with volardorsal and radioulnar orientation measurements. Conclusion The metacarpal surface of the trapezium demonstrates three distinct patterns of wear in arthritic surgical specimens. Sex, dominance, age distribution, and Eaton stage varied across the different shapes. Level of Evidence Level 3 Study Type Observational.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0033-1350088

    View details for PubMedID 24436826

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3764251

  • Trapezium trabecular morphology in carpometacarpal arthritis. journal of hand surgery Lee, A. T., Williams, A. A., Lee, J., Cheng, R., Lindsey, D. P., Ladd, A. L. 2013; 38 (2): 309-315


    In thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis, current evidence suggests that degenerative, bony remodeling primarily occurs within the trapezium. Nevertheless, the pathomechanics involved and the most common sites of wear remain controversial. Quantifying structural bone morphology characteristics with high-resolution computed tomography CT (micro-CT) infer regions of load transmission. Using micro-CT, we investigated whether predominant trabecular patterns exist in arthritic versus normal trapeziums.We performed micro-CT analysis on 13 normal cadaveric trapeziums and 16 Eaton stage III to IV trapeziums. We computationally divided each specimen into 4 quadrants: volar-ulnar, volar-radial, dorsal-radial, and dorsal-ulnar. Measurements of trabecular bone morphologic parameters included bone volume ratio, connectivity, trabecular number, and trabecular thickness. Using analysis of variance with post hoc Bonferroni/Dunn correction, we compared osteoarthritic and normal specimen quadrant measurements.No significant difference existed in bone volume fraction between the osteoarthritic and normal specimens. Osteoarthritic trapeziums, however, demonstrated significantly higher trabecular number and connectivity than nonosteoarthritic trapeziums. Comparing the volar-ulnar quadrant of osteoarthritis and normal specimens collectively, this quadrant in both consistently possessed significantly higher bone volume fraction, trabecular number, and connectivity than the dorsal-radial and volar-radial quadrants.The significantly greater trabecular bone volume, thickness, and connectivity in the volar-ulnar quadrant compared with the dorsal-radial and dorsal-ulnar quadrants provides evidence that the greatest compressive loads at the first carpometacarpal joint occur at the volar-ulnar quadrant of the trapezium, representing a consistently affected region of wear in both normal and arthritic states.These findings suggest that trapezial trabecular morphology undergoes pathologic alteration. This provides indirect evidence that changes in load transmission occur with thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis development.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.10.038

    View details for PubMedID 23267754

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3932241

  • Trapezium Trabecular Morphology in Carpometacarpal Arthritis JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Lee, A. T., Williams, A. A., Lee, J., Cheng, R., Lindsey, D. P., Ladd, A. L. 2013; 38A (2): 309-315
  • Thumb carpometacarpal ligaments inside and out: a comparative study of arthroscopic and gross anatomy from the robert a. Chase hand and upper limb center at stanford university. Journal of wrist surgery Zhang, A. Y., Van Nortwick, S., Hagert, E., Ladd, A. L. 2013; 2 (1): 55-62


    Purpose We propose to identify and correlate arthroscopic internal ligaments with external ligaments, providing an accurate roadmap for arthroscopic ligament and joint anatomy. Ligamentous laxity is considered an important risk factor in developing the common basilar arthritis of the thumb. Controversy exists as to the precise ligamentous anatomy of the thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint (CMC-I); description of the internal arthroscopic anatomy is limited. Methods We performed CMC-I joint arthroscopy using the 1-Ulnar (1U) and thenar portals in five cadavers, seeking to identify the following seven ligaments arthroscopically: the superficial anterior oblique ligament (sAOL), deep anterior oblique ligament (dAOL), ulnar collateral ligament (UCL), dorsal trapeziometacarpal ligament (DTM-1), posterior oblique ligament (POL), dorsal central ligament (DCL), and dorsal radial ligament (DRL). After grading articular changes of the trapezium, we passed Kirschner wires (K-wires) (0.028) outside-in to mark the arthroscopic insertion of each ligament on the trapezium. Gross dissection was performed to confirm the wire placement; the anatomic identity and position of joint stabilizing ligaments, and the location of frequently used portals. Results The volar ligaments-the sAOL, dAOL, and UCL-were highly variable in their arthroscopic appearance and precise location. The sAOL is a thin veil of membranous tissue that variably drapes across the anterior joint capsule. The reported dAOL and UCL, in our study, correlated to a thickened portion of this veil around the volar beak and was not consistently identified with gross dissection. In contrast, the arthroscopic appearance and location of the dorsal ligaments-DTM-I, POL, DCL, and DRL-were consistent in all specimens. Conclusion Our study further defines and correlates the arthroscopic and external ligamentous anatomy of the CMC-I joint.

    View details for DOI 10.1055/s-0033-1333683

    View details for PubMedID 24436790

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3656572

  • The scaphoid. Orthopedic clinics of North America Sendher, R., Ladd, A. L. 2013; 44 (1): 107-120


    The scaphoid is vitally important for the proper mechanics of wrist function. Its unique morphology from its boat like shape to its retrograde blood supply can present with challenges in the presence of a fracture. Almost completely covered with articular cartilage, this creates precise surface loading demands and intolerance to bony remodeling. Fracture location compounds risk of malunion and non-union. Scaphoid fractures may significantly impair wrist function and activities of daily living, with both individual and economic consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ocl.2012.09.003

    View details for PubMedID 23174330

  • The thumb carpometacarpal joint: anatomy, hormones, and biomechanics. Instructional course lectures Ladd, A. L., Weiss, A. C., Crisco, J. J., Hagert, E., Wolf, J. M., Glickel, S. Z., Yao, J. 2013; 62: 165-179


    Although there are many surgical options to treat thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis, a precise etiology for this common disorder remains obscure. To better understand the physiology of the thumb CMC joint and treat pathology, it is helpful to examine the biomechanics, hormonal influences, and available surgical treatment options, along with the evolutionary roots of the thumb; its form and function, its functional demands; and the role of supporting ligaments based on their location, stability, and ultrastructure. It is important to appreciate the micromotion of a saddle joint and the role that sex, age, and reproductive hormones play in influencing laxity and joint disease. Minimally invasive surgery is now challenging prevailing treatment principles of ligament reconstruction and plays a role in thumb CMC joint procedures.

    View details for PubMedID 23395023

  • Macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the thumb carpometacarpal ligaments: a cadaveric study of ligament anatomy and histology. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ladd, A. L., Lee, J., Hagert, E. 2012; 94 (16): 1468-1477


    Stability and mobility represent the paradoxical demands of the human thumb carpometacarpal joint, yet the structural origin of each functional demand is poorly defined. As many as sixteen and as few as four ligaments have been described as primary stabilizers, but controversy exists as to which ligaments are most important. We hypothesized that a comparative macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint would further define their role in joint stability.Thirty cadaveric hands (ten fresh-frozen and twenty embalmed) from nineteen cadavers (eight female and eleven male; average age at the time of death, seventy-six years) were dissected, and the supporting ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified. Ligament width, length, and thickness were recorded for morphometric analysis and were compared with use of the Student t test. The dorsal and volar ligaments were excised from the fresh-frozen specimens and were stained with use of a triple-staining immunofluorescent technique and underwent semiquantitative analysis of sensory innervation; half of these specimens were additionally analyzed for histomorphometric data. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to estimate differences between ligaments.Seven principal ligaments of the thumb carpometacarpal joint were identified: three dorsal deltoid-shaped ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique), two volar ligaments (anterior oblique and ulnar collateral), and two ulnar ligaments (dorsal trapeziometacarpal and intermetacarpal). The dorsal ligaments were significantly thicker (p < 0.001) than the volar ligaments, with a significantly greater cellularity and greater sensory innervation compared with the anterior oblique ligament (p < 0.001). The anterior oblique ligament was consistently a thin structure with a histologic appearance of capsular tissue with low cellularity.The dorsal deltoid ligament complex is uniformly stout and robust; this ligament complex is the thickest morphometrically, has the highest cellularity histologically, and shows the greatest degree of sensory nerve endings. The hypocellular anterior oblique ligament is thin, is variable in its location, and is more structurally consistent with a capsular structure than a proper ligament.

    View details for PubMedID 22992815

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3412634

  • Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis of the Thumb Carpometacarpal Ligaments A Cadaveric Study of Ligament Anatomy and Histology JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Ladd, A. L., Lee, J., Hagert, E. 2012; 94A (16): 1468-1477
  • Titanium integration with bone, welding, and screw head destruction complicating hardware removal of the distal radius: report of 2 cases. journal of hand surgery Van Nortwick, S. S., Yao, J., Ladd, A. L. 2012; 37 (7): 1388-1392


    Increasingly, surgeons treat distal radius fractures with locking plate systems. Recent case reports have focused on technical insertion errors resulting in removal difficulties: poor drilling orientation or cross-threading, destruction of the screw head, and filling of the screw recess with tissue. We report 2 complications of titanium locked plate removal secondary to in vivo reactions including titanium integration with bone and mechanical binding between the titanium screw and plate. We clarify and discuss terminology relevant to implant removal, including cold-welding, galling, fretting, and anodization. Even with optimal technique, in situ reactions can complicate titanium implant removal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.04.027

    View details for PubMedID 22652178

  • Titanium Integration With Bone, Welding, and Screw Head Destruction Complicating Hardware Removal of the Distal Radius: Report of 2 Cases JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Van Nortwick, S. S., Yao, J., Ladd, A. L. 2012; 37A (7): 1388-1392


    Increasingly, surgeons treat distal radius fractures with locking plate systems. Recent case reports have focused on technical insertion errors resulting in removal difficulties: poor drilling orientation or cross-threading, destruction of the screw head, and filling of the screw recess with tissue. We report 2 complications of titanium locked plate removal secondary to in vivo reactions including titanium integration with bone and mechanical binding between the titanium screw and plate. We clarify and discuss terminology relevant to implant removal, including cold-welding, galling, fretting, and anodization. Even with optimal technique, in situ reactions can complicate titanium implant removal.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2012.04.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310670700013

  • Innervation Patterns of Thumb Trapeziometacarpal Joint Ligaments JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Hagert, E., Lee, J., Ladd, A. L. 2012; 37A (4): 706-714
  • Innervation patterns of thumb trapeziometacarpal joint ligaments. journal of hand surgery Hagert, E., Lee, J., Ladd, A. L. 2012; 37 (4): 706-714 e1


    The human thumb trapeziometacarpal (TM) joint is a unique articulation that allows stability during pinch and grip and great degrees of mobility. Because the saddle-shaped articulating surfaces of the TM joint are inherently unstable, joint congruity depends on the action of restraining ligaments and periarticular muscles. From other joints, it is known that proprioceptive and neuromuscular joint stability depend on afferent information from nerve endings within ligaments. We hypothesize that the TM joint ligaments may similarly be innervated, indicating a possible proprioceptive function of the joint.We harvested 5 TM joint ligaments in entirety from 10 fresh-frozen cadaver hands with no or only minor signs of osteoarthritis and suture-marked them for proximal-distal orientation. The ligaments harvested were the dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique, ulnar collateral, and anterior oblique ligaments. After paraffin-sectioning, we stained the ligaments using a triple-antibody immunofluorescent technique and analyzed them using immunofluorescence microscopy.Using the triple-stain technique, mechanoreceptors could be classified as Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini endings, or Golgi-like endings. The 3 dorsal ligaments had significantly more nerve endings than the 2 volar ligaments. Most of the nerve endings were close to the bony attachments and significantly closer (P = .010) to the metacarpal insertion of each ligament. The anterior oblique ligament had little to no innervation in any of the specimens analyzed.The TM joint ligaments had an abundance of nerve endings in the dorsal ligaments but little to no innervation in the anterior oblique ligament. The Ruffini ending was the predominant mechanoreceptor type, with a greater density in the mobile metacarpal portion of each ligament.Presence of mechanoreceptors in the dorsal TM joint ligaments infers a proprioceptive function of these ligaments in addition to their biomechanical importance in TM joint stability.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.12.038

    View details for PubMedID 22464234

  • Immunofluorescent Triple-Staining Technique to Identify Sensory Nerve Endings in Human Thumb Ligaments CELLS TISSUES ORGANS Lee, J., Ladd, A., Hagert, E. 2012; 195 (5): 456-464


    Ligament innervation purportedly plays a critical role in stability, proprioception and pathology of joints with minimal bony constraints. The human thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint is such a joint: with a complex saddle configuration and wide circumduction, its constraint is primarily ligamentous and it is prone to osteoarthritis. CMC reconstruction is the most commonly performed arthritis surgery in the upper extremity. Little, however, is known about CMC ligament innervation. We describe a novel triple-staining immunofluorescence technique using the markers for low-affinity neurotrophin receptor p75, the pan-neuronal marker protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 and 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) to simultaneously detect and differentiate between specific sensory nerve endings: the Pacini corpuscles, the Ruffini endings and nerve fascicles. Five primary CMC ligaments (dorsal radial, dorsal central, posterior oblique, anterior oblique and ulnar collateral ligaments) were harvested from 10 fresh-frozen human cadaver hands. Following paraffin sectioning, each ligament was stained using a triple-stain technique and imaged with fluorescence microscopy. Multidimensional acquisition permitted simultaneous capture of images at different wavelengths. Pacini corpuscles were distinguished by their distinct p75 immunoreactive capsules, and Ruffini endings by their overlapping p75 and PGP9.5 immunoreactive dendritic nerve endings. Simultaneous use of PGP9.5, p75 and DAPI immunofluorescence to analyze innervation patterns in human ligaments provides descriptive analysis of staining patterns and receptor structure as well as clues as to the proprioceptive function of CMC ligaments and the joint as a whole. Our novel findings of CMC ligament innervation augment the study of normal and pathological joint mechanics in this joint so prone to osteoarthritis.

    View details for DOI 10.1159/000327725

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302872900007

    View details for PubMedID 21832813

  • Interobserver reliability of radial head fracture classification: two-dimensional compared with three-dimensional CT. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Guitton, T. G., Ring, D. 2011; 93 (21): 2015-2021


    The Broberg and Morrey modification of the Mason classification of radial head fractures has substantial interobserver variation. This study used a large web-based collaborative of experienced orthopaedic surgeons to test the hypothesis that three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography (CT) scans improve the interobserver reliability of the classification of radial head fractures according to the Broberg and Morrey modification of the Mason classification.Eighty-five orthopaedic surgeons evaluated twelve radial head fractures. They were randomly assigned to review either radiographs and two-dimensional CT scans or radiographs and three-dimensional CT images to determine the fracture classification, fracture characteristics, and treatment recommendations. The kappa multirater measure (κ) was calculated to estimate agreement between observers.Three-dimensional CT had moderate agreement and two-dimensional CT had fair agreement among observers for the Broberg and Morrey modification of the Mason classification, a difference that was significant. Observers assessed seven fracture characteristics, including fracture line, comminution, articular surface involvement, articular step or gap of ≥2 mm, central impaction, recognition of more than three fracture fragments, and fracture fragments too small to repair. There was a significant difference in kappa values between three-dimensional CT and two-dimensional CT for fracture fragments too small to repair, recognition of three fracture fragments, and central impaction. The difference between the other four fracture characteristics was not significant. Among treatment recommendations, there was fair agreement for both three-dimensional CT and two-dimensional CT.Although three-dimensional CT led to some small but significant decreases in interobserver variation, there is still considerable disagreement regarding classification and characterization of radial head fractures. Three-dimensional CT may be insufficient to optimize interobserver agreement.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.J.00711

    View details for PubMedID 22048097

  • Rotational Biomechanics of the Elite Golf Swing: Benchmarks for Amateurs JOURNAL OF APPLIED BIOMECHANICS Meister, D. W., Ladd, A. L., Butler, E. E., Zhao, B., Rogers, A. P., Ray, C. J., Rose, J. 2011; 27 (3): 242-251


    The purpose of this study was to determine biomechanical factors that may influence golf swing power generation. Three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics were examined in 10 professional and 5 amateur male golfers. Upper-torso rotation, pelvic rotation, X-factor (relative hip-shoulder rotation), O-factor (pelvic obliquity), S-factor (shoulder obliquity), and normalized free moment were assessed in relation to clubhead speed at impact (CSI). Among professional golfers, results revealed that peak free moment per kilogram, peak X-factor, and peak S-factor were highly consistent, with coefficients of variation of 6.8%, 7.4%, and 8.4%, respectively. Downswing was initiated by reversal of pelvic rotation, followed by reversal of upper-torso rotation. Peak X-factor preceded peak free moment in all swings for all golfers, and occurred during initial downswing. Peak free moment per kilogram, X-factor at impact, peak X-factor, and peak upper-torso rotation were highly correlated to CSI (median correlation coefficients of 0.943, 0.943, 0.900, and 0.900, respectively). Benchmark curves revealed kinematic and kinetic temporal and spatial differences of amateurs compared with professional golfers. For amateurs, the number of factors that fell outside 1-2 standard deviations of professional means increased with handicap. This study identified biomechanical factors highly correlated to golf swing power generation and may provide a basis for strategic training and injury prevention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294093000009

    View details for PubMedID 21844613

  • Measuring wrist and hand function: Common scales and checklists INJURY-INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THE CARE OF THE INJURED Hoang-Kim, A., Pegreffi, F., Moroni, A., Ladd, A. 2011; 42 (3): 253-258


    A hand and wrist disorder affects a patient's overall well-being and health-status. One concept serves as the foundation for all further consideration: in order to have confidence in your results when assessing patients with wrist and hand limitations, the clinician and researcher must choose standardised patient-oriented instruments that address the primary aims of the study. In this paper, we assess the quality of reviews published on patient oriented instruments in current use for assessing function of the hand and wrist joint. We highlight features of commonly used scales that improve readers' confidence in the choice and application of these outcome instruments.A literature search (1950-January 2010) was performed using the MESH terms: hand (strength, injuries, joints) and wrist (injuries, joint) combined with outcome and process assessment (questionnaires, outcome assessment, health status indicators, quality of life). Titles and abstracts (n=341) were screened by two reviewers independently. The GRADE approach was used to assess the quality of ten reviews and the inclusion of clinimetric properties were assessed using the COSMIN checklist.We included three systematic reviews rated moderate to high (2 hand injury instrument reviews and 1 wrist fracture outcome review). Recommendations of use and an overview are provided for the disability of the arm, shoulder and hand questionnaire (DASH), QuickDASH, the Michigan hand questionnaire (MHQ), the patient-rated wrist hand evaluation outcome questionnaire (PRWHE) and the carpal tunnel questionnaire (CTQ) scales with established measurement properties.The DASH, a region-specific 30-item questionnaire is the most widely tested instrument in patients with wrist and hand injuries. The MHQ can provide good value to patients with hand injuries. Although, the CTQ is the most sensitive to clinical change, the DASH and MHQ have shown to be sufficiently responsive to outcome studies of carpal tunnel syndrome. The PRWHE has a good construct validity and responsiveness, which is only slightly better than the DASH to assess patients with wrist injuries. As the quality of patient-oriented validation continues to increase then the instruments can be selected more carefully. We will then be able to see that the future orthopaedic care of patients with hand and wrist injuries may also improve.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.injury.2010.11.050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287019700006

    View details for PubMedID 21159335

  • Temporal-spatial parameters of the upper limb during a Reach & Grasp Cycle for children GAIT & POSTURE Butler, E. E., Ladd, A. L., Lamont, L. E., Rose, J. 2010; 32 (3): 301-306


    The objective of this study was to characterize normal temporal-spatial patterns during the Reach & Grasp Cycle and to identify upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The Reach & Grasp Cycle encompasses six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to self (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. Three-dimensional motion data were recorded from 25 typically developing children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 12 children with hemiplegic CP (2 males, 10 females; ages 5-17 years). Within-day and between-day coefficients of variation for the control group ranged from 0 to 0.19, indicating good repeatability of all parameters. The mean duration of the Cycle for children with CP was nearly twice as long as controls, 9.5±4.3s versus 5.1±1.2s (U=37.0, P=.002), partly due to prolonged grasp and release durations. Peak hand velocity occurred at approximately 40% of each phase and was greater during the transport (T(1), T(2)) than non-transport phases (reach, return) in controls (P<.001). Index of curvature was lower during transport versus non-transport phases for all children. Children with CP demonstrated an increased index of curvature during reach (U=46.0, P=.0074) and an increased total number of movement units (U=16.5, P<.0001) compared to controls, indicating less efficient and less smooth movements. Total duration of the Reach & Grasp Cycle (rho=.957, P<.0001), index of curvature during reach and T(1) (rho=.873, P=.0002 and rho=.778, P=.0028), and total number of movement units (rho=.907, P<.0001) correlated strongly with MACS score. The consistent normative data and the substantial differences between children with CP and controls reflect utility of the Reach & Grasp Cycle for quantitative evaluation of upper limb motor deficits.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.05.013

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283459100004

    View details for PubMedID 20558067

  • Three-dimensional kinematics of the upper limb during a Reach and Grasp Cycle for children GAIT & POSTURE Butler, E. E., Ladd, A. L., Louie, S. A., Lamont, L. E., Wong, W., Rose, J. 2010; 32 (1): 72-77


    The ability to reach, grasp, transport, and release objects is essential for activities of daily living. The objective of this study was to develop a quantitative method to assess upper limb motor deficits in children with cerebral palsy (CP) using three-dimensional motion analysis. We report kinematic data from 25 typically developing (TD) children (11 males, 14 females; ages 5-18 years) and 2 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (2 females, ages 14 and 15 years) during the Reach and Grasp Cycle. The Cycle includes six sequential tasks: reach, grasp cylinder, transport to mouth (T(1)), transport back to table (T(2)), release cylinder, and return to initial position. It was designed to represent a functional activity that was challenging yet feasible for children with CP. For example, maximum elbow extension was 43+/-11 degrees flexion in the TD group. Consistent kinematic patterns emerged for the trunk and upper limb: coefficients of variation at point of task achievement for reach, T(1), and T(2) for trunk flexion-extension were (.11, .11, .11), trunk axial rotation (.06, .06, .06), shoulder elevation (.13, .11, .13), elbow flexion-extension (.25, .06, .23), forearm pronation-supination (.08, .10, .11), and wrist flexion-extension (.25, .21, .22). The children with CP demonstrated reduced elbow extension, increased wrist flexion and trunk motion, with an increased tendency to actively externally rotate the shoulder and supinate the forearm during T(1) compared to the TD children. The consistent normative data and clinically significant differences in joint motion between the CP and TD children suggest the Reach and Grasp Cycle is a repeatable protocol for objective clinical evaluation of functional upper limb motor performance.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2010.03.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000279581000014

    View details for PubMedID 20378351

  • New concepts in the treatment of distal radius fractures. Instructional course lectures Taras, J. S., Ladd, A. L., Kalainov, D. M., Ruch, D. S., Ring, D. C. 2010; 59: 313-332


    Fracture of the distal radius is the type of fracture most commonly seen in emergency departments. The understanding of nonsurgical and surgical care of distal radius fractures is evolving with recently developed methods of fixation. It is worthwhile to review some new methods of treatment, the role of bone grafting and synthetic substitutes, the principles of complex fracture management, and the treatment of common complications of distal radius fractures.

    View details for PubMedID 20415388

  • Surgical treatment of thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis: a single institution experience from 1995-2005. Hand (New York, N.Y.) Park, M. J., Lichtman, G., Christian, J. B., Weintraub, J., Chang, J., Hentz, V. R., Ladd, A. L., Yao, J. 2008; 3 (4): 304-310


    There are numerous techniques for the surgical management of thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) joint arthritis. The four senior authors of this study employ three such techniques: trapeziectomy with hematoma distraction arthroplasty, hemitrapeziectomy with osteochondral allograft, and ligament reconstruction tendon interposition (LRTI). This study examines the three commonly utilized procedures at a single institution. This study examines the 10-year experience from 1995-2005 with a minimum 3-month follow-up. Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, pre-and postoperative pinch strength, and operative time were examined. After approval from the institutional review board of our institution was obtained, all patients treated surgically by three of the senior authors were contacted via mail and phone. Each patient was asked to complete and return a DASH questionnaire. Of the 115 patients treated during that period, 60 participated in this study. Each patient's final postoperative pinch measurement was obtained from occupational therapy and clinic records. This pinch strength was compared to the preoperative pinch and contralateral pinch strength. Lastly, the total operative time for each procedure was obtained from the operative record. The only significant finding in this study was a shorter mean operative time with the trapeziectomy group (76.90 min) and osteochondral allograft group (90.45 min) when compared to the LRTI group (139.00 min; p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). We found no significant difference between groups in terms of DASH score and pinch strength. There was no difference between the techniques in terms of postoperative pinch strength and patient satisfaction measured by DASH scores. The operative times for trapeziectomy and hematoma interposition as well as the osteochondral allograft were significantly shorter than that of the LRTI. This presents further evidence that potentially, "less is more" in the treatment of thumb CMC arthritis. We used a retrospective study design to evaluate potential differences between the three surgical techniques described above, therapeutic, levels III-IV.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s11552-008-9109-z

    View details for PubMedID 18780018

  • Muscle moment arms in the first dorsal extensor compartment after radial malunion. A cadaver study. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume LaRoque, E. S., Murray, W. M., Langley, S., Hariri, S., Levine, B. P., Ladd, A. L. 2008; 90 (9): 1979-1987


    Functional loss is a common complication of the fractured distal part of the radius. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the moment arms of the first dorsal extensor compartment are altered by distal radial fracture malunion. We hypothesized that the moment arms of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis are significantly affected by dorsal angulation, radial inclination, and radial shortening, the most common deformities accompanying distal radial malunion.Moment arms of the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus were estimated in twelve cadaver wrists with use of the tendon-displacement method, which involves calculating the moment arm as the derivative of tendon displacement with respect to joint angle. Tendon displacement was quantified in different wrist postures before and after a closing-wedge osteotomy simulating a complex malunion of an extra-articular radial fracture.The simulated distal radial malunion resulted in a decrease in the wrist flexion moment arm for both the extensor pollicis brevis (p = 0.0003) and the abductor pollicis longus (p < 0.0001). The wrist flexion moment arms for the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus decreased by a mean (and standard deviation) of 114% +/- 75% and 77% +/- 50%, respectively, after the osteotomy. The wrist radial deviation moment arms for the extensor pollicis brevis and abductor pollicis longus increased by 16% +/- 26% (p = 0.071) and 28% +/- 44% (p = 0.043), respectively, after the osteotomy. Radiographs of the wrist that were made before and after the osteotomy indicated that radial tilt changed from 11.1 degrees of volar angulation to 14.8 degrees of dorsal angulation, radial inclination decreased from 21.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees, and radial height decreased from 11.6 to 4.4 mm.Distal radial malunion alters the mechanical advantage of the muscles in the first dorsal extensor compartment.

    View details for DOI 10.2106/JBJS.G.01015

    View details for PubMedID 18762659

  • Muscle moment arms in the first dorsal extensor compartment after radial malunion - A cadaver study JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME LaRoque, E. S., Murray, W. M., Langley, S., Hariri, S., Levine, B. P., Ladd, A. L. 2008; 90A (9): 1979-1987
  • Reprint of diagnostic imaging of the shoulder. Journal of hand therapy Ladd, A. L. 2007; 20 (2): 202-208

    View details for PubMedID 17533098

  • What orthopaedic surgery residents need to know about the hand and wrist? BMC medical education Wadey, V. M., Ladd, A., Dev, P., Walker, D. 2007; 7: 33-?


    To develop a Core Curriculum for Orthopaedic Surgery; and to conduct a national survey to assess the importance of curriculum items as judged by orthopaedic surgeons with primary affiliation non-academic. Attention for this manuscript was focused on determining the importance of topics pertaining to adult hand and wrist reconstruction.A 281-item questionnaire was developed and consisted of three sections: 1) Validated Musculoskeletal Core Curriculum; 2) Royal College of Physician and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) Specialty Objectives and; 3) A procedure list. A random group of 131 [out of 156] orthopaedic surgeons completed the questionnaire. Data were analyzed descriptively and quantitatively using histograms, a Modified Hotel ling's T2-statistic 1 with p-value determined by a permutation test, and the Benjamini-Hochberg/Yekutieli procedure131/156 (84%) orthopaedic surgeons participated in this study. 27/32 items received an average mean score of at least 3.0/4.0 by all respondents thus suggesting that 84% of the items are either "probably important" or "important" to know by the end of residency (SD range 0.007-0.228). The Benjamini-Hochberg procedure demonstrated that for 80% of the 32 x 31/2 = 496 possible pairs of hand and wrist questions did not appear to demonstrate the same distribution of ratings given that one question was different from that of another question.This study demonstrates with reliable statistical evidence, agreement on the importance of 27/32 items pertaining to hand and wrist reconstruction is included in a Core Curriculum for Orthopaedic Surgery. Residency training programs need ensure that educational opportunities focusing on the ability to perform with proficiency procedures pertaining to the hand and wrist is taught and evaluated in their respective programs.

    View details for PubMedID 17919336

  • Thrombin peptide TP508 stimulates cellular events leading to angiogenesis, revascularization, and repair of dermal and musculoskeletal tissues. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ryaby, J. T., Sheller, M. R., Levine, B. P., Bramlet, D. G., Ladd, A. L., Carney, D. H. 2006; 88: 132-139


    The thrombin peptide, TP508, also known as Chrysalin (OrthoLogic, Tempe, Arizona), is a twenty-three-amino-acid peptide that represents a portion of the receptor-binding domain of the native human thrombin molecule that has been identified as the binding site for a specific class of receptors on fibroblasts and other cells. Preclinical studies with this peptide have shown that it can accelerate tissue repair in both soft and hard tissues by mechanisms that appear to involve up-regulation of genes that initiate a cascade of healing events. These events include recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, directed migration of cells (chemotaxis), cell proliferation, elaboration of extra-cellular matrix, and accelerated revascularization of the healing tissues. Early preclinical dermal wound-healing studies showed that TP508 accelerated healing of both incisional wounds and full-thickness excisional wounds in normal and ischemic skin. In all of these studies, the accelerated healing was associated with increased neovascularization across the incision or in the granulating wound bed. Studies in a rat fracture model have also shown that TP508 accelerates the rate of fracture repair. Gene array analysis of fracture callus from control and TP508-treated fractures indicated that TP508 treatment was associated with an up-regulation of early response elements, inflammatory mediators, and genes related to angiogenesis. Similar to what had been seen in dermal wounds, histology from rat fracture callus twenty-one days after treatment indicated that fractures treated with TP508 had significantly more large functional blood vessels than did fractures in the control animals. In vitro studies support these in vivo data and indicate that TP508 may have a direct angiogenic effect by promoting the rate of new vessel growth. The results from phase-1 and phase-2 human clinical studies have shown a positive stimulatory effect of TP508 in the healing of diabetic ulcers and in the repair of fractures to the distal aspect of the radius. Collectively, these studies suggest that TP508 accelerates tissue repair by initiating a cascade of events that lead to an increased rate of tissue revascularization and regeneration.

    View details for PubMedID 17079379

  • Evaluation of a surgical simulator for learning clinical anatomy MEDICAL EDUCATION Hariri, S., Rawn, C., Srivastava, S., Youngblood, P., Ladd, A. 2004; 38 (8): 896-902


    New techniques in imaging and surgery have made 3-dimensional anatomical knowledge an increasingly important goal of medical education. This study compared the efficacy of 2 supplemental, self-study methods for learning shoulder joint anatomy to determine which method provides for greater transfer of learning to the clinical setting.Two groups of medical students studied shoulder joint anatomy using either a second-generation virtual reality surgical simulator or images from a textbook. They were then asked to identify anatomical structures of the shoulder joint as they appeared in a videotape of a live arthroscopic procedure.The mean identification scores, out of a possible score of 7, were 3.1 +/- 1.3 for the simulator group and 2.9 +/- 1.5 for the textbook group (P = 0.70). Student ratings of the 2 methods on a 5-point Likert scale were significantly different. The simulator group rated the simulator more highly as an effective learning tool than the textbook group rated the textbook (means of 3.2 +/- 0.7 and 2.6 +/- 0.5, respectively, P = 0.02). Furthermore, the simulator group indicated that they were more likely to use the simulator as a learning tool if it were available to them than the textbook group was willing to use the textbook (means of 4.0 +/- 1.2 and 3.0 +/- 0.9, respectively, P = 0.02).Our results show that this surgical simulator is at least as effective as textbook images for learning anatomy and could enhance student learning through increased motivation. These findings provide insight into simulator development and strategies for learning anatomy. Possible explanations and future research directions are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2929.2004.01897.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000223249000017

    View details for PubMedID 15271051

  • Initial evaluation of a shoulder arthroscopy simulator: Establishing construct validity JOURNAL OF SHOULDER AND ELBOW SURGERY Srivastava, S., Youngblood, P. L., Rawn, C., Hariri, S., Heinrichs, W. L., Ladd, A. L. 2004; 13 (2): 196-205


    Formal evaluation of surgical simulators is essential before their introduction into training programs. We report our assessment of the Mentice Corp Procedicus shoulder arthroscopy simulator. This study tests the hypothesis of construct validity that experienced surgeons will score better on the simulator than individuals with minimal to no experience with the technique. Thirty-five subjects were stratified into three groups (novice, intermediate, and expert) based on their past 5 years' experience with shoulder arthroscopies. Each subject had an identical session on the simulator and completed anatomic identification, hook manipulations, and scope navigation exercises. We found statistically significant differences among the three groups in hook manipulation and scope navigation exercises, with the expert group performing the exercises more quickly (P =.013) and more accurately (P =.002) than the other two groups. No statistically significant differences were found among the groups in the identification of anatomic landmarks. Experts rated the simulator as an effective teaching tool, giving it a mean score of 4.22 and 4.44 (maximum, 5) for teaching instrument control and triangulation, respectively.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jse.2003.12.009

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220272700014

    View details for PubMedID 14997099

  • Norian SRS cement compared with conventional fixation in distal radial fractures. A randomized study. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Cassidy, C., Jupiter, J. B., Cohen, M., Delli-Santi, M., Fennell, C., Leinberry, C., Husband, J., Ladd, A., Seitz, W. R., Constanz, B. 2003; 85-A (11): 2127-2137


    A prospective, randomized multicenter study was conducted to evaluate closed reduction and immobilization with and without Norian SRS (Skeletal Repair System) cement in the management of distal radial fractures. Norian SRS is a calcium-phosphate bone cement that is injectable, hardens in situ, and cures by a crystallization reaction to form dahllite, a carbonated apatite equivalent to bone mineral.A total of 323 patients with a distal radial fracture were randomized to treatment with or without Norian SRS cement. Stratification factors included fracture type (intra-articular or extra-articular), hand dominance, bone density, and the surgeon's preferred conventional treatment (cast or external fixator). The subjects receiving Norian SRS underwent a closed reduction followed by injection of the cement percutaneously or through a limited open approach. Wrist motion, beginning two weeks postoperatively, was encouraged. Control subjects, who had not received a Norian SRS injection, underwent closed reduction and application of a cast or external fixator for six to eight weeks. Supplemental Kirschner wires were used in specific instances in both groups. Patients were followed clinically and radiographically at one, two, four, and between six and eight weeks and at three, six, and twelve months. Patients rated pain and the function of the hand with use of a visual analog scale. Quality of life was assessed with use of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health status questionnaire. Complications were recorded.Significant clinical differences were seen at six to eight weeks postoperatively, with better grip strength, wrist range of motion, digital motion, use of the hand, and social and emotional function, and less swelling in the patients treated with Norian SRS than in the control group (p < 0.05). By three months, these differences had normalized except for digital motion, which remained significantly better in the group treated with Norian SRS (p = 0.015). At one year, no clinical differences were detected. Radiographically, the average change in ulnar variance was greater in the patients treated with Norian SRS (+2.0 mm) than in the control group (+1.4 mm) (p < 0.02). No differences were seen in the total number of complications, including loss of reduction. The infection rate, however, was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in the control group (16.7%) than in the group treated with Norian SRS (2.5%) and the infections were always related to external fixator pins or Kirschner wires. Four patients with intra-articular extravasation of cement were identified; no sequelae were observed at twenty-four months. Cement was seen in extraosseous locations in 112 (70%) of the SRS-treated patients; loss of reduction was highest in this subgroup (37%). The extraosseous material had disappeared in eighty-three of the 112 patients by twelve months.Our results indicate that fixation of a distal radial fracture with Norian SRS cement may allow for accelerated rehabilitation. A limited open approach and supplemental fixation with Kirschner wires are recommended. Additional or alternate fixation is necessary for complex articular fractures.

    View details for PubMedID 14630841

  • Norian SRS cement compared with conventional fixation in distal radial fractures - A randomized study JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Cassidy, C., Jupiter, J. B., Cohen, M., Delli-Santi, M., Fennell, C., Leinberry, C., Husband, J., Ladd, A., Seitz, W. R., Constanz, B. 2003; 85A (11): 2127-2137
  • Magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of chronic posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow. American journal of orthopedics (Belle Mead, N.J.) Grafe, M. W., McAdams, T. R., Beaulieu, C. F., Ladd, A. L. 2003; 32 (10): 501-503


    Posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow can be difficult to diagnose and requires a high degree of clinical suspicion. Cases of chronic posterolateral rotatory instability (symptoms present more than 1 year) may be an even more perplexing subgroup. This is a case report of a patient with a 30-year history of intermittent elbow instability. Clinical examination was equivocal, and magnetic resonance imaging was unable to define any ligamentous injury around the elbow. Examination under anesthesia and surgical findings were consistent with complete disruption of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament. The 12-month follow-up after surgical reconstruction showed complete resolution of symptoms. Posterolateral rotatory instability is a diagnosis largely made by examination under anesthesia. A thorough history and a high clinical suspicion are necessary to support the physician's decision to place the patient under anesthesia. Confirmation of a chronic tear of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament of the elbow with magnetic resonance imaging can be difficult and sometimes misleading.

    View details for PubMedID 14620091

  • The effect of pronation and supination on the minimally displaced scaphoid fracture CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH McAdams, T. R., Spisak, S., Beaulieu, C. F., Ladd, A. L. 2003: 255-259


    The amount of rotation that occurs at the scaphoid waist fracture site with pronation and supination of the forearm is studied in 10 upper extremities from cadavers. Two colinear metal markers were placed in the osteotomized scaphoid and a below-the-elbow cast was applied. Spiral volumetric computed tomography scanning of the scaphoid was done with multiplanar reformation to evaluate displacement of the metal markers. Four of the 10 specimens also were studied without any immobilization. The total magnitude of motion from pronation to supination averaged 0.2 mm in the specimens with a below-the-elbow thumb spica cast, and 2.4 mm in specimens without immobilization. The current study showed no significant rotation at the minimally displaced scaphoid waist fracture site during pronation and supination in a below-the-elbow cast. Furthermore, there is unacceptable rotation at the fracture site in the absence of a cast. Based on this study, a below-the-elbow thumb spica cast seems adequate for fracture immobilization; however, clinical correlation is needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/01.blo.0000069886.31220.86

    View details for Web of Science ID 000183379000030

    View details for PubMedID 12782882

  • Reconstruction of the hand in Apert syndrome: A simplified approach PLASTIC AND RECONSTRUCTIVE SURGERY Chang, J., Danton, T. K., Ladd, A. L., Hentz, V. R. 2002; 109 (2): 465-470


    Children born with Apert acrocephalosyndactyly pose great challenges to the pediatric hand surgeon. Reconstructive dilemmas consist of shortened, deviated phalanges and extensive skin deficits following syndactyly release. We present a 10-year review of patients with Apert acrocephalosyndactyly who were treated with a simplified surgical approach. Between 1986 and 1996, 10 patients with Apert syndrome underwent reconstructive surgery of their hands. The overall strategy involved early bilateral separation of syndactylous border digits at 1 year of age, followed by sequential unilateral middle syndactyly mass separation with thumb osteotomy and bone grafting as needed. In these 10 patients, a total of 53 web spaces were released, 49 of which involved osteotomies for complex syndactyly. Only local flaps and full-thickness skin grafts from the groin were used in all cases to achieve soft-tissue coverage. To date, seven of the 53 web spaces have needed revision (revision rate, 13 percent). Eleven thumb osteotomies (nine opening wedge and two closing wedge) were performed. Bone grafts from the proximal ulna or from other digits were used in all cases. To date, none of these thumb osteotomies have needed revision. This early, simplified approach to the complex hand anomalies of Apert acrocephalosyndactyly has been successful in achieving low revision rates and excellent functional outcomes as measured by gross grasp and pinch and by patient and parent satisfaction.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173678000008

    View details for PubMedID 11818821

  • The role of bone graft and alternatives in unstable distal radius fracture treatment ORTHOPEDIC CLINICS OF NORTH AMERICA Ladd, A. L., Pliam, N. B. 2001; 32 (2): 337-351


    The increased prevalence of unstable fractures of the distal radius has stimulated the development of new technologies and new surgical techniques for treating these complex injuries. New developments also contribute to the expectation that orthopedic surgeons should be able to treat the fractured distal radius more successfully by achieving early stability, early function, and better outcomes. The continuous introduction of commercial bone graft substitutes and graft extenders has provided a large array of implantable materials. Rigorous comparison of the commercially available bone graft substitutes is difficult not only because of their diversity but also because uniformly accepted preclinical assays and comparable clinical studies have not been performed. Despite the lack of complete data, however, available data and collective experience suggest that bone graft substitutes can provide improved treatment methods and outcomes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000168987600011

    View details for PubMedID 11331546

  • Use of bone-graft substitutes in distal radius fractures. journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Ladd, A. L., Pliam, N. B. 1999; 7 (5): 279-290


    The development of bone-graft substitutes potentially provides the benefits of bone grafting without the risks of autograft harvest. During the past few years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved several different types of products. These vary considerably in composition, structural strength, osteoinductive and osteoconductive potential, and mechanisms and rates at which they are resorbed or remodeled. The products now approved for orthopaedic applications in the United States include those based on naturally occurring materials (e.g., demineralized human bone matrix, bovine collagen mineral composites, and processed coralline hydroxyapatite) as well as synthetic materials (e.g., calcium sulfate pellets, bioactive glass, and calcium phosphate cement). Materials in development include variations on available products and a new generation of biologically active materials employing growth factors. Rigorous comparison of the products is difficult, as there are no universally accepted preclinical assays and comparable clinical studies. Despite the limitations of the data now available, controlled studies and anecdotal reports suggest that use of bone-graft substitutes may result in improved treatment outcomes for patients with fractures of the distal radius.

    View details for PubMedID 10504355

  • Biomechanical evaluation of fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal part of the radius in cadavera: Kirschner wires compared with calcium-phosphate bone cement. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Yetkinler, D. N., Ladd, A. L., Poser, R. D., Constantz, B. R., Carter, D. 1999; 81 (3): 391-399


    The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical efficacy of an injectable calcium-phosphate bone cement (Skeletal Repair System [SRS]) with that of Kirschner wires for the fixation of intraarticular fractures of the distal part of the radius.Colles fractures (AO pattern, C2.1) were produced in ten pairs of fresh-frozen human cadaveric radii. One radius from each pair was randomly chosen for stabilization with SRS bone cement. These ten radii were treated with open incision, impaction of loose cancellous bone with use of a Freer elevator, and placement of the SRS bone cement by injection. In the ten control specimens, the fracture was stabilized with use of two horizontal and two oblique Kirschner wires. The specimens were cyclically loaded to a peak load of 200 newtons for 2000 cycles to evaluate the amount of settling, or radial shortening, under conditions simulating postoperative loading with the limb in a cast. Each specimen then was loaded to failure to determine its ultimate strength.The amount of radial shortening was highly variable among the specimens, but it was consistently higher in the Kirschner-wire constructs than in the bone fixed with SRS bone cement within each pair of radii. The range of shortening for all twenty specimens was 0.18 to 4.51 millimeters. The average amount of shortening in the SRS constructs was 50 percent of that in the Kirschner-wire constructs (0.51+/-0.34 compared with 1.01+/-1.23 millimeters; p = 0.015). With the numbers available, no significant difference in ultimate strength was detected between the two fixation groups.This study showed that fixation of an intra-articular fracture of the distal part of a cadaveric radius with biocompatible calcium-phosphate bone cement produced results that were biomechanically comparable with those produced by fixation with Kirschner wires. However, the constructs that were fixed with calcium-phosphate bone cement demonstrated less shortening under simulated cyclic load-bearing.

    View details for PubMedID 10199278

  • Biomechanical evaluation of fixation of intra-articular fractures of the distal part of the radius in cadavera: Kirschner wires compared with calcium-phosphate bone cement JOURNAL OF BONE AND JOINT SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Yetkinler, D. N., Ladd, A. L., Poser, R. D., Constantz, B. R., Carter, D. 1999; 81A (3): 391-399
  • MR arthrography of the wrist: Scanning-room injection of the radiocarpal joint based on clinical landmarks AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ROENTGENOLOGY Beaulieu, C. F., Ladd, A. L. 1998; 170 (3): 606-608

    View details for Web of Science ID 000072129500013

    View details for PubMedID 9490938

  • Repair of five distal radius fractures with an investigational cancellous bone cement: A preliminary report JOURNAL OF ORTHOPAEDIC TRAUMA Jupiter, J. B., Winters, S., Sigman, S., Lowe, C., Pappas, C., Ladd, A. L., Van Wagoner, M., Smith, S. T. 1997; 11 (2): 110-116


    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of Norian SRS bone cement injected percutaneously into a distal radius following reduction in both preventing loss of reduction as well as safety.The study was a prospective clinical study with an established protocol.The study was conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital following approval of the institutions Investigational Review Board. All patients were required to read and approve an informed consent document.While twenty patients' radiographs fulfilled the requirement of a dorsally displaced extraarticular fracture to have occurred within 72 hours of presentation, only five consented to participate fully and one voluntarily withdrew after a six-month follow-up.All fractures were reduced under regional or general anesthesia, and the Norian SRS was introduced via a catheter system into the metaphyseal defect of the fracture. A short arm cast was applied and remained in place for six weeks.Radiographic parameters of fracture reduction were measured prospectively by an independent radiologist throughout the 12 months of the study. Clinical parameters of hand and wrist function were measured prospectively by an independent occupational therapist.At 12-month follow-up, radial length was a mean 9.9 mm with an average loss of < 1 mm; radial angle maintained at a mean 25.4 degrees; volar angle was within normal range (0-21 degrees) in 4; and 1 patient had a dorsal angle of 7 degrees. Wrist motion improved 50 percent between 6 weeks and 3 months and improved further by 12 months when grip strength reached a mean of 88 percent of the contralateral side. Dorsal and volar extrusion of injected Norian SRS in 4 patients resorbed over time. There were no clinically significant adverse effects or complications.Norian SRS proved to be clinically safe and effective as a cancellous bone cement to maintain fracture reduction of unstable extraarticular distal radius fractures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071405600008

    View details for PubMedID 9057146

  • Clinical comments CLINICAL JOURNAL OF SPORT MEDICINE Ladd, A. L. 1997; 7 (1): 65-65
  • Surgical treatment and postoperative splinting of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. journal of hand surgery Ladd, A. L., Kibele, A., Gibbons, S. 1996; 21 (5): 888-897


    Digital contractures and pseudosyndactyly, common manifestations in recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, cause significant functional impairment. The deformities progress with time, although surgery may delay the progression. The role of surgical intervention, hand therapy, and the use of prolonged splinting was examined in seven children (nine hands) with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with an average age of 5 years, 8 months (range, 1 year, 10 months to 16 years, 4 months). The technique of surgery, postoperative regimen, and splinting differ from those previously reported. Surgery includes "de-cocooning" the hand and fingers, manipulating contracted joints, and full-thickness skin grafting to dermal defects. Surgery and the postoperative regimen of rigid night splints and web-retaining gloves for day wear has allowed arrest or minimal progression of contractures in complaint patients in short-term follow-up study of an average of 17 months (range, 12-28 months). An interdisciplinary team of physicians and surgeons, therapists, and nurses makes this care regimen possible and influences family compliance.

    View details for PubMedID 8891991

  • Surgical treatment and postoperative splinting of recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa JOURNAL OF HAND SURGERY-AMERICAN VOLUME Ladd, A. L., Kibele, A., Gibbons, S. 1996; 21A (5): 888-897
  • Reconstructive osteotomy for malunion of the distal radius CLINICAL ORTHOPAEDICS AND RELATED RESEARCH Ladd, A. L., HUENE, D. S. 1996: 158-171


    Common misconceptions about distal radius fractures result in undertreatment of many fractures, particularly in an active population. Loss of reduction of the fracture may cause a symptomatic malunion. Fourteen patients with an average age of 39 years (range, 21-65 years) underwent reconstructive procedures for radial malunions. The common malunion healed in a position of dorsal angulation, loss of radial inclination, and radial shortening. Ten patients had been treated by closed means, and 4 had undergone earlier surgical procedures without acceptable healing position of the fracture. Seven patients underwent a radial osteotomy alone, 5 patients had an osteotomy with an ulnar leveling procedure, and 2 patients had a Sauvé-Kapandji procedure alone. The average improvement in radial inclination was 14 degrees (range, 0 degrees-34 degrees), volar tilt 21 degrees (range, 2 degrees-33 degrees), and improvement in a positive ulnar variance by 6.8 mm (range, 0-48 mm). The complication rate was 29%, with a followup of 29 months (range, 12-43 months). Functional improvement was notable in 12 of 14 patients. Surgical reconstruction for malunions is technically difficult and may not completely restore the anatomy. Patient satisfaction, however, in terms of increased function, decreased pain, and decreased deformity is sufficiently high to warrant reconstructive treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996UP16900021

    View details for PubMedID 8641060

  • Functional Restoration of the Upper Extremity in Tetraplegia" in Surgery of the Hand and Upper Extremity - Vincent Hentz, A. 1996
  • Reconstructive Osteotomy for Malunion of the Distal Radius. Symposium on Problem Fractures of the Hand and Wrist Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research Ladd, A., Huene, DS 1996; 327: 158-171
  • Diagnostic imaging of the shoulder. Journal of hand therapy Ladd, A. L. 1994; 7 (2): 84-89

    View details for PubMedID 8038881



    Dupuytren's contracture is a common fibrosing disorder of the hand which often results in progressive and debilitating flexion contractures of the fingers. Recurrence after surgical release is common and may be related, in part, to the cellularity of the lesion. We describe the MR appearance of Dupuytren's contracture and correlate signal characteristics with the degree of cellularity of the lesion.A total of 11 hands in 10 patients were studied. All patients had surgical resection after MR imaging (median interval, 3 days). The surgical and pathologic findings were correlated with the MR findings. The signal characteristics of the lesions were correlated with the histologic findings.We found that MR imaging was accurate for detecting Dupuytren's contracture and depicting its extent. The lesions include subcutaneous nodules, usually at the level of the distal palmar crease, and cords that lie parallel and superficial to the flexor tendons. The cords had a uniformly low signal intensity (similar to the signal intensity of tendon) on both T1- and T2-weighted images in 18 of 22 cases, whereas the remaining four cases had a low to intermediate signal intensity on T1-weighted images (a slightly higher signal intensity than that of tendon) and a low signal intensity on T2-weighted images. Histologically, the cords were hypocellular and composed of dense collagen. Most nodules had an intermediate signal intensity (similar to that of muscle) on both T1- and T2-weighted images (10 of 13 cases), usually stippled with focal areas of lower signal intensity. Histologically, these nodules were mostly cellular. Three of the nodules had a low signal intensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images and were hypocellular histologically.We conclude that MR imaging can be used to define palmar involvement in Dupuytren's contracture. The signal characteristics of the lesions correlate with the degree of cellularity of the lesions as seen histologically. The ability to assess preoperatively the cellularity of lesions of Dupuytren's contractures may be of prognostic significance, because highly cellular lesions tend to have higher rates of recurrence after surgery than do hypocellular lesions.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KU60200024

    View details for PubMedID 8456670



    Destructive joint changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are thought to be mediated in part by the neutral proteinases collagenase and stromelysin. Collagenase messenger RNA (mRNA) has been previously localized to the synovial lining layer. In this study, synovial tissue from 8 patients with RA and 2 patients with osteoarthritis was examined for proteinase production by in situ hybridization. Stromelysin mRNA localized predominantly to the synovial lining layer cells. In serial sections, collagenase mRNA was shown to be localized to the same tissue areas as those producing stromelysin mRNA, and grain counts revealed a direct correlation between production of stromelysin mRNA and production of collagenase mRNA. All patients with RA were producing collagenase and stromelysin mRNA in detectable amounts. One of 2 osteoarthritis patients was producing these metalloproteinases, but in levels below those found in the RA patients. These data support the identity of the synovial lining cells as the major synovial cells producing collagenase and stromelysin in RA and provide new evidence for the coordinate production of collagenase and stromelysin in RA in vivo.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1991GG33700002

    View details for PubMedID 1657007



    Eleven patients (two male, nine female) were treated with epidural sympathetic blockade for reflex sympathetic imbalance, an incomplete manifestation of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Each had developed severe pain, sensitivity, and disability disproportionate to associated trauma. One patient injured an ankle, and the remaining 10 patients one or both knees (12 knees). Seven patients had undergone previous surgery. All but one had a favorable response to initial blockade. This individual eventually failed treatment despite surgical sympathectomy. Seven have required readministration of a block for clinical relapse. Mean followup was 22 months (range, 10 to 41 months). Five underwent extensive psychological testing. All have required adjunctive forms of therapy including physical therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), antiinflammatory or other nonnarcotic agents. Recovery is typically prolonged, particularly if the diagnosis is delayed. Close attention to, and therefore prevention of, situations that trigger its recurrence is essential for successful rehabilitation.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1989AU44700013

    View details for PubMedID 2610282

  • Congenital cervical stenosis presenting as transient quadriplegia in athletes. Report of two cases. journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume Ladd, A. L., Scranton, P. E. 1986; 68 (9): 1371-1374


    The cases of two patients in whom complete but transient quadriplegia developed after an injury that was incurred while playing football are presented. Both patients were found to have a congenitally narrow cervical vertebral canal. Critical stenosis resulting in the transient quadriplegia occurred after a presumed injury to a cervical disc. In our opinion, a myelogram should be made for patients with a history of transient quadriplegia, numbness, or a burning sensation down the back or the lower extremities, even if other radiographic studies are interpreted as negative. Patients who have stenosis of the cervical spine should be advised to discontinue participation in contact sports.

    View details for PubMedID 3782208