Clinical Focus

  • Allergy and Immunology
  • Immunocompromised Host
  • Drug Allergy and Desensitization
  • Infections in Immunocompromised Hosts
  • Aspirin Desensitization

Academic Appointments

Professional Education

  • Medical Education:UCLA Registrar (2004) CA
  • Fellowship:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (2011) MA
  • Fellowship:Massachusetts General Hospital (2011) MA
  • Residency:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (2007) MA
  • Internship:Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School (2005) MA
  • Board Certification: Infectious Disease, American Board of Internal Medicine (2011)
  • Board Certification: Allergy and Immunology, American Board of Allergy and Immunology (2010)

Research & Scholarship

Clinical Trials

  • Presatovir in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients With Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection of the Upper Respiratory Tract Not Recruiting

    This study will evaluate the effect of presatovir on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) viral load in autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients with an acute RSV upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), the effect of presatovir on development of lower respiratory tract complication, being free of any supplemental oxygen progression to respiratory failure, and pharmacokinetics (PK), safety, and tolerability of presatovir.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Debbie Slamowitz , 650-723-2804.

    View full details

  • Bone Marrow Grafting for Leukemia and Lymphoma Recruiting

    The purpose of this study is to obtain tissue samples for ongoing studies regarding transplant outcomes and complications.

    View full details


2017-18 Courses


All Publications

  • Delayed Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis Misdiagnosed as Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis With the FilmArray Syndromic Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel. Open forum infectious diseases Gomez, C. A., Pinsky, B. A., Liu, A., Banaei, N. 2017; 4 (1): ofw245-?


    The FilmArray meningitis/encephalitis (ME) panel is a novel syndromic, nucleic acid amplification test for diagnosis of acute meningitis and encephalitis. Emerging data on its performance are concerning for false-positive results. We present a case of tuberculous meningitis misdiagnosed as herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis with the FilmArray ME panel. Strategies to mitigate erroneous results are discussed.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ofid/ofw245

    View details for PubMedID 28540320

  • Safety, Costs, and Efficacy of Rapid Drug Desensitizations to Chemotherapy and Monoclonal Antibodies. The journal of allergy and clinical immunology. In practice Sloane, D., Govindarajulu, U., Harrow-Mortelliti, J., Barry, W., Hsu, F. I., Hong, D., Laidlaw, T., Palis, R., Legere, H., Bunyavanich, S., Breslow, R., Wesemann, D., Barrett, N., Brennan, P., Chong, H. J., Liu, A., Fernandez, J., Fanning, L., Kyin, T., Cahill, K., Bankova, L., Lynch, A., Berlin, S., Campos, S., Fuchs, C., Mayer, R., Matulonis, U., Castells, M. 2016


    Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is used to address hypersensitivity reactions to chemotherapeutics and monoclonal antibodies, allowing patients to be treated with optimal pharmacological agents. RDD protocols are tailored to each individual patient's reaction and needs, and protect against anaphylaxis, but overall risks, costs, and benefits have not been determined.We investigated the safety, efficacy, costs, and life expectancy of patients in a large population undergoing RDD.We analyzed 2177 RDD procedures performed in 370 patients with cancer, vasculitis, and hematological and connective tissue diseases who presented 402 reactions. A subgroup of carboplatin allergic patients with ovarian cancer treated with RDD was analyzed for costs and life expectancy and compared with a nonallergic control group.RDD allowed all patients to receive safely the full dose of the medication to which they were reactive. A gradual increase in the fraction of outpatient desensitizations from 81% to 98% was achieved through risk stratification. Of the 2177 desensitizations, 93% had no or mild reactions whereas 7% had moderate to severe reactions, which did not preclude the completion of the treatment, and there were no deaths. Overall health costs in the carboplatin allergic group were not higher than those in the nonallergic group treated with standard of care. Administration of carboplatin through RDD was as effective as standard administration with a nonsignificant increase in life expectancy in desensitized patients as compared with nonallergic, nondesensitized controls.RDD is cost effective and safe for allergic patients with cancer and chronic disease to remain on first line therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.12.019

    View details for PubMedID 26895621

  • Maturation of mast cell progenitors to mucosal mast cells during allergic pulmonary inflammation in mice. Mucosal immunology Bankova, L. G., Dwyer, D. F., Liu, A. Y., Austen, K. F., Gurish, M. F. 2015; 8 (3): 596-606


    In contrast to resident constitutive mast cells (CMCs), mucosal MCs (MMCs) appear in the lung and trachea of sensitized mice only following inhalation challenge. We monitored the influx and maturation of MCs by their expression of Kit, FcɛRI, β7-integrin and side scatter (SSC) by flow cytometry. Influx of MC progenitors (MCps) (FcɛRI(lo), Kit(int), β7(hi), and SSC(lo)) peaks 1 day after challenges and subsides to baseline by day 7 after challenge. The mature MMCs appear as a distinct population on day 7 and peak at day 14 with higher SSC and FcɛRI expression, but lower β7 and Kit expression. A distinct transitional population is present between 1 and 7 days after challenge. Maturation occurs more rapidly in the trachea. The resident tracheal CMCs had higher SSC, FcɛRI, and Kit and lower β7-integrin expression than the MMCs. By histology, the MMCs follow similar kinetics to the flow cytometry-identified mature MMCs and are notably persistent for >42 days. Steroid treatment reduced inflammation and MCp influx but had no effect on established MMCs. Thus, changes in SSC, FcɛRI, and Kit together with the expression of αE/α4:β7-integrins characterizes the development of induced MMCs from MCps and distinguishes them from resident CMCs in the trachea and large airways.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/mi.2014.91

    View details for PubMedID 25291985

  • Mast Cells Recruited to Mesenteric Lymph Nodes during Helminth Infection Remain Hypogranular and Produce IL-4 and IL-6 JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Liu, A. Y., Dwyer, D. F., Jones, T. G., Bankova, L. G., Shen, S., Katz, H. R., Austen, K. F., Gurish, M. F. 2013; 190 (4): 1758-1766


    Mast cells (MC) and basophils share expression of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) but can be distinguished by their divergent expression of KIT and CD49b. In BALB/c mice, MC lineage cells expressing high levels of FcεRI by flow cytometry were seen only in bone marrow whereas those expressing intermediate levels of FcεRI were present in bone marrow and spleen of naive mice and in mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN) of Trichinella spiralis-infected mice. These FcεRI(+)KIT(+)CD49b(-) cells had a membrane phenotype similar to i.p. connective tissue-type MC, but were smaller and hypogranular by flow cytometry forward and side scatter profiles, respectively. Consistent with this, they lacked the prominent secretory granules identified by histochemistry and immunodetection for the MC-specific granule proteases that are readily seen in mature jejunal mucosal MC that also are induced by the infection and present at the same time. The concentration of these MC lineage cells in mLN determined by flow cytometry was comparable to that of MC progenitors (MCp) measured by limiting dilution and clonal expansion with maturation. We observed upregulation of IL-4 transcription by MCp in mLN and spleens of helminth-infected 4get mice, and we demonstrated by intracellular cytokine staining production of IL-4 and IL-6 by the mLN MCp in helminth-infected mice. Furthermore, treatment of helminth-infected mice with anti-FcεRI mAb, a protocol known to deplete basophils, also depleted mLN MCp. Thus, this study identifies a hypogranular subset of MCp recruited to mLN by helminth infection that may be an important unrecognized source of cytokines.

    View details for DOI 10.4049/jimmunol.1202567

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314825400039

    View details for PubMedID 23319739

  • Desensitization regimens for drug allergy: state of the art in the 21st century CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY Liu, A., Fanning, L., Chong, H., Fernandez, J., SLOANE, D., Sancho-Serra, M., Castells, M. 2011; 41 (12): 1679-1689


    Adverse reactions to drugs are increasingly being recognized as important contributions to disease in their own right as well as impediments to the best treatment of various conditions, including infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic maladies. Rapid drug desensitization (RDD) is an effective mechanism for safely administering important medications while minimizing or entirely circumventing such adverse reactions in sensitized patients. We reviewed the literature on RDD in the last 10 years, including our experience from the Brigham and Women's Hospital Desensitization Program with hundreds of patients desensitized to a broad variety of drugs. RDD in our programme has been uniformly successful in patients with hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics, chemotherapeutics, and monoclonal antibodies. Any reactions that occur during desensitization are generally much less severe than the initial hypersensitivity reaction to the drug, and patients have received the full dose of the desired medication 99.9% of the time out of (796) desensitizations. To date, there have been no fatalities. RDD is a safe and highly effective method for treating sensitized patients with the optimal pharmacologic agents. Its use should be expanded, but because patient safety is paramount, protocols must be created, reviewed, and overseen by allergist-immunologists with special training and experience in modern techniques of desensitization.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03825.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297283800005

    View details for PubMedID 21883538

  • The Major Genetic Determinants of HIV-1 Control Affect HLA Class I Peptide Presentation SCIENCE Pereyra, F., Jia, X., McLaren, P. J., Telenti, A., de Bakker, P. I., Walker, B. D., Ripke, S., Brumme, C. J., Pulit, S. L., Carrington, M., Kadie, C. M., Carlson, J. M., Heckerman, D., Graham, R. R., Plenge, R. M., Deeks, S. G., Gianniny, L., Crawford, G., Sullivan, J., Gonzalez, E., Davies, L., Camargo, A., Moore, J. M., Beattie, N., Gupta, S., Crenshaw, A., Burtt, N. P., Guiducci, C., Gupta, N., Carrington, M., Gao, X., Qi, Y., Yuki, Y., Piechocka-Trocha, A., Cutrell, E., Rosenberg, R., Moss, K. L., Lemay, P., O'Leary, J., Schaefer, T., Verma, P., Toth, I., Block, B., Baker, B., Rothchild, A., Lian, J., Proudfoot, J., Alvino, D. M., Vine, S., Addo, M. M., Allen, T. M., Altfeld, M., Henn, M. R., Le Gall, S., Streeck, H., Haas, D. W., Kuritzkes, D. R., Robbins, G. K., Shafer, R. W., Gulick, R. M., Shikuma, C. M., Haubrich, R., Riddler, S., Sax, P. E., Daar, E. S., Ribaudo, H. J., Agan, B., Agarwal, S., Ahern, R. L., Allen, B. L., Altidor, S., Altschuler, E. L., Ambardar, S., Anastos, K., Anderson, B., Anderson, V., Andrady, U., Antoniskis, D., Bangsberg, D., Barbaro, D., Barrie, W., Bartczak, J., Barton, S., Basden, P., Basgoz, N., Bazner, S., Bellos, N. C., Benson, A. M., Berger, J., Bernard, N. F., Bernard, A. M., Birch, C., Bodner, S. J., Bolan, R. K., Boudreaux, E. T., Bradley, M., Braun, J. F., Brndjar, J. E., Brown, S. J., Brown, K., Brown, S. T., Burack, J., Bush, L. M., Cafaro, V., Campbell, O., Campbell, J., Carlson, R. H., Carmichael, J. K., Casey, K. K., Cavacuiti, C., Celestin, G., Chambers, S. T., Chez, N., Chirch, L. M., Cimoch, P. J., Cohen, D., Cohn, L. E., Conway, B., Cooper, D. A., Cornelson, B., Cox, D. T., Cristofano, M. V., Cuchural, G., Czartoski, J. L., Dahman, J. M., Daly, J. S., Davis, B. T., Davis, K., Davod, S. M., Deeks, S. G., deJesus, E., Dietz, C. A., Dunham, E., Dunn, M. E., Ellerin, T. B., Eron, J. J., Fangman, J. J., Farel, C. E., Ferlazzo, H., Fidler, S., Fleenor-Ford, A., Frankel, R., Freedberg, K. A., French, N. K., Fuchs, J. D., Fuller, J. D., Gaberman, J., Gallant, J. E., Gandhi, R. T., Garcia, E., Garmon, D., Gathe, J. C., Gaultier, C. R., Gebre, W., Gilman, F. D., Gilson, I., Goepfert, P. A., Gottlieb, M. S., Goulston, C., Groger, R. K., Gurley, T. D., Haber, S., Hardwicke, R., Hardy, W. D., Harrigan, P. R., Hawkins, T. N., Heath, S., Hecht, F. M., Henry, W. K., Hladek, M., Hoffman, R. P., Horton, J. M., Hsu, R. K., Huhn, G. D., Hunt, P., Hupert, M. J., Illeman, M. L., Jaeger, H., Jellinger, R. M., John, M., Johnson, J. A., Johnson, K. L., Johnson, H., Johnson, K., Joly, J., Jordan, W. C., Kauffman, C. A., Khanlou, H., Killian, R. K., Kim, A. Y., Kim, D. D., Kinder, C. A., Kirchner, J. T., Kogelman, L., Kojic, E. M., Korthuis, T., Kurisu, W., Kwon, D. S., Lamar, M., Lampiris, H., Lanzafame, M., Lederman, M. M., Lee, D. M., Lee, J. M., Lee, M. J., Lee, E. T., Lemoine, J., Levy, J. A., Llibre, J. M., Liguori, M. A., Little, S. J., Liu, A. Y., Lopez, A. J., Loutfy, M. R., Loy, D., Mohammed, D. Y., Man, A., Mansour, M. K., Marconi, V. C., Markowitz, M., Marques, R., Martin, J. N., Martin, H. L., Mayer, K. H., McElrath, M. J., McGhee, T. A., McGovern, B. H., McGowan, K., McIntyre, D., Mcleod, G. X., Menezes, P., Mesa, G., Metroka, C. E., Meyer-Olson, D., Miller, A. O., Montgomery, K., Mounzer, K. C., Nagami, E. H., Nagin, I., Nahass, R. G., Nelson, M. O., Nielsen, C., Norene, D. L., O'Connor, D. H., Ojikutu, B. O., Okulicz, J., Oladehin, O. O., Oldfield, E. C., Olender, S. A., Ostrowski, M., Owen, W. F., Pae, E., Parsonnet, J., Pavlatos, A. M., Perlmutter, A. M., Pierce, M. N., Pincus, J. M., Pisani, L., Price, L. J., Proia, L., Prokesch, R. C., Pujet, H. C., Ramgopal, M., Rathod, A., Rausch, M., Ravishankar, J., Rhame, F. S., Richards, C. S., Richman, D. D., Robbins, G. K., Rodes, B., Rodriguez, M., Rose, R. C., Rosenberg, E. S., Rosenthal, D., Ross, P. E., Rubin, D. S., Rumbaugh, E., Saenz, L., Salvaggio, M. R., Sanchez, W. C., Sanjana, V. M., Santiago, S., Schmidt, W., Schuitemaker, H., Sestak, P. M., Shalit, P., Shay, W., Shirvani, V. N., Silebi, V. I., Sizemore, J. M., Skolnik, P. R., Sokol-Anderson, M., Sosman, J. M., Stabile, P., Stapleton, J. T., Starrett, S., Stein, F., Stellbrink, H., Sterman, F. L., Stone, V. E., Stone, D. R., Tambussi, G., Taplitz, R. A., Tedaldi, E. M., Telenti, A., Theisen, W., Torres, R., Tosiello, L., Tremblay, C., Tribble, M. A., Trinh, P. D., Tsao, A., Ueda, P., Vaccaro, A., Valadas, E., Vanig, T. J., Vecino, I., Vega, V. M., Veikley, W., Wade, B. H., Walworth, C., Wanidworanun, C., Ward, D. J., Warner, D. A., Weber, R. D., Webster, D., Weis, S., Wheeler, D. A., White, D. J., Wilkins, E., Winston, A., Wlodaver, C. G., van't Wout, A., Wright, D. P., Yang, O. O., Yurdin, D. L., Zabukovic, B. W., Zachary, K. C., Zeeman, B., Zhao, M. 2010; 330 (6010): 1551-1557


    Infectious and inflammatory diseases have repeatedly shown strong genetic associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); however, the basis for these associations remains elusive. To define host genetic effects on the outcome of a chronic viral infection, we performed genome-wide association analysis in a multiethnic cohort of HIV-1 controllers and progressors, and we analyzed the effects of individual amino acids within the classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins. We identified >300 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the MHC and none elsewhere. Specific amino acids in the HLA-B peptide binding groove, as well as an independent HLA-C effect, explain the SNP associations and reconcile both protective and risk HLA alleles. These results implicate the nature of the HLA-viral peptide interaction as the major factor modulating durable control of HIV infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1195271

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285153500069

    View details for PubMedID 21051598

  • Clinical problem-solving. A rash hypothesis. New England journal of medicine Liu, A. Y., Lowe, R. C., Levy, B. D., Katz, J. T., Loscalzo, J. 2010; 363 (1): 72-78

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMcps0708369

    View details for PubMedID 20592300

  • Interactive medical case. A rash hypothesis. New England journal of medicine Ross, J. J., Saavedra, A., Vleugels, R. A., Liu, A., Castells, M. C. 2010; 362 (24)

    View details for DOI 10.1056/NEJMimc0903117

    View details for PubMedID 20560180

  • Hodgkin's lymphoma masquerading as vertebral osteomyelitis in a man with diabetes: a case report. Journal of medical case reports Bender Ignacio, R. A., Liu, A. Y., Sohani, A. R., Vyas, J. M. 2010; 4: 102-?


    Infection and malignancy often have common characteristics which render the differential diagnosis for a prolonged fever difficult. Imaging and tissue biopsy are crucial in making a correct diagnosis, though differentiating between chronic osteomyelitis and malignancy is not always straightforward as they possess many overlapping features.A 52-year-old Caucasian man was treated with antibiotics for his diabetic foot infection after a superficial culture showed Staphylococcus aureus. He had persistent fevers for several weeks and later developed acute onset of back pain which was treated with several courses of antibiotics. Radiographic and pathological findings were atypical, and a diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma was made 12 weeks later.Clinicians should maintain a suspicion for Hodgkin's lymphoma or other occult malignancy when features of presumed osteomyelitis are atypical. Chronic vertebral osteomyelitis in particular often lacks features common to acute infectious disease processes, and the chronic lymphocytic infiltrates seen on histopathology have very similar features to Hodgkin's lymphoma, highlighting a similar inflammatory microenvironment sustained by both processes.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1752-1947-4-102

    View details for PubMedID 20370895

  • Brugia malayi microfilariae induce cell death in human dendritic cells, inhibit their ability to make IL-12 and IL-10, and reduce their capacity to activate CD4(+) T cells JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Semnani, R. T., Liu, A. Y., Sabzevari, H., Kubofcik, J., Zhou, J., Gilden, J. K., Nutman, T. B. 2003; 171 (4): 1950-1960


    Parasite Ag-specific T cell unresponsiveness and diminished IFN-gamma production are immunologic hallmarks of patent infection with lymph-dwelling filarial nematodes. Although this diminished responsiveness is directed primarily against the intravascular microfilarial (MF) parasite stage and mediated in part by reduced APC function, the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. In this report, we demonstrate that human dendritic cells (DC) exposed to live MF up-regulate both the cell surface and gene expression of CD54 (ICAM-1). Moreover, live MF result in a 3-fold increase in DC death compared with MF-unexposed DC, primarily due to apoptosis. Notably, microarray and real-time RT-PCR data indicate that live MF concurrently up-regulate mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules such as IL-8, RANTES, IL-1alpha, TNF-alpha, and IL-beta in DC, the presence of which is also detected at the protein level, while inhibiting the production of IL-12 (p40 and p70) and IL-10. Soluble excretory-secretory products from live MF diminished IL-12 and IL-10 production and induced DC death, although to a lesser degree. Moreover, exposure of DC to live MF resulted in a decrease in the ability of DC to promote CD4(+) T cell production of IFN-gamma and IL-5. Our findings clearly suggest that the interaction between live MF and DC is complex but contributes to the hyporesponsiveness and parasite persistence associated with the MF(+) state in the infected human. These data further suggest that MF induce an orchestrated response in APC that leads to a diminished capacity to function appropriately, which in turn has significant consequences for CD4(+) T cells.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000184667400044

    View details for PubMedID 12902498