Dr. Luby studied philosophy and earned a Bachelor of Arts summa cum laude from Creighton University. He earned his medical degree from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School at Dallas and completed his residency in internal medicine at the University of Rochester-Strong Memorial Hospital. He studied epidemiology and preventive medicine at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Dr. Luby's previous positions include directing the Centre for Communicable Diseases at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh in Dhaka, Bangladesh from 2004 - 2012, conducting research and teaching epidemiology at the Aga Khan University in Karachi, Pakistan from 1993 - 1998, and working as an epidemiologist in the Foodborne and Diarrheal Diseases Branch of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Administrative Appointments

  • Director of Research, Stanford Center for Innovation in Global Health (2012 - Present)
  • Associate Director for Diversity & Inclusion, Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources (2017 - Present)

Honors & Awards

  • Alexander D. Langmuir Prize, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2001)
  • Favourite paper in infectious diseases, Lancet Infectious Diseases (2005)
  • Shepard Award, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2006, 2014 & 2015)
  • International WaTER Prize, Oklahoma University (2009)
  • Medal of Excellence in Global Health, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)
  • Begum Rokeya Sakhawat Hossain Teaching Excellence Award, James P Grant School of Public Health (2012, 2014, 2015)

Professional Education

  • Fellowship, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Epidemiology (1992)
  • Residency, Strong Memorial Hospital, Internal Medicine (1989)
  • Internship, Strong Memorial Hospital, Internal Medicine (1987)
  • MD, University of Texas, Southwestern, Medicine (1986)
  • BA, Creighton University, Philosophy (1981)
  • Board Certification, American Board of Internal Medicine, Internal Medicine (1989)

Community and International Work

  • Improving brick manufacturing, Bangladesh


    Reduce pollution from brick kilns in Bangladesh

    Partnering Organization(s)

    ICDDRB, BRAC, Child Health Research Foundation

    Populations Served

    South Asia



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • RISE -- Revitalizing Informal Settlements and their Environment, Suva, Fiji; Makassar, Indonesia


    Water, sanitation infrastructure

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Asian Development Bank, Monash University, Suva and Makassar city governments

    Populations Served

    Urban residents of informal settlements



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Assessing Typhoid conjugate vaccine, Navi Mumbai, India



    Partnering Organization(s)

    WHO India, CDC, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation

    Populations Served

    Urban South Asia



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Liberia Handwashing, Liberia


    Improving handwashing in health care facilities

    Partnering Organization(s)

    National Public Health Institute of Liberia, Uniformed Services University, US Naval Medical Research Unit 3

    Populations Served

    Hospitalized patients in Liberia



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Windows ventilation, Dhaka, Bangladesh


    Reducing child pneumonia

    Partnering Organization(s)

    ICDDRB, Johns Hopkins University, University at Buffalo

    Populations Served

    Urban poor



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Pigs and parasites, Sichuan Province, China


    Reducing neurocystocercosis

    Partnering Organization(s)

    China CDC

    Populations Served

    Rural Western Chinese, Ethnic Tibetin



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • RINEW -- Integrated effort to improve early child development


    Early child development

    Partnering Organization(s)

    icddr,b, UC Berkeley, UC Davis, Johns Hopkins University

    Populations Served

    Rural Bangladesh



    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • WASH Benefits, Rural Bangladesh


    Water, sanitation, hygiene, nutrition

    Partnering Organization(s)

    icddrb, UC Berkeley

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Lotus Water, Dhaka, Bangladesh


    Water quality and health

    Partnering Organization(s)


    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Burden of pneumococcal disease, Bangladesh


    pneumococcal disease, immunization, surveillance

    Partnering Organization(s)

    Child Health Research Foundation

    Populations Served




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


  • Lead exposure in rural Bangladesh, Bangladesh



    Partnering Organization(s)




    Ongoing Project


    Opportunities for Student Involvement


Research & Scholarship

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Dr. Luby’s research interests include identifying and interrupting pathways of infectious disease transmission in low income countries. He works primarily in Bangladesh but also has projects in Western China and Liberia. His ongoing work includes 1) assessing the impact on health and child cognitive development of scalable strategies to improve water, sanitation and hygiene; 2) efforts to better understand the burden of disease from typhoid fever and evaluating approaches to reduce that burden; 3) developing and evaluating interventions to reduce the risk of a Nipah virus pandemic; 4) evaluating the impact of the Bangladesh national vaccine program on the burden of pneumococcal and Haemophilus influenzae type B infection..

Clinical Trials

  • Safety and Efficacy of Probiotics in Bangladeshi Infants Not Recruiting

    Here the investigators propose to preliminarily investigate the safety and effects of probiotics in infants in Bangladesh through a pilot randomized clinical trial. The investigators hypothesize that two probiotics are safe for infants in Bangladesh and may have an effect on biomarkers of gut health and immunity. The specific aims of this pilot are: i) to confirm the safety of administering probiotic strains to infants in low-income countries, ii) to determine the effects of dosing frequency on colonization and persistence of probiotics in the GI tract, iii) to measure markers of intestinal and immune function and microbiota structure.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial.

    View full details

  • WASH Benefits Bangladesh Recruiting

    Brief Summary: The purpose of this study is to measure the independent and combined effects of interventions that improve water quality, sanitation, hand washing, and nutrition on child growth and development in the first years of life.

    View full details

  • Automatic Chlorination and Child Health in Urban Bangladesh Not Recruiting

    Municipal water networks within industrialized countries typically rely on centralized treatment to manage piped water quality. Optimal water quality at the tap, however, requires well-maintained piped distribution networks, and performs best when piped systems are fully pressurized. In low-income cities such as Dhaka, water distribution networks are inadequately maintained and typically supply intermittent service; as such, they are vulnerable to recontamination during negative pressure events. Among populations accessing these types of improved water sources in urban settings (e.g. shared taps), it is unknown if consistent treatment to provide chlorinated water at the point of collection would have a significant health benefit. Furthermore, almost all previous studies of water treatment interventions in low-income countries have been unblinded with self-reported diarrhea as the main outcome, casting doubt that reported impacts of water disinfection on diarrhea are not due entirely to social desirability bias. Stanford University in collaboration with icddr,b will conduct a randomized evaluation to assess the impact on access to automatically chlorinated water on water quality and child health.

    Stanford is currently not accepting patients for this trial. For more information, please contact Amy Pickering, PhD, 510-410-2666.

    View full details


Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs


All Publications

  • Nipah Virus Transmission from Bats to Humans Associated with Drinking Traditional Liquor Made from Date Palm Sap, Bangladesh, 2011-2014 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Islam, M. S., Sazzad, H. M., Satter, S. M., Sultana, S., Hossain, M. J., Hasan, M., Rahman, M., Campbell, S., Cannon, D. L., Stroeher, U., Daszak, P., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2016; 22 (4): 664-670
  • Evolving epidemiology of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh: evidence from outbreaks during 2010-2011 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Chakraborty, A., Sazzad, H. M., Hossain, M. J., Islam, M. S., PARVEEN, S., Husain, M., Banu, S. S., Podder, G., Afroj, S., ROLLIN, P. E., Daszak, P., Luby, S. P., Rahman, M., Gurley, E. S. 2016; 144 (2): 371-380


    Drinking raw date palm sap is the primary route of Nipah virus (NiV) transmission from bats to people in Bangladesh; subsequent person-to-person transmission is common. During December 2010 to March 2011, we investigated NiV epidemiology by interviewing cases using structured questionnaires, in-depth interviews, and group discussions to collect clinical and exposure histories. We conducted a case-control study to identify risk factors for transmission. We identified 43 cases; 23 were laboratory-confirmed and 20 probable. Thirty-eight (88%) cases died. Drinking raw date palm sap and contact with an infected person were major risk factors; one healthcare worker was infected and for another case transmission apparently occurred through contact with a corpse. In absence of these risk factors, apparent routes of transmission included drinking fermented date palm sap. For the first time, a case was detected in eastern Bangladesh. Identification of new epidemiological characteristics emphasizes the importance of continued NiV surveillance and case investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268815001314

    View details for Web of Science ID 000368638100019

    View details for PubMedID 26122675

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4675679

  • Towards sustainable public health surveillance for enteric fever. Vaccine Luby, S. P., Saha, S., Andrews, J. R. 2015; 33: C3-7


    Enteric fever that results from infection by the typhoidal Salmonellas (Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, B and C) is a life-threatening preventable illness. Surveillance of enteric fever is important to understand current burden of disease, to track changes in human health burden from increasing antimicrobial resistance and to assess the impact of efforts to reduce disease burden. Since enteric fever occurs predominantly in low income communities, expensive surveillance is not sustainable. Traditional hospital-based surveillance does not estimate population burden and intensive community-based cohort studies do not capture the severe disease that is crucial to policy decisions. While cohort studies have been considered the gold standard for incidence estimates, the resources required to conduct them are great; as a consequence, estimates of enteric fever burden have been highly geographically and temporally restricted. A hybrid approach combining laboratory diagnosis that is already being conducted in healthcare centers with community-based surveillance of health care facility use offers a low-cost, sustainable approach to generate policy relevant data.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.054

    View details for PubMedID 25912287

  • Effects of Source- versus Household Contamination of Tubewell Water on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial PLOS ONE Ercumen, A., Naser, A. M., Unicomb, L., Arnold, B. F., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2015; 10 (3)


    Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children <2 years in rural Bangladesh.We randomly assigned 1800 households with a child aged 6-18 months (index child) into one of three arms: chlorine plus safe storage, safe storage and control. We followed households with monthly visits for one year to promote the interventions, track their uptake, test participants' source and stored water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome). To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions.Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73) and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80), with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias.Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in NCT01350063.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0121907

    View details for Web of Science ID 000352133600126

    View details for PubMedID 25816342

  • Differences in Field Effectiveness and Adoption between a Novel Automated Chlorination System and Household Manual Chlorination of Drinking Water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial. PloS one Pickering, A. J., Crider, Y., Amin, N., Bauza, V., Unicomb, L., Davis, J., Luby, S. P. 2015; 10 (3)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0118397

    View details for PubMedID 25734448

  • Differences in field effectiveness and adoption between a novel automated chlorination system and household manual chlorination of drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial. PloS one Pickering, A. J., Crider, Y., Amin, N., Bauza, V., Unicomb, L., Davis, J., Luby, S. P. 2015; 10 (3)


    The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically) dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab), safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0118397

    View details for PubMedID 25734448

  • Is targeting access to sanitation enough? The Lancet. Global health Luby, S. 2014; 2 (11): e619-20

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S2214-109X(14)70326-2

    View details for PubMedID 25442678

  • Microbiological evaluation of the efficacy of soapy water to clean hands: a randomized, non-inferiority field trial. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Amin, N., Pickering, A. J., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L., Najnin, N., Homaira, N., Ashraf, S., Abedin, J., Islam, M. S., Luby, S. P. 2014; 91 (2): 415-423


    We conducted a randomized, non-inferiority field trial in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh among mothers to compare microbial efficacy of soapy water (30 g powdered detergent in 1.5 L water) with bar soap and water alone. Fieldworkers collected hand rinse samples before and after the following washing regimens: scrubbing with soapy water for 15 and 30 seconds; scrubbing with bar soap for 15 and 30 seconds; and scrubbing with water alone for 15 seconds. Soapy water and bar soap removed thermotolerant coliforms similarly after washing for 15 seconds (mean log10 reduction = 0.7 colony-forming units [CFU], P < 0.001 for soapy water; mean log10 reduction = 0.6 CFU, P = 0.001 for bar soap). Increasing scrubbing time to 30 seconds did not improve removal (P > 0.05). Scrubbing hands with water alone also reduced thermotolerant coliforms (mean log10 reduction = 0.3 CFU, P = 0.046) but was less efficacious than scrubbing hands with soapy water. Soapy water is an inexpensive and microbiologically effective cleansing agent to improve handwashing among households with vulnerable children.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0475

    View details for PubMedID 24914003

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4125272

  • The Role of Landscape Composition and Configuration on Pteropus giganteus Roosting Ecology and Nipah Virus Spillover Risk in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Hahn, M. B., Gurley, E. S., Epstein, J. H., Islam, M. S., Patz, J. A., Daszak, P., Luby, S. P. 2014; 90 (2): 247-255


    Nipah virus has caused recurring outbreaks in central and northwest Bangladesh (the "Nipah Belt"). Little is known about roosting behavior of the fruit bat reservoir, Pteropus giganteus, or factors driving spillover. We compared human population density and ecological characteristics of case villages and control villages (no reported outbreaks) to understand their role in P. giganteus roosting ecology and Nipah virus spillover risk. Nipah Belt villages have a higher human population density (P < 0.0001), and forests that are more fragmented than elsewhere in Bangladesh (0.50 versus 0.32 patches/km(2), P < 0.0001). The number of roosts in a village correlates with forest fragmentation (r = 0.22, P = 0.03). Villages with a roost containing Polyalthia longifolia or Bombax ceiba trees were more likely case villages (odds ratio [OR] = 10.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-90.6). This study suggests that, in addition to human population density, composition and structure of the landscape shared by P. giganteus and humans may influence the geographic distribution of Nipah virus spillovers.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0256

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331009000010

    View details for PubMedID 24323516

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3919225

  • The Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene: a systematic review of behavioural models and a framework for designing and evaluating behaviour change interventions in infrastructure-restricted settings BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Dreibelbis, R., Winch, P. J., Leontsini, E., Hulland, K. R., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P. 2013; 13


    Promotion and provision of low-cost technologies that enable improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) practices are seen as viable solutions for reducing high rates of morbidity and mortality due to enteric illnesses in low-income countries. A number of theoretical models, explanatory frameworks, and decision-making models have emerged which attempt to guide behaviour change interventions related to WASH. The design and evaluation of such interventions would benefit from a synthesis of this body of theory informing WASH behaviour change and maintenance.We completed a systematic review of existing models and frameworks through a search of related articles available in PubMed and in the grey literature. Information on the organization of behavioural determinants was extracted from the references that fulfilled the selection criteria and synthesized. Results from this synthesis were combined with other relevant literature, and from feedback through concurrent formative and pilot research conducted in the context of two cluster-randomized trials on the efficacy of WASH behaviour change interventions to inform the development of a framework to guide the development and evaluation of WASH interventions: the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (IBM-WASH).We identified 15 WASH-specific theoretical models, behaviour change frameworks, or programmatic models, of which 9 addressed our review questions. Existing models under-represented the potential role of technology in influencing behavioural outcomes, focused on individual-level behavioural determinants, and had largely ignored the role of the physical and natural environment. IBM-WASH attempts to correct this by acknowledging three dimensions (Contextual Factors, Psychosocial Factors, and Technology Factors) that operate on five-levels (structural, community, household, individual, and habitual).A number of WASH-specific models and frameworks exist, yet with some limitations. The IBM-WASH model aims to provide both a conceptual and practical tool for improving our understanding and evaluation of the multi-level multi-dimensional factors that influence water, sanitation, and hygiene practices in infrastructure-constrained settings. We outline future applications of our proposed model as well as future research priorities needed to advance our understanding of the sustained adoption of water, sanitation, and hygiene technologies and practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-1015

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329290200003

    View details for PubMedID 24160869

  • The pandemic potential of Nipah virus. Antiviral research Luby, S. P. 2013; 100 (1): 38-43


    Nipah virus, a paramyxovirus whose wildlife reservoir is Pteropus bats, was first discovered in a large outbreak of acute encephalitis in Malaysia in 1998 among persons who had contact with sick pigs. Apparently, one or more pigs was infected from bats, and the virus then spread efficiently from pig to pig, then from pigs to people. Nipah virus outbreaks have been recognized nearly every year in Bangladesh since 2001 and occasionally in neighboring India. Outbreaks in Bangladesh and India have been characterized by frequent person-to-person transmission and the death of over 70% of infected people. Characteristics of Nipah virus that increase its risk of becoming a global pandemic include: humans are already susceptible; many strains are capable of limited person-to-person transmission; as an RNA virus, it has an exceptionally high rate of mutation: and that if a human-adapted strain were to infect communities in South Asia, high population densities and global interconnectedness would rapidly spread the infection. Appropriate steps to estimate and manage this risk include studies to explore the molecular and genetic basis of respiratory transmission of henipaviruses, improved surveillance for human infections, support from high-income countries to reduce the risk of person-to-person transmission of infectious agents in low-income health care settings, and consideration of vaccination in communities at ongoing risk of exposure to the secretions and excretions of Pteropus bats.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.07.011

    View details for PubMedID 23911335

  • Household environmental conditions are associated with enteropathy and impaired growth in rural Bangladesh. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Lin, A., Arnold, B. F., Afreen, S., Goto, R., Huda, T. M., Haque, R., Raqib, R., Unicomb, L., Ahmed, T., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 89 (1): 130-137


    We assessed the relationship of fecal environmental contamination and environmental enteropathy. We compared markers of environmental enteropathy, parasite burden, and growth in 119 Bangladeshi children (≤ 48 months of age) across rural Bangladesh living in different levels of household environmental cleanliness defined by objective indicators of water quality and sanitary and hand-washing infrastructure. Adjusted for potential confounding characteristics, children from clean households had 0.54 SDs (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.06, 1.01) higher height-for-age z scores (HAZs), 0.32 SDs (95% CI = -0.72, 0.08) lower lactulose:mannitol (L:M) ratios in urine, and 0.24 SDs (95% CI = -0.63, 0.16) lower immunoglobulin G endotoxin core antibody (IgG EndoCAb) titers than children from contaminated households. After adjusting for age and sex, a 1-unit increase in the ln L:M was associated with a 0.33 SDs decrease in HAZ (95% CI = -0.62, -0.05). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that environmental contamination causes growth faltering mediated through environmental enteropathy.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.12-0629

    View details for PubMedID 23629931

  • Nipah virus outbreak in Bangladesh with nosocomial and corpse to human transmission. Emerging Infectious Diseases Sazzad HMS, Hossain MJ, Gurley ES, Ameen KMH, Parveen S, Islam MS, Faruque LI, Podder G, Banu SS, Lo MK, Rollin PE, Rota PA, Daszak P, Rahman M, Luby SP. 2013; 19 (2): 210-17
  • Improvements in child development following a cluster-randomized, controlled trial of intensive handwashing promotion in Karachi, Pakistan. Arch PediatrAdolesct Med Bowen A, Agboatwalla M, Luby S, Tobery T, Ayers T, Hoekstra RM. 2012; 166 (11): 1037-44
  • Disease ecology, health and the environment: a framework to account for ecological and socio-economic drivers in the control of neglected tropical diseases PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Garchitorena, A., Sokolow, S. H., Roche, B., Ngonghala, C. N., Jocque, M., Lund, A., Barry, M., MORDECAI, E. A., Daily, G. C., Jones, J. H., Andrews, J. R., Bendavid, E., Luby, S. P., LaBeaud, A. D., Seetah, K., Guegan, J. F., Bonds, M. H., De Leo, G. A. 2017; 372 (1722)


    Reducing the burden of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) is one of the key strategic targets advanced by the Sustainable Development Goals. Despite the unprecedented effort deployed for NTD elimination in the past decade, their control, mainly through drug administration, remains particularly challenging: persistent poverty and repeated exposure to pathogens embedded in the environment limit the efficacy of strategies focused exclusively on human treatment or medical care. Here, we present a simple modelling framework to illustrate the relative role of ecological and socio-economic drivers of environmentally transmitted parasites and pathogens. Through the analysis of system dynamics, we show that periodic drug treatments that lead to the elimination of directly transmitted diseases may fail to do so in the case of human pathogens with an environmental reservoir. Control of environmentally transmitted diseases can be more effective when human treatment is complemented with interventions targeting the environmental reservoir of the pathogen. We present mechanisms through which the environment can influence the dynamics of poverty via disease feedbacks. For illustration, we present the case studies of Buruli ulcer and schistosomiasis, two devastating waterborne NTDs for which control is particularly challenging.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'.

    View details for DOI 10.1098/rstb.2016.0128

    View details for Web of Science ID 000399956400009

    View details for PubMedID 28438917

  • Behaviour change intervention to improve shared toilet maintenance and cleanliness in urban slums of Dhaka: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Tropical medicine & international health Alam, M., Winch, P. J., Saxton, R. E., Nizame, F. A., Yeasmin, F., Norman, G., Masud, A., Begum, F., Rahman, M., Hossain, K., Layden, A., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P. 2017


    Shared toilets in urban slums are often unclean and poorly maintained, discouraging consistent use and thereby limiting impacts on health and quality of life. We developed behaviour change interventions to support shared toilet maintenance and improve user satisfaction. We report the intervention effectiveness on improving shared toilet cleanliness.We conducted a cluster-randomised controlled trial among users of 1226 shared toilets in 23 Dhaka slums. We assessed baseline toilet cleanliness in January 2015. The six-month intervention included provision of hardware (bin for solid waste, 4 l flushing bucket, 70 l water reservoir), and behaviour change communication (compound meetings, interpersonal household sessions, signs depicting rules for toilet use). We estimated the adjusted difference in difference (DID) to assess outcomes and accounted for clustering effects using generalised estimating equations.Compared to controls, intervention toilets were more likely to have water available inside toilet cubicles (DID: +4.7%, 95% CI: 0.2, 9.2), access to brush/broom for cleaning (DID: +8.4%, 95% CI: 2, 15) and waste bins (DID: +63%, 95% CI: 59, 66), while less likely to have visible faeces inside the pan (DID: -13%, 95% CI: -19, -5), the smell of faeces (DID: -7.6%, 95% CI: -14, -1.3) and household waste inside the cubicle (DID: -4%, 95% CI: -7, -1).In one of few efforts to promote shared toilet cleanliness, intervention compounds were significantly more likely to have cleaner toilets after six months. Future research might explore how residents can self-finance toilet maintenance, or employ mass media to reduce per-capita costs of behaviour change.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12902

    View details for PubMedID 28556458

  • Advantages and limitations for users of double pit pour-flush latrines: a qualitative study in rural Bangladesh. BMC public health Hussain, F., Clasen, T., Akter, S., Bawel, V., Luby, S. P., Leontsini, E., Unicomb, L., Barua, M. K., Thomas, B., Winch, P. J. 2017; 17 (1): 515-?


    In rural Bangladesh, India and elsewhere, pour-flush pit latrines are the most common sanitation system. When a single pit latrine becomes full, users must empty it themselves and risk exposure to fresh feces, pay an emptying service to remove pit contents or build a new latrine. Double pit pour-flush latrines may serve as a long-term sanitation option including high water table areas because the pits do not need to be emptied immediately and the excreta decomposes into reusable soil.Double pit pour-flush latrines were implemented in rural Bangladesh for 'hardcore poor' households by a national NGO, BRAC. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and spot checks in two low-income, rural areas of Bangladesh to explore the advantages and limitations of using double pit latrines compared to single pit latrines.The rural households accepted the double pit pour-flush latrine model and considered it feasible to use and maintain. This latrine design increased accessibility of a sanitation facility for these low-income residents and provided privacy, convenience and comfort, compared to open defecation. Although a double pit latrine is more costly and requires more space than a single pit latrine the households perceived this sanitation system to save resources, because households did not need to hire service workers to empty pits or remove decomposed contents themselves. In addition, the excreta decomposition process produced a reusable soil product that some households used in homestead gardening. The durability of the latrine superstructures was a problem, as most of the bamboo-pole superstructure broke after 6-18 months of use.Double pit pour-flush latrines are a long-term improved sanitation option that offers users several important advantages over single pit pour-flush latrines like in rural Bangladesh which can also be used in areas with high water table. Further research can provide an understanding of the comparative health impacts and effectiveness of the model in preventing human excreta from entering the environment.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4412-7

    View details for PubMedID 28545427

  • Provision versus promotion to develop a handwashing station: the effect on desired handwashing behavior BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Biswas, D., Nizame, F. A., Sanghvi, T., Roy, S., Luby, S. P., Unicomb, L. E. 2017; 17


    Diarrhea prevalence increases from around the time that complementary foods are introduced. Improving caregiver's hand hygiene during food preparation could reduce complementary food contamination and enteric pathogen transmission. Washing hands with soap is more common when water and soap are together at a convenient location. We conducted a three-month pilot intervention to evaluate two options for setting up handwashing stations: i) provide a handwashing station, or ii) help the family to make their own from available materials. Additionally, we assessed the feasibility of this intervention to be integrated with a child feeding program.We conducted the intervention among two groups; 40 households received a free of cost handwashing station and another 40 households were motivated to place their own soap/soapy-water and water vessel near the food preparation and child feeding area. Community health workers encouraged caregivers to wash hands with soap/soapy-water before food preparation and feeding a child. They either assisted study participants to install the study-provided handwashing station at the recommended place or encouraged caregivers to develop their own. Field researchers assessed placement and composition of handwashing stations and the feasibility of integrating handwashing and nutrition messages.By end of the trial, 39/40 households developed their own handwashing station, comprising a bucket, mug and bar soap/soapy-water of which 60% (6/10) households were observed with a functional and complete handwashing station set. Observed handwashing with soap was detected among 8/10 households from the study-provided handwashing station group and 5/10 among households who had made their own handwashing station. Sixty-seven of the 76 caregivers recalled integrated intervention messages on social and health benefits of infant and young child feeding correctly; and all recalled key handwashing with soap times, before food preparation and feeding a child.Encouraging households to develop their own handwashing station with soap and water to place at a food preparation/child feeding location is feasible over the short term. In the absence of large-scale provision of handwashing stations, caregivers can be encouraged to create and use their own. Integrating handwashing with soap into a nutrition intervention was feasible and acceptable and should be considered by policy makers.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4316-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400819300002

    View details for PubMedID 28476170

  • Behavioral antecedents for handwashing in a low-income urban setting in Bangladesh: an exploratory study BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Rahman, M. J., Nizame, F. A., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P., Winch, P. J. 2017; 17


    Health programs commonly promote handwashing by drawing attention to potential fecal contamination in the environment. The underlying assumption is that the thought of fecal contamination will result in disgust, and motivate people to wash their hands with soap. However, this has not proven sufficient to achieve high rates of handwashing with soap at key times. We argue that handwashing with soap is influenced by broader range of antecedents, many unrelated to fecal contamination, that indicate to people when and where to wash their hands. This exploratory study aimed to identify and characterize this broader range of handwashing antecedents for use in future handwashing promotion efforts.First, an initial list of behavioral antecedents was elicited through unstructured interviews, focus group discussions and observation with residents, from a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh, who were also recipients of a handwashing intervention. Then, photographs representing three categories of behavioral antecedents were taken: activities of daily living, visual or tactile sensations, and handwashing-related hardware and activities. Finally, the research team conducted ranking exercises with a new set of participants, from the same area, to assess the perceived importance of each antecedent illustrated by the photographs. The research team probed about perceptions regarding how and why that particular antecedent, represented by the photograph, influences handwashing behavior.After coming out of the bathroom and dirt (moyla) on hands were the two antecedents that ranked highest. In all the categories, intervention-related antecedents (three key times for handwashing which included handwashing after coming out of the bathroom, after cleaning a child's anus and before food preparation; intervention provided items that included handwashing station, soapy water bottle, handwashing reminders from posters and community health provider visits) that were being promoted actively in this community were perceived favorably in the qualitative responses, but did not consistently rank higher than non-intervention items. However, many other antecedents were reported to influence when and where people wash their hands: cutting greasy fish, starting a meal, contact with oil and fat stuck to dishes, oil and lice from hair, sweat, unwashed vegetables, reminders from son and daughter or observing others wash hands, and observing the sunset.Beyond well-recognized antecedents related to fecal contact and dirt on hands, we identified a broader set of antecedents not reported in the literature. Adopting a handwashing promotional strategy to highlight existing antecedents that people themselves have identified as important can help inform the content of an intervention that is more relatable and effective in increasing handwashing practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-017-4307-7

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400819300004

    View details for PubMedID 28476100

  • An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012 INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES Sarkar, S., Khan, S. U., Mikolon, A., Rahman, M. Z., Abedin, J., Zeidner, N., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Luby, S. P. 2017; 11 (3): 275-282

    View details for DOI 10.1111/irv.12438

    View details for Web of Science ID 000400361000010

  • Scaling Up a Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Program in Rural Bangladesh: The Role of Program Implementation. American journal of public health Benjamin-Chung, J., Sultana, S., Halder, A. K., Ahsan, M. A., Arnold, B. F., Hubbard, A. E., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P., Colford, J. M. 2017; 107 (5): 694-701


    To evaluate whether the quality of implementation of a water, sanitation, and hygiene program called SHEWA-B and delivered by UNICEF to 20 million people in rural Bangladesh was associated with health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access.We surveyed 33 027 households targeted by SHEWA-B and 1110 SHEWA-B hygiene promoters in 2011 and 2012. We developed an implementation quality index and compared the probability of health behaviors and sanitation infrastructure access in counterfactual scenarios over the range of implementation quality.Forty-seven percent of households (n = 14 622) had met a SHEWA-B hygiene promoter, and 47% of hygiene promoters (n = 527) could recall all key program messages. The frequency of hygiene promoter visits was not associated with improved outcomes. Higher implementation quality was not associated with better health behaviors or infrastructure access. Outcomes differed by only 1% to 3% in scenarios in which all clusters received low versus high implementation quality.SHEWA-B did not meet UNICEF's ideal implementation quality in any area. Improved implementation quality would have resulted in marginal changes in health behaviors or infrastructure access. This suggests that SHEWA-B's design was suboptimal for improving these outcomes.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303686

    View details for PubMedID 28323462

  • Spillover effects on health outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. International journal of epidemiology Benjamin-Chung, J., Abedin, J., Berger, D., Clark, A., Jimenez, V., Konagaya, E., Tran, D., Arnold, B. F., Hubbard, A. E., Luby, S. P., Miguel, E., Colford, J. M. 2017


    Many interventions delivered to improve health may benefit not only direct recipients but also people in close physical or social proximity. Our objective was to review all published literature about the spillover effects of interventions on health outcomes in low-middle income countries and to identify methods used in estimating these effects.We searched 19 electronic databases for articles published before 2014 and hand-searched titles from 2010 to 2013 in five relevant journals. We adapted the Cochrane Collaboration's quality grading tool for spillover estimation and rated the quality of evidence.A total of 54 studies met inclusion criteria. We found a wide range of terminology used to describe spillovers, a lack of standardization among spillover methods and poor reporting of spillovers in many studies. We identified three primary mechanisms of spillovers: reduced disease transmission, social proximity and substitution of resources within households. We found the strongest evidence for spillovers through reduced disease transmission, particularly vaccines and mass drug administration. In general, the proportion of a population receiving an intervention was associated with improved health. Most studies were of moderate or low quality. We found evidence of publication bias for certain spillover estimates but not for total or direct effects. To facilitate improved reporting and standardization in future studies, we developed a reporting checklist adapted from the CONSORT framework specific to reporting spillover effects.We found the strongest evidence for spillovers from vaccines and mass drug administration to control infectious disease. There was little high quality evidence of spillovers for other interventions.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyx039

    View details for PubMedID 28449030

  • Incidences and Costs of Illness for Diarrhea and Acute Respiratory Infections for Children < 5 Years of Age in Rural Bangladesh. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Halder, A. K., Luby, S. P., Akhter, S., Ghosh, P. K., Johnston, R. B., Unicomb, L. 2017; 96 (4): 953-960


    AbstractUnderstanding illness costs associated with diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (ARI) could guide prevention and treatment strategies. This study aimed to determine incidence of childhood diarrhea and ARI and costs of homecare, hospitalization, and outpatient treatment by practitioner type in rural Bangladesh. From each of 100 randomly selected population clusters we sampled 17 households with at least one child < 5 years of age. Childhood diarrhea incidence was 3,451 and ARI incidence was 5,849/1,000 child-years. For diarrhea and ARI outpatient care per 1,000 child-years, parents spent more on unqualified ($2,361 and $4,822) than qualified health-care practitioners ($113 and $947). For outpatient care, visits to unqualified health-care practitioners were at least five times more common than visits to qualified practitioners. Costs for outpatient care treatment by unqualified health-care practitioners per episode of illness were similar to those for qualified health-care practitioners. Homecare costs were similar for diarrhea and ARI ($0.16 and $0.24) as were similar hospitalization costs per episode of diarrhea and ARI ($35.40 and $37.76). On average, rural Bangladeshi households with children < 5 years of age spent 1.3% ($12 of $915) of their annual income managing diarrhea and ARI for those children. The majority of childhood illness management cost comprised visits to unqualified health-care practitioners. Policy makers should consider strategies to increase the skills of unqualified health-care practitioners, use community health workers to provide referral, and promote homecare for diarrhea and ARI. Incentives to motivate existing qualified physicians who are interested to work in rural Bangladesh could also be considered.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0005

    View details for PubMedID 28167594

  • Biosecurity Conditions in Small Commercial Chicken Farms, Bangladesh 2011-2012. EcoHealth Rimi, N. A., Sultana, R., Muhsina, M., UDDIN, B., Haider, N., Nahar, N., Zeidner, N., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Luby, S. P. 2017


    In Bangladesh, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 is endemic in poultry. This study aimed to understand the biosecurity conditions and farmers' perception of avian influenza biosecurity in Bangladeshi small commercial chicken farms. During 2011-2012, we conducted observations, in-depth interviews and group discussions with poultry farmers in 16 farms and in-depth interviews with seven local feed vendors from two districts. None of the farms were completely segregated from people, backyard poultry, other animals, households, other poultry farms or large trees. Wild birds and rodents accessed the farms for poultry feed. Farmers usually did not allow the buyers to bring egg trays inside their sheds. Spraying disinfectant in the shed and removing feces were the only regular cleaning and disinfection activities observed. All farmers sold or used untreated feces as fish feed or fertilizer. Farmers were more concerned about Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease than about avian influenza. Farmers' understanding about biosecurity and avian influenza was influenced by local vendors. While we seldom observed flock segregation, some farmers used measures that involved additional cost or effort to protect their flocks. These farmers could be motivated by interventions to protect their investment from diseases they consider harmful. Future interventions could explore the feasibility and effectiveness of low-cost alternative biosecurity measures.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-017-1224-2

    View details for PubMedID 28289988

  • Influenza B virus outbreak at a religious residential school for boys in Northern Bangladesh, 2011. Influenza and other respiratory viruses Haque, F., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Homaira, N., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Hasan, S. M., Chowdhury, S., Sarkar, S., Khan, A. K., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2017; 11 (2): 165-169


    National media reported a febrile illness among dormitory residents of a boys' religious school. We investigated the outbreak to identify cause.Individuals with fever (>100°F) and cough or sore throat between 1 and 13 August 2011 were influenza-like-illness (ILI) case-patients. We collected histories and specimens from hospitalized case-patients and visited campus to explore environmental context.All 28 case-patients were dormitory residents including 27 hospitalizations. Accommodation space per resident was <0.8 square metres. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs from 22 case-patients were positive for influenza B virus using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR).Overcrowding likely facilitated transmission leading to this dormitory outbreak.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/irv.12430

    View details for PubMedID 27603154

  • Influenza B virus outbreak at a religious residential school for boys in Northern Bangladesh, 2011 INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES Haque, F., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Homaira, N., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Hasan, S. M., Chowdhury, S., Sarkar, S., Khan, A. K., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2017; 11 (2): 165-169

    View details for DOI 10.1111/irv.12430

    View details for Web of Science ID 000394961400008

  • Prevalence and clinical presentation of Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella and chikungunya virus infections among hospital-based febrile patients from December 2008 to November 2009 in Bangladesh BMC INFECTIOUS DISEASES Faruque, L. I., Zaman, R. U., Gurley, E. S., Massung, R. F., Alamgir, A. S., Galloway, R. L., Powers, A. M., Bai, Y., Kosoy, M., Nicholson, W. L., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2017; 17


    We conducted a study to identify Rickettsia, Coxiella, Leptospira, Bartonella, and Chikungunya virus infections among febrile patients presenting at hospitals in Bangladesh.We collected blood samples from patients at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 to November 2009 and performed laboratory tests at the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).Out of 720 enrolled patients, 263 (37%) were infected with Rickettsia; 132 patients had immunofluorescence antibody titer >64 against spotted fever, 63 patients against scrub typhus fever and 10 patients against typhus fever. Ten patients were identified with Coxiella. We isolated Leptospira from two patients and Bartonella from one patient. Ten patients had antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The proportion of patients who died was higher with rickettsial fever (5%) compared to those without a diagnosis of rickettsial infection (2%). None of the patients were initially diagnosed with rickettsial fever.Rickettsial infections are frequent yet under-recognized cause of febrile illness in Bangladesh. Clinical guidelines should be revised so that local clinicians can diagnose rickettsial infections and provide appropriate drug treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12879-017-2239-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000397383500003

    View details for PubMedID 28193163

  • Surveillance at Private Laboratories Identifies Small Outbreaks of Hepatitis E in Urban Bangladesh. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Sazzad, H. M., Labrique, A. B., Teo, C., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2017; 96 (2): 395-399


    Although large outbreaks of hepatitis E are regularly identified in south Asia, the majority of south Asian countries lack surveillance systems for this disease, which has hindered burden of disease estimates and prioritization of resources for prevention. Our study aimed to identify small hepatitis E outbreaks through a sentinel private laboratory in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We identified patients with detectable IgM antibody against hepatitis E virus. We defined a small outbreak as at least two laboratory-confirmed cases or ≥ 2 acute jaundice cases from the sentinel cases' family, neighborhood, or workplace. From November 2008 to November 2009, we identified 29 small outbreaks of hepatitis E from one private laboratory. The median number of cases in each outbreak was three. Cases were identified every month. Eighteen outbreaks occurred among families or neighbors, and 11 in the workplace. Among 103 cases identified as part of outbreaks, 31 (30%) sought care for diagnosis. In Bangladesh, collaboration between government public health surveillance and private laboratories can strengthen capacity for outbreak detection and improve estimates of disease burden.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0411

    View details for PubMedID 27994104

  • Nonrandomized Trial of Feasibility and Acceptability of Strategies for Promotion of Soapy Water as a Handwashing Agent in Rural Bangladesh. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Ashraf, S., Nizame, F. A., Islam, M., Dutta, N. C., Yeasmin, D., Akhter, S., Abedin, J., Winch, P. J., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L., Leontsini, E., Luby, S. P. 2017; 96 (2): 421-429


    We conducted a nonrandomized trial of strategies to promote soapy water for handwashing in rural Bangladesh and measured uptake. We enrolled households with children < 3 years for three progressively intensive study arms: promotion of soapy water (N = 120), soapy water promotion plus handwashing stations (N = 103), and soapy water promotion, stations plus detergent refills (N = 90); we also enrolled control households (N = 72). Our handwashing stations included tap-fitted buckets and soapy water bottles. Community promoters visited households and held community meetings to demonstrate soapy water preparation and promote handwashing at key times. Field workers measured uptake 4 months later. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions assessed factors associated with uptake. More households had soapy water at the handwashing place in progressively intensive arms: 18% (promotion), 60% (promotion plus station), and 71% (promotion, station with refills). Compared with the promotion-only arm, more households that received stations had soapy water at the primary handwashing station (44%, P ≤ 0.001; 71%, P < 0.001 with station plus detergent refill). Qualitative findings highlighted several dimensions that affected use: contextual (shared courtyard), psychosocial (perceived value), and technology dimensions (ease of use, convenience). Soapy water may increase habitual handwashing by addressing barriers of cost and availability of handwashing agents near water sources. Further research should inform optimal strategies to scale-up soapy water as a handwashing agent to study health impact.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0304

    View details for PubMedID 28025233

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5303048

  • Escherichia coli contamination of child complementary foods and association with domestic hygiene in rural Bangladesh. Tropical medicine & international health Parvez, S. M., Kwong, L., Rahman, M. J., Ercumen, A., Pickering, A. J., Ghosh, P. K., Rahman, M. Z., Das, K. K., Luby, S. P., Unicomb, L. 2017


    To determine the frequency and concentration of Escherichia coli in child complementary food and its association with domestic hygiene practices in rural Bangladesh.A total of 608 households with children <2 years were enrolled. We collected stored complementary food samples, performed spot checks on domestic hygiene and measured ambient temperature in the food storage area. Food samples were analysed using the IDEXX most probable number (MPN) method with Colilert-18 media to enumerate E. coli. We calculated adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) to assess the relationship between E. coli and domestic hygiene practices using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for clustering and confounders.Fifty-eight percentage of stored complementary food was contaminated with E. coli, and high levels of contamination (≥100 MPN/dry g food) were found in 12% of samples. High levels of food contamination were more prevalent in compounds where the food was stored uncovered (APR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.2), transferred from the storage pot to the serving dish using hands (APR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.3-3.2) or stored for >4 h (APR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.2), in compounds where water was unavailable in the food preparation area (APR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 4.2), where ≥1 fly was captured in the food preparation area (APR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6), or where the ambient temperature was high (>25-40 °C) in the food storage area (APR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.5, 4.4).Interventions to keep stored food covered and ensure water availability in the food preparation area would be expected to reduce faecal contamination of complementary foods.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12849

    View details for PubMedID 28164415

  • Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh. Transboundary and emerging diseases Haider, N., Sturm-Ramirez, K., KHAN, S. U., Rahman, M. Z., Sarkar, S., Poh, M. K., Shivaprasad, H. L., Kalam, M. A., Paul, S. K., Karmakar, P. C., Balish, A., Chakraborty, A., Mamun, A. A., Mikolon, A. B., Davis, C. T., Rahman, M., Donis, R. O., Heffelfinger, J. D., Luby, S. P., Zeidner, N. 2017; 64 (1): 144-156


    Mortality in ducks and geese caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) infection had not been previously identified in Bangladesh. In June-July 2011, we investigated mortality in ducks, geese and chickens with suspected H5N1 infection in a north-eastern district of the country to identify the aetiologic agent and extent of the outbreak and identify possible associated human infections. We surveyed households and farms with affected poultry flocks in six villages in Netrokona district and collected cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs from sick birds and tissue samples from dead poultry. We conducted a survey in three of these villages to identify suspected human influenza-like illness cases and collected nasopharyngeal and throat swabs. We tested all swabs by real-time RT-PCR, sequenced cultured viruses, and examined tissue samples by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect and characterize influenza virus infection. In the six villages, among the 240 surveyed households and 11 small-scale farms, 61% (1789/2930) of chickens, 47% (4816/10 184) of ducks and 73% (358/493) of geese died within 14 days preceding the investigation. Of 70 sick poultry swabbed, 80% (56/70) had detectable RNA for influenza A/H5, including 89% (49/55) of ducks, 40% (2/5) of geese and 50% (5/10) of chickens. We isolated virus from six of 25 samples; sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene of these six isolates indicated clade of H5N1 virus. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining of avian influenza viral antigens were recognized in the brain, pancreas and intestines of ducks and chickens. We identified ten human cases showing signs compatible with influenza-like illness; four were positive for influenza A/H3; however, none were positive for influenza A/H5. The recently introduced H5N1 clade virus caused unusually high mortality in ducks and geese. Heightened surveillance in poultry is warranted to guide appropriate diagnostic testing and detect novel influenza strains.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12354

    View details for PubMedID 25892457

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4635058

  • Household-level risk factors for secondary influenza-like illness in a rural area of Bangladesh. Tropical medicine & international health Weaver, A. M., Khatun-E-Jannat, K., Cercone, E., Krytus, K., Sohel, B. M., Ahmed, M., Rahman, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Yu, J., Fry, A. M., Luby, S. P., Ram, P. K. 2017; 22 (2): 187-195


    To describe household-level risk factors for secondary influenza-like illness (ILI), an important public health concern in the low-income population of Bangladesh.Secondary analysis of control participants in a randomised controlled trial evaluating the effect of handwashing to prevent household ILI transmission. We recruited index-case patients with ILI - fever (<5 years); fever, cough or sore throat (≥5 years) - from health facilities, collected information on household factors and conducted syndromic surveillance among household contacts for 10 days after resolution of index-case patients' symptoms. We evaluated the associations between household factors at baseline and secondary ILI among household contacts using negative binomial regression, accounting for clustering by household.Our sample was 1491 household contacts of 184 index-case patients. Seventy-one percentage reported that smoking occurred in their home, 27% shared a latrine with one other household and 36% shared a latrine with >1 other household. A total of 114 household contacts (7.6%) had symptoms of ILI during follow-up. Smoking in the home (RRadj 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.0) and sharing a latrine with one household (RRadj 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 3.6) or >1 household (RRadj 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8-5.2) were independently associated with increased risk of secondary ILI.Tobacco use in homes could increase respiratory illness in Bangladesh. The mechanism between use of shared latrines and household ILI transmission is not clear. It is possible that respiratory pathogens could be transmitted through faecal contact or contaminated fomites in shared latrines.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12820

    View details for PubMedID 27889937

  • Hospital-based Surveillance for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis Among Young Children in Bangladesh Defining the Potential Impact of a Rotavirus Vaccine Program PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Satter, S. M., Gastanaduy, P. A., Islam, K., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Heffelfinger, J. D., Parashar, U. D., Gurley, E. S. 2017; 36 (2): 168-172
  • Unusually High Mortality in Waterfowl Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) in Bangladesh TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES Haider, N., Sturm-Ramirez, K., KHAN, S. U., Rahman, M. Z., Sarkar, S., Poh, M. K., Shivaprasad, H. L., Kalam, M. A., Paul, S. K., Karmakar, P. C., Balish, A., Chakraborty, A., Mamun, A. A., Mikolon, A. B., Davis, C. T., Rahman, M., Donis, R. O., Heffelfinger, J. D., Luby, S. P., Zeidner, N. 2017; 64 (1): 144-156

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12354

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392275600015

  • Can Sanitary Inspection Surveys Predict Risk of Microbiological Contamination of Groundwater Sources? Evidence from Shallow Tubewells in Rural Bangladesh. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Ercumen, A., Naser, A. M., Arnold, B. F., Unicomb, L., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2017


    AbstractAccurately assessing the microbiological safety of water sources is essential to reduce waterborne fecal exposures and track progress toward global targets of safe water access. Sanitary inspections are a recommended tool to assess water safety. We collected 1,684 water samples from 902 shallow tubewells in rural Bangladesh and conducted sanitary surveys to assess whether sanitary risk scores could predict water quality, as measured by Escherichia coli. We detected E. coli in 41% of tubewells, mostly at low concentrations. Based on sanitary scores, 31% of wells were low risk, 45% medium risk, and 25% high or very high risk. Older wells had higher risk scores. Escherichia coli levels were higher in wells where the platform was cracked or broken (Δlog10 = 0.09, 0.00-0.18) or undercut by erosion (Δlog10 = 0.13, 0.01-0.24). However, the positive predictive value of these risk factors for E. coli presence was low (< 50%). Latrine presence within 10 m was not associated with water quality during the wet season but was associated with less frequent E. coli detection during the dry season (relative risk = 0.72, 0.59-0.88). Sanitary scores were not associated with E. coli presence or concentration. These findings indicate that observed characteristics of a tubewell, as measured by sanitary inspections in their current form, do not sufficiently characterize microbiological water quality, as measured by E. coli. Assessments of local groundwater and geological conditions and improved water quality indicators may reveal more clear relationships. Our findings also suggest that the dominant contamination route for shallow groundwater sources is short-circuiting at the wellhead rather than subsurface transport.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0489

    View details for PubMedID 28115666

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5361528

  • Evaluating Hospital-Based Surveillance for Outbreak Detection in Bangladesh: Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Data. PLoS medicine Nikolay, B., Salje, H., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Homaira, N., Ahmed, M., Iuliano, A. D., Paul, R. C., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P., Cauchemez, S., Gurley, E. S. 2017; 14 (1)


    The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country's ability to meet these requirements.We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh. We identified cases in selected communities within surveillance hospital catchment areas using key informant and house-to-house surveys and ascertained where cases had sought care. We estimated the probability of surveillance detecting different sized outbreaks by distance from the surveillance hospital and compared characteristics of cases identified in the community and cases attending surveillance hospitals. We estimated that surveillance detected 26% (95% CI 18%-33%) of severe neurological disease cases and 18% (95% CI 16%-21%) of fatal respiratory disease cases residing at 10 km distance from a surveillance hospital. Detection probabilities decreased markedly with distance. The probability of detecting small outbreaks (three cases) dropped below 50% at distances greater than 26 km for severe neurological disease and at distances greater than 7 km for fatal respiratory disease. Characteristics of cases attending surveillance hospitals were largely representative of all cases; however, neurological disease cases aged <5 y or from the lowest socioeconomic group and fatal respiratory disease cases aged ≥60 y were underrepresented. Our estimates of outbreak detection rely on suspected cases that attend a surveillance hospital receiving laboratory confirmation of disease and being reported to the surveillance system. The extent to which this occurs will depend on disease characteristics (e.g., severity and symptom specificity) and surveillance resources.We present a new approach to evaluating the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance, making it possible to predict its ability to detect emerging threats.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002218

    View details for PubMedID 28095468

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5240927

  • Impact of an Intensive Perinatal Handwashing Promotion Intervention on Maternal Handwashing Behavior in the Neonatal Period: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh BIOMED RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL Ram, P. K., Nasreen, S., Kamm, K., Allen, J., Kumar, S., Rahman, M. A., Zaman, K., El Arifeen, S., Luby, S. P. 2017


    One-quarter of neonatal deaths are attributed to infections. Maternal handwashing with soap may prevent neonatal sepsis. We examined impact of intensive handwashing promotion on handwashing behavior of mothers of neonates. In Matlab, Bangladesh, we randomly allocated pregnant women at 28-32 weeks' gestation to intensive handwashing promotion or control. Behavior change communicators used a participatory approach to motivate maternal handwashing with soap and provided soap and handwashing stations. In the neonatal period, we observed soap and water at handwashing places and, at the end of the neonatal period, we estimated impact on maternal handwashing by structured observation. Among 253 women enrolled, intervention households were between 5.7 and 15.2 times as likely as control households to have soap and water present at the handwashing station in the baby's sleeping area. Intervention mothers washed hands with soap 4.1 times as frequently as controls (95% CI 2.55-6.59); handwashing with soap at recommended times was infrequent in both intervention (9%) and control (2%) groups. Intensively promoting handwashing with soap resulted in increased availability of soap and water at handwashing places, but only a modest increase in maternal handwashing with soap. Novel approaches to motivating handwashing behavior to protect newborns should be developed and evaluated.

    View details for DOI 10.1155/2017/6081470

    View details for Web of Science ID 000399911200001

    View details for PubMedID 28497058

  • Potential sources of bias in the use of Escherichia coli to measure waterborne diarrhoea risk in low-income settings TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Ercumen, A., Arnold, B. F., Naser, A. M., Unicomb, L., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2017; 22 (1): 2-11

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12803

    View details for Web of Science ID 000392528900001

  • An epidemiological study of avian influenza A (H5) virus in nomadic ducks and their raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh, 2011-2012. Influenza and other respiratory viruses Sarkar, S., Khan, S. U., Mikolon, A., Rahman, M. Z., Abedin, J., Zeidner, N., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Luby, S. P. 2016


    In Bangladesh, nomadic duck flocks are groups of domestic ducks reared for egg production that are moved to access feeding sites beyond their owners' village boundaries and are housed overnight in portable enclosures in scavenging areas. The objectives of this study were to measure the prevalence of influenza A virus RNA and H5-specific antibodies in nomadic ducks and to characterize nomadic duck raising practices in northeastern Bangladesh.We tested duck egg yolk specimens by competitive ELISA to detect antibodies against avian influenza A (H5) and environmental fecal samples by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) to detect influenza A virus RNA and H5 subtype.The median age of the ducks was 24 months (range: 8-36 months) and the median flock size was 300 ducks (range: 105-1100). Of 1860 egg yolk samples, 556 (30%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 28-32) were positive for antibodies against H5 and 58 flocks (94%) had at least one egg with H5-specific antibodies. Of 496 fecal samples, 121 (24%, 95% CI: 22-29) had detectable influenza A RNA. Thirty-three flocks (53%) had at least one fecal sample positive for influenza A RNA.Nomadic ducks in Bangladesh are commonly infected with avian influenza A (H5) virus and may serve as a bridging host for transmission of avian influenza A (H5) virus or other avian influenza A viruses subtypes between wild waterfowl, backyard poultry, and humans in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/irv.12438

    View details for PubMedID 27966289

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5410719

  • Is pregnancy a teachable moment to promote handwashing with soap among primiparous women in rural Bangladesh? Follow-up of a randomised controlled trial TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Kamm, K. B., Vujcic, J., Nasreen, S., Luby, S. P., Zaman, K., El Arifeen, S., Ram, P. K. 2016; 21 (12): 1562-1571


    Promoting handwashing with soap to mothers of young children can significantly reduce diarrhoea and pneumonia morbidity among children, but studies that measured long-term behaviour after interventions rarely found improvements in handwashing habits. Expecting mothers may experience emotional and social changes that create a unique environment that may encourage adoption of improved handwashing habits. The objective of this study was to determine whether exposure to an intensive handwashing intervention in the perinatal period (perinatal arm) was associated with improved maternal handwashing behaviour vs. exposure to the same intervention after the end of the perinatal period (post-neonatal arm).We identified primiparous women previously enrolled a randomised controlled handwashing intervention trial (November 2010-December 2011) and observed handwashing behaviours at the home 1-14 months after completion of the RCT (January-May 2012). We observed maternal handwashing and estimated the prevalence ratio (PR) of maternal handwashing using log-binomial regression.We enrolled 107 mothers in the perinatal arm and 105 mothers in the post-neonatal arm. Handwashing with soap at recommended times was low overall (4.6%) and comparable between arms (PR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5, 1.5).This handwashing intervention was unable to develop and establish improved handwashing practices in primiparous women in rural Bangladesh. While pregnancy may present an opportunity and motivation to do so, further studies should assess whether social, individual and environmental influences overcome this motivation and prevent handwashing with soap among new mothers.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12782

    View details for Web of Science ID 000389341700010

    View details for PubMedID 27644068

  • Healthcare worker and family caregiver hand hygiene in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities: results from the Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey JOURNAL OF HOSPITAL INFECTION Horng, L. M., Unicomb, L., Alam, M., Halder, A. K., Shoab, A. K., Ghosh, P. K., OPEL, A., Islam, M. K., Luby, S. P. 2016; 94 (3): 286-294


    Healthcare facility hand hygiene impacts patient care, healthcare worker safety, and infection control, but low-income countries have few data to guide interventions.To conduct a nationally representative survey of hand hygiene infrastructure and behaviour in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities to establish baseline data to aid policy.The 2013 Bangladesh National Hygiene Baseline Survey examined water, sanitation, and hand hygiene across households, schools, restaurants and food vendors, traditional birth attendants, and healthcare facilities. We used probability proportional to size sampling to select 100 rural and urban population clusters, and then surveyed hand hygiene infrastructure in 875 inpatient healthcare facilities, observing behaviour in 100 facilities.More than 96% of facilities had 'improved' water sources, but environmental contamination occurred frequently around water sources. Soap was available at 78-92% of handwashing locations for doctors and nurses, but just 4-30% for patients and family. Only 2% of 4676 hand hygiene opportunities resulted in recommended actions: using alcohol sanitizer or washing both hands with soap, then drying by air or clean cloth. Healthcare workers performed recommended hand hygiene in 9% of 919 opportunities: more after patient contact (26%) than before (11%). Family caregivers frequently washed hands with only water (48% of 2751 opportunities), but with little soap (3%).Healthcare workers had more access to hand hygiene materials and performed better hand hygiene than family, but still had low adherence. Increasing hand hygiene materials and behaviour could improve infection control in Bangladeshi healthcare facilities.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jhin.2016.08.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000388542500020

    View details for PubMedID 27665311

  • Occurrence of Host-Associated Fecal Markers on Child Hands, Household Soil, and Drinking Water in Rural Bangladeshi Households ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY LETTERS Boehm, A. B., Wang, D., Ercumen, A., Shea, M., Harris, A. R., Shanks, O. C., Kelty, C., Ahmed, A., Mahmud, Z. H., Arnold, B. F., Chase, C., Kullmann, C., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P., Pickering, A. J. 2016; 3 (11): 393-398
  • Potential sources of bias in the use of Escherichia coli to measure waterborne diarrhea risk in low-income settings. Tropical medicine & international health Ercumen, A., Arnold, B. F., Naser, A. M., Unicomb, L., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2016


    Escherichia coli is the standard water quality indicator for diarrhoea risk. Yet, the association between E. coli and diarrhoea is inconsistent across studies without a systematic assessment of methodological differences behind this variation. Most studies measure water quality cross-sectionally with diarrhoea, risking exposure misclassification and reverse causation. Studies use different recall windows for self-reported diarrhoea; longer periods increase potential outcome misclassification through misrecall. Control of confounding is inconsistent across studies. Additionally, diarrhoea measured in unblinded intervention trials can present courtesy bias. We utilised measurements from a randomised trial of water interventions in Bangladesh to assess how these factors affect the E. coli-diarrhoea association.We compared cross-sectional versus prospective measurements of water quality and diarrhoea, 2-versus 7-day symptom recall periods, estimates with and without controlling for confounding and using measurements from control versus intervention arms of the trial.In the control arm, 2-day diarrhoea prevalence, measured prospectively 1 month after water quality, significantly increased with log10 E. coli (PR = 1.50, 1.02-2.20). This association weakened when we used 7-day recall (PR = 1.18, 0.88-1.57), cross-sectional measurements of E. coli and diarrhoea (PR = 1.11, 0.79-1.56) or did not control for confounding (PR = 1.20, 0.88-1.62). Including data from intervention arms led to less interpretable associations, potentially due to courtesy bias, effect modification and/or reverse causation.By systematically addressing potential sources of bias, our analysis demonstrates a clear relationship between E. coli in drinking water and diarrhoea, suggesting that the continued use of E. coli as an indicator of waterborne diarrhoea risk is justified.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12803

    View details for PubMedID 27797430

  • Hospital-Based Surveillance for Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Young Children in Bangladesh: Defining the Potential Impact of a Rotavirus Vaccine Program. Pediatric infectious disease journal Satter, S., Gastanaduy, P., Islam, K., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., Luby, S., Heffelfinger, J., Parashar, U., Gurley, E. 2016: -?


    In anticipation of introduction of a rotavirus vaccine into the national immunization program of Bangladesh, active hospital-based surveillance was initiated to provide prevaccine baseline data on rotavirus disease.Children 5 years of age and younger admitted with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) (≥3 watery or looser-than-normal stools or ≥1 episode of forceful vomiting) at 7 hospitals throughout Bangladesh were identified. Clinical information and stool specimens were collected from every 4th patient. Specimens were tested for rotavirus antigen by enzyme immunoassays; 25% of detected rotaviruses were genotyped.From July 2012 to June 2015, rotavirus was detected in 2432 (64%) of 3783 children hospitalized for AGE. Eight enrolled children died, including 4 (50%) who were rotavirus positive. Rotavirus was detected year-round in Bangladesh with peak detection rates of >80% during November-February. Most (86%) rotavirus AGE cases were 6-23 months of age. Sixty-nine percent of children with rotavirus had severe disease (Vesikari score, ≥11). Among 543 strains genotyped, G1P[8] (31%) and G12P[8] (29%) were the most common.Rotavirus is a major cause of morbidity in Bangladeshi children, accounting for nearly two-thirds of AGE hospitalizations. These data highlight the potential value of rotavirus vaccination in Bangladesh, and will be the key for future measurement of vaccine impact.

    View details for PubMedID 27798545

  • Investigating Rare Risk Factors for Nipah Virus in Bangladesh: 2001-2012. EcoHealth Hegde, S. T., Sazzad, H. M., Hossain, M. J., Alam, M., Kenah, E., Daszak, P., Rollin, P., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2016: -?


    Human Nipah encephalitis outbreaks have been identified almost yearly in Bangladesh since 2001. Though raw date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact are recognized as major transmission pathways, alternative pathways of transmission are plausible and may not have been identified due to limited statistical power in each outbreak. We conducted a risk factor analysis using all 157 cases and 632 controls surveyed in previous investigations during 2004-2012 to identify exposures independently associated with Nipah, since date palm sap was first asked about as an exposure in 2004. To further explore possible rare exposures, we also conducted in-depth interviews with all cases, or proxies, since 2001 that reported no exposure to date palm sap or contact with another case. Cases were 4.9 (95% 3.2-7.7) times more likely to consume raw date palm sap and 7.3 (95% 4.0-13.4) times more likely to have contact with a Nipah case than controls. In-depth interviews revealed that 39/182 (21%) of Nipah cases reporting neither date palm sap consumption nor contact with another case were misclassified. Prevention efforts should be focused on interventions to interrupt transmission through date palm sap consumption and person-to-person contact. Furthermore, pooling outbreak investigation data is a good method for assessing rare exposures.

    View details for PubMedID 27738775

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5164848

  • Safe distances between groundwater-based water wells and pit latrines at different hydrogeological conditions in the Ganges Atrai floodplains of Bangladesh JOURNAL OF HEALTH POPULATION AND NUTRITION Islam, M. S., Mahmud, Z. H., Islam, M. S., Saha, G. C., Zahid, A., Ali, A. H., Hassan, M. Q., Islam, K., Jahan, H., Hossain, Y., Hasan, M. M., Cairncross, S., Carter, R., Luby, S. P., Cravioto, A., Endtz, H. P., Faruque, S. M., Clemens, J. D. 2016; 35


    Groundwater drawn from shallow tubewells in Bangladesh is often polluted by nearby pit latrines, which are commonly used toilets in rural and sub-urban areas of the country.To determine the minimum safe distance of a tubewell from a pit latrine in different hydrogeological conditions of Bangladesh, 20 monitoring wells were installed at three study sites (Manda, Mohanpur and Bagmara) with the vertical and horizontal distances ranging from 18-47 to 2-15 m, respectively. Water samples were collected three times in three seasons and tested for faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) as indicators of contamination. Soil samples were analysed for texture, bulk density and hydraulic conductivity following standard procedures. Sediment samples were collected to prepare lithological logs.When the shallow aquifers at one of the three sites (Mohanpur) were overlained by 18-23-m-thick aquitards, the groundwater of the monitoring wells was found contaminated with a lateral and vertical distances of 2 and 31 m, respectively. However, where the aquitard was only 9 m thick, contamination was found up to lateral and vertical distances of 4.5 and 40.5 m, respectively. The soil textures of all the sites were mainly composed of loam and sandy loam. The hydraulic conductivities in the first aquifer at Manda, Mohanpur and Bagmara were 5.2-7.3, 8.2 and 1.4-15.7 m/h, respectively.The results showed that the safe distance from the tubewell to the pit latrine varied from site to site depending on the horizontal and vertical distances of the tubewell as well as hydrogeological conditions of a particular area.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s41043-016-0063-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000383426200001

    View details for PubMedID 27542826

  • Hygiene Practices During Food Preparation in Rural Bangladesh: Opportunities to Improve the Impact of Handwashing Interventions. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Nizame, F. A., Leontsini, E., Luby, S. P., Nuruzzaman, M., Parveen, S., Winch, P. J., Ram, P. K., Unicomb, L. 2016; 95 (2): 288-297


    This study explored the steps of food preparation, related handwashing opportunities, current practices, and community perceptions regarding foods at high-risk of contamination such as mashed foods and salads. In three rural Bangladeshi villages, we collected qualitative and observational data. Food preparation was a complex and multistep process. Food preparation was interrupted by tasks that could contaminate the preparers' hands, after which they continued food preparation without washing hands. Community members typically ate hand-mixed, uncooked mashed food and salad as accompaniments to curry and rice at meals. Hand-mixed dried foods were mostly consumed as a snack. Observers recorded handwashing during preparation of these foods. Among 24 observed caregivers, of 85 opportunities to wash hands with soap during food preparation, washing hands with soap occurred twice, both times after cutting fish, whereas washing hands with water alone was common. A simple and feasible approach is promotion of handwashing with soap upon entering and re-entering the food preparation area, and ensuring that everything needed for handwashing should be within easy reach.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0377

    View details for PubMedID 27296388

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4973173

  • Raising Backyard Poultry in Rural Bangladesh: Financial and Nutritional Benefits, but Persistent Risky Practices. Transboundary and emerging diseases Shanta, I. S., Hasnat, M. A., Zeidner, N., Gurley, E. S., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Sharker, M. A., Hossain, K., KHAN, S. U., Haider, N., Bhuyan, A. A., Hossain, M. A., Luby, S. P. 2016


    Poultry is commonly raised by households in rural Bangladesh. In 2007, the Government of Bangladesh began a mass media campaign to disseminate 10 recommended precautions to prevent transmission of H5N1 from poultry to humans. This longitudinal study explored the contribution of backyard poultry on household economy and nutrition and compared poultry-raising practices to government recommendations. From 2009 to 2012, we enrolled a nationally representative sample of 2489 primary backyard poultry raisers from 115 rural villages selected by probability proportional to population size. Researchers interviewed the raisers to collect data on poultry-raising practices. They followed the raisers for 2-12 months to collect data on household income and nutrition from poultry. Income from backyard poultry flocks accounted for 2.8% of monthly household income. Return on annual investment (ROI) per flock was 480%. Yearly, median family consumption of eggs was one-fifth of the total produced eggs and three poultry from their own flock. Respondents' reported practices conflicted with government recommendations. Sixty per cent of raisers had never heard of avian influenza or 'bird flu'. Among the respondents, 85% handled sick poultry or poultry that died due to illness, and 49% slaughtered or defeathered sick poultry. In 37% of households, children touched poultry. Fifty-eight per cent never washed their hands with soap after handling poultry, while <1% covered their nose and mouth with a cloth when handling poultry. Only 3% reported poultry illness and deaths to local authorities. These reported practices did not improve during the study period. Raising backyard poultry in rural Bangladesh provides important income and nutrition with an excellent ROI. Government recommendations to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission did not impact the behaviour of poultry producers. Further research should prioritize developing interventions that simultaneously reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission and increase productivity of backyard poultry.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12536

    View details for PubMedID 27311406

  • Epidemiology of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Bangladeshi Children Before Introduction of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Saha, S. K., Hossain, B., Islam, M., Hasanuzzaman, M., Saha, S., Hasan, M., Darmstadt, G. L., Chowdury, M., El Arifeen, S., Baqui, A. H., Breiman, R. F., Santosham, M., Luby, S. P., Whitney, C. G. 2016; 35 (6): 655-661


    Because Bangladesh intended to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)-10 in 2015, we examined the baseline burden of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) to measure impact of PCV.During 2007-2013, we performed blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures in children <5 years old with suspected IPD identified through active surveillance at 4 hospitals. Isolates were serotyped by quellung and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by disc diffusion and E-test. Serotyping of culture-negative cases, detected by Binax or polymerase chain reaction, was done by sequential multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Trends in IPD case numbers were analyzed by serotype and clinical syndrome.The study identified 752 IPD cases; 78% occurred in children <12 months old. Serotype information was available for 78% (442/568), including 197 of 323 culture-negative cases available for serotyping. We identified 50 serotypes; the most common serotypes were 2 (16%), 1 (10 %), 6B (7%), 14 (7%) and 5 (7%). PCV-10 and PCV-13 serotypes accounted for 46% (range 29%-57% by year) and 50% (range 37%-64% by year) of cases, respectively. Potential serotype coverage for meningitis and nonmeningitis cases was 45% and 49% for PCV-10, and 48% and 57% for PCV-13, respectively. Eighty-two percent of strains were susceptible to all antibiotics except cotrimoxazole.The distribution of serotypes causing IPD in Bangladeshi children is diverse, limiting the proportion of IPD cases PCV can prevent. However, PCV introduction is expected to have major benefits as the country has a high burden of IPD-related mortality, morbidity and disability.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0000000000001037

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379343700016

    View details for PubMedID 26658530

  • Hand- and Object-Mouthing of Rural Bangladeshi Children 3-18 Months Old INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH Kwong, L. H., Ercumen, A., Pickering, A. J., Unicomb, L., Davis, J., Luby, S. P. 2016; 13 (6)


    Children are exposed to environmental contaminants by placing contaminated hands or objects in their mouths. We quantified hand- and object-mouthing frequencies of Bangladeshi children and determined if they differ from those of U.S. children to evaluate the appropriateness of applying U.S. exposure models in other socio-cultural contexts. We conducted a five-hour structured observation of the mouthing behaviors of 148 rural Bangladeshi children aged 3-18 months. We modeled mouthing frequencies using 2-parameter Weibull distributions to compare the modeled medians with those of U.S. children. In Bangladesh the median frequency of hand-mouthing was 37.3 contacts/h for children 3-6 months old, 34.4 contacts/h for children 6-12 months old, and 29.7 contacts/h for children 12-18 months old. The median frequency of object-mouthing was 23.1 contacts/h for children 3-6 months old, 29.6 contacts/h for children 6-12 months old, and 15.2 contacts/h for children 12-18 months old. At all ages both hand- and object-mouthing frequencies were higher than those of U.S. children. Mouthing frequencies were not associated with child location (indoor/outdoor). Using hand- and object-mouthing exposure models from U.S. and other high-income countries might not accurately estimate children's exposure to environmental contaminants via mouthing in low- and middle-income countries.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph13060563

    View details for Web of Science ID 000378860100042

    View details for PubMedID 27271651

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4924020

  • Toward a Scalable and Sustainable Intervention for Complementary Food Safety FOOD AND NUTRITION BULLETIN Rahman, M. J., Nizame, F. A., Nuruzzaman, M., Akand, F., Islam, M. A., Parvez, S. M., Stewart, C. P., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P., Winch, P. J. 2016; 37 (2): 186-201


    Contaminated complementary foods are associated with diarrhea and malnutrition among children aged 6 to 24 months. However, existing complementary food safety intervention models are likely not scalable and sustainable.To understand current behaviors, motivations for these behaviors, and the potential barriers to behavior change and to identify one or two simple actions that can address one or few food contamination pathways and have potential to be sustainably delivered to a larger population.Data were collected from 2 rural sites in Bangladesh through semistructured observations (12), video observations (12), in-depth interviews (18), and focus group discussions (3).Although mothers report preparing dedicated foods for children, observations show that these are not separate from family foods. Children are regularly fed store-bought foods that are perceived to be bad for children. Mothers explained that long storage durations, summer temperatures, flies, animals, uncovered food, and unclean utensils are threats to food safety. Covering foods, storing foods on elevated surfaces, and reheating foods before consumption are methods believed to keep food safe. Locally made cabinet-like hardware is perceived to be acceptable solution to address reported food safety threats.Conventional approaches that include teaching food safety and highlighting benefits such as reduced contamination may be a disincentive for rural mothers who need solutions for their physical environment. We propose extending existing beneficial behaviors by addressing local preferences of taste and convenience.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/0379572116631641

    View details for Web of Science ID 000376667800007

    View details for PubMedID 26944506

  • Ruminants Contribute Fecal Contamination to the Urban Household Environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Harris, A. R., Pickering, A. J., Harris, M., Doza, S., Islam, M. S., Unicomb, L., Luby, S., Davis, J., Boehm, A. B. 2016; 50 (9): 4642-4649


    In Dhaka, Bangladesh, the sensitivity and specificity of three human, three ruminant, and one avian source-associated QPCR microbial source tracking assays were evaluated using fecal samples collected on site. Ruminant-associated assays performed well, whereas the avian and human assays exhibited unacceptable cross-reactions with feces from other hosts. Subsequently, child hand rinses (n = 44) and floor sponge samples (n = 44) from low-income-households in Dhaka were assayed for fecal indicator bacteria (enterococci, Bacteroidales, and Escherichia coli) and a ruminant-associated bacterial target (BacR). Mean enterococci concentrations were of 100 most probable number (MPN)/2 hands and 1000 MPN/225 cm(2) floor. Mean concentrations of Bacteroidales were 10(6) copies/2 hands and 10(5) copies/225 cm(2) floor. E. coli were detected in a quarter of hand rinse and floor samples. BacR was detected in 18% of hand rinse and 27% of floor samples. Results suggest that effective household fecal management should account not only for human sources of contamination but also for animal sources. The poor performance of the human-associated assays in the study area calls into the question the feasibility of developing a human-associated marker in urban slum environments, where domestic animals are exposed to human feces that have been disposed in pits and open drains.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/acs.est.5b06282

    View details for Web of Science ID 000375521400007

    View details for PubMedID 27045990

  • Bat Hunting and Bat-Human Interactions in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bat Conservation. Transboundary and emerging diseases Openshaw, J. J., Hegde, S., Sazzad, H. M., KHAN, S. U., Hossain, M. J., Epstein, J. H., Daszak, P., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2016: -?


    Bats are an important reservoir for emerging zoonotic pathogens. Close human-bat interactions, including the sharing of living spaces and hunting and butchering of bats for food and medicines, may lead to spillover of zoonotic disease into human populations. We used bat exposure and environmental data gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to characterize bat exposures and hunting in Bangladesh. Eleven percent of households reported having a bat roost near their homes, 65% reported seeing bats flying over their households at dusk, and 31% reported seeing bats inside their compounds or courtyard areas. Twenty percent of households reported that members had at least daily exposure to bats. Bat hunting occurred in 49% of the villages surveyed and was more likely to occur in households that reported nearby bat roosts (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9) and villages located in north-west (aPR 7.5, 95% CI 2.5-23.0) and south-west (aPR 6.8, 95% CI 2.1-21.6) regions. Our results suggest high exposure to bats and widespread hunting throughout Bangladesh. This has implications for both zoonotic disease spillover and bat conservation.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12505

    View details for PubMedID 27125493

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5086320

  • Incidence of severe diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae in the catchment area of six surveillance hospitals in Bangladesh EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Paul, R. C., Faruque, A. S., Alam, M., Iqbal, A., Zaman, K., Islam, N., SOBHAN, A., Das, S. K., Malek, M. A., Qadri, F., Cravioto, A., Luby, S. P. 2016; 144 (5): 927-939


    Cholera is an important public health problem in Bangladesh. Interventions to prevent cholera depend on their cost-effectiveness which in turn depends on cholera incidence. Hospital-based diarrhoeal disease surveillance has been ongoing in six Bangladeshi hospitals where a systematic proportion of patients admitted with diarrhoea were enrolled and tested for Vibrio cholerae. However, incidence calculation using only hospital data underestimates the real disease burden because many ill persons seek treatment elsewhere. We conducted a healthcare utilization survey in the catchment areas of surveillance hospitals to estimate the proportion of severe diarrhoeal cases that were admitted to surveillance hospitals and estimated the population-based incidence of severe diarrhoea due to V. cholerae by combining both hospital surveillance and catchment area survey data. The estimated incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera ranged from 0·3 to 4·9/1000 population in the catchment area of surveillance hospitals. In children aged <5 years, incidence ranged from 1·0 to 11·0/1000 children. Diarrhoeal deaths were most common in the Chhatak Hospital's catchment area (18·5/100 000 population). This study provides a credible estimate of the incidence of severe diarrhoea due to cholera in Bangladesh, which can be used to assess the cost-effectiveness of cholera prevention activities.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268815002174

    View details for Web of Science ID 000371720700004

    View details for PubMedID 26391481

  • Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Ao, T. T., Rahman, M., Haque, F., Chakraborty, A., Hossain, M. J., Haider, S., Alamgir, A. S., Sobel, J., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2016; 22 (4): 720-722


    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010-2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2204.150330

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372688500022

    View details for PubMedID 26981877

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4806969

  • Genetically Diverse Low Pathogenicity Avian Influenza A Virus Subtypes Co-Circulate among Poultry in Bangladesh PLOS ONE Gerloff, N. A., Khan, S. U., Zanders, N., Balish, A., Haider, N., Islam, A., Chowdhury, S., Rahman, M. Z., Haque, A., Hosseini, P., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P., Wentworth, D. E., Donis, R. O., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Davis, C. T. 2016; 11 (3)


    Influenza virus surveillance, poultry outbreak investigations and genomic sequencing were assessed to understand the ecology and evolution of low pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) A viruses in Bangladesh from 2007 to 2013. We analyzed 506 avian specimens collected from poultry in live bird markets and backyard flocks to identify influenza A viruses. Virus isolation-positive specimens (n = 50) were subtyped and their coding-complete genomes were sequenced. The most frequently identified subtypes among LPAI isolates were H9N2, H11N3, H4N6, and H1N1. Less frequently detected subtypes included H1N3, H2N4, H3N2, H3N6, H3N8, H4N2, H5N2, H6N1, H6N7, and H7N9. Gene sequences were compared to publicly available sequences using phylogenetic inference approaches. Among the 14 subtypes identified, the majority of viral gene segments were most closely related to poultry or wild bird viruses commonly found in Southeast Asia, Europe, and/or northern Africa. LPAI subtypes were distributed over several geographic locations in Bangladesh, and surface and internal protein gene segments clustered phylogenetically with a diverse number of viral subtypes suggesting extensive reassortment among these LPAI viruses. H9N2 subtype viruses differed from other LPAI subtypes because genes from these viruses consistently clustered together, indicating this subtype is enzootic in Bangladesh. The H9N2 strains identified in Bangladesh were phylogenetically and antigenically related to previous human-derived H9N2 viruses detected in Bangladesh representing a potential source for human infection. In contrast, the circulating LPAI H5N2 and H7N9 viruses were both phylogenetically and antigenically unrelated to H5 viruses identified previously in humans in Bangladesh and H7N9 strains isolated from humans in China. In Bangladesh, domestic poultry sold in live bird markets carried a wide range of LPAI virus subtypes and a high diversity of genotypes. These findings, combined with the seven year timeframe of sampling, indicate a continuous circulation of these viruses in the country.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0152131

    View details for Web of Science ID 000372708000094

    View details for PubMedID 27010791

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4806916

  • Increased Morbidity and Mortality in Domestic Animals Eating Dropped and Bitten Fruit in Bangladeshi Villages: Implications for Zoonotic Disease Transmission. EcoHealth Openshaw, J. J., Hegde, S., Sazzad, H. M., Khan, S. U., Hossain, M. J., Epstein, J. H., Daszak, P., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2016; 13 (1): 39-48


    We used data on feeding practices and domestic animal health gathered from 207 Bangladeshi villages to identify any association between grazing dropped fruit found on the ground or owners directly feeding bat- or bird-bitten fruit and animal health. We compared mortality and morbidity in domestic animals using a mixed effects model controlling for village clustering, herd size, and proxy measures of household wealth. Thirty percent of household heads reported that their animals grazed on dropped fruit and 20% reported that they actively fed bitten fruit to their domestic herds. Household heads allowing their cattle to graze on dropped fruit were more likely to report an illness within their herd (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.17, 95% CI 1.02-1.31). Household heads directly feeding goats bitten fruit were more likely to report illness (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.16-1.57) and deaths (adjusted prevalence ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.13-2.4). Reporting of illnesses and deaths among goats rose as the frequency of feeding bitten fruit increased. One possible explanation for this finding is the transmission of bat pathogens to domestic animals via bitten fruit consumption.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-015-1080-x

    View details for PubMedID 26668032

  • Field trial of an automated batch chlorinator system at shared water points in an urban community of Dhaka, Bangladesh JOURNAL OF WATER SANITATION AND HYGIENE FOR DEVELOPMENT Amin, N., Crider, Y. S., Unicomb, L., Das, K. K., Gope, P. S., Mahmud, Z. H., Islam, M. S., Davis, J., Luby, S. P., Pickering, A. J. 2016; 6 (1): 32-41
  • Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged < 5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014 PLOS ONE Homaira, N., Luby, S. P., Hossain, K., Islam, K., Ahmed, M., Rahman, M., Rahman, Z., Paul, R. C., Bhuiyan, M. U., Brooks, W. A., Sohel, B. M., Banik, K. C., Widdowson, M., Willby, M., Rahman, M., Bresee, J., Ramirez, K., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2016; 11 (2)


    We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh.Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals.We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10-12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2-3), 0.5(0.4-0.8), 0.4 (0.3-0.6), 0.4 (0.3-0.6), and 0.4 (0.3-0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3-7), 2 (1-3), 1 (0.6-2), and 3 (2-4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively.Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0147982

    View details for Web of Science ID 000369550200074

    View details for PubMedID 26840782

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4739641

  • Safety and acceptability of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis 35624 in Bangladeshi infants: a phase I randomized clinical trial. BMC complementary and alternative medicine Hoy-Schulz, Y. E., Jannat, K., Roberts, T., Zaidi, S. H., Unicomb, L., Luby, S., Parsonnet, J. 2016; 16 (1): 44-?


    Probiotics have rarely been studied in young healthy infants from low-income countries. This phase I study investigated the safety and acceptability of two probiotics in Bangladesh.Healthy infants aged four to twelve weeks from urban slums in Bangladesh were randomized to one of three different intervention dosing arms (daily, weekly, biweekly - once every two weeks) of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 and Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis 35624 over one month or to a fourth arm that received no probiotics. All subjects were followed for two additional months. Reported gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms as well as breastfeeding rates, hospitalizations, differential withdrawals, and caretakers' perception of probiotic use were compared among arms.In total, 160 infants were randomized (40 to each arm) with 137 (Daily n = 35, Weekly n = 35, Biweekly n = 35, Control n = 32) followed up for a median of twelve weeks; 113 completed the study. Illness and breastfeeding rates were similar across all arms. Ten hospitalizations unrelated to probiotic use occurred. Forty eight percent of the caretakers of infants in intervention arms believed that probiotics improved their baby's health.These two commonly used probiotics appeared safe and well-accepted by Bangladeshi NCT01899378 . Registered July 10, 2013.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12906-016-1016-1

    View details for PubMedID 26832746

  • It's not only what you say, it's also how you say it: communicating nipah virus prevention messages during an outbreak in Bangladesh. BMC public health Parveen, S., Islam, M. S., Begum, M., Alam, M., Sazzad, H. M., Sultana, R., Rahman, M., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P. 2016; 16: 726-?


    During a fatal Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Bangladesh, residents rejected biomedical explanations of NiV transmission and treatment and lost trust in the public healthcare system. Field anthropologists developed and communicated a prevention strategy to bridge the gap between the biomedical and local explanation of the outbreak.We explored residents' beliefs and perceptions about the illness and care-seeking practices and explained prevention messages following an interactive strategy with the aid of photos showed the types of contact that can lead to NiV transmission from bats to humans by drinking raw date palm sap and from person-to-person.The residents initially believed that the outbreak was caused by supernatural forces and continued drinking raw date palm sap despite messages from local health authorities to stop. Participants in community meetings stated that the initial messages did not explain that bats were the source of this virus. After our intervention, participants responded that they now understood how NiV could be transmitted and would abstain from raw sap consumption and maintain safer behaviours while caring for patients.During outbreaks, one-way behaviour change communication without meaningful causal explanations is unlikely to be effective. Based on the cultural context, interactive communication strategies in lay language with supporting evidence can make biomedical prevention messages credible in affected communities, even among those who initially invoke supernatural causal explanations.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3416-z

    View details for PubMedID 27495927

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4974711

  • Understanding the failure of a behavior change intervention to reduce risk behaviors for avian influenza transmission among backyard poultry raisers in rural Bangladesh: a focused ethnography. BMC public health Rimi, N. A., Sultana, R., Ishtiak-Ahmed, K., Rahman, M. Z., Hasin, M., Islam, M. S., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Nahar, N., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2016; 16 (1): 858-?


    The spread of the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus among poultry and humans has raised global concerns and has motivated government and public health organizations to initiate interventions to prevent the transmission of HPAI. In Bangladesh, H5N1 became endemic in poultry and seven human H5N1 cases have been reported since 2007, including one fatality. This study piloted messages to increase awareness about avian influenza and its prevention in two rural communities, and explored change in villagers' awareness and behaviors attributable to the intervention.During 2009-10, a research team implemented the study in two rural villages in two districts of Bangladesh. The team used a focused ethnographic approach for data collection, including informal interviews and observations to provide detailed contextual information about community response to a newly emerging disease. They collected pre-intervention qualitative data for one month. Then another team disseminated preventive messages focused on safe slaughtering methods, through courtyard meetings and affixed posters in every household. After dissemination, the research team collected post-intervention data for one month.More villagers reported hearing about 'bird flu' after the intervention compared to before the intervention. After the intervention, villagers commonly recalled changes in the color of combs and shanks of poultry as signs of avian influenza, and perceived zoonotic transmission of avian influenza through direct contact and through inhalation. Consequently the villagers valued covering the nose and mouth while handling sick and dead poultry as a preventive measure. Nevertheless, the team did not observe noticeable change in villagers' behavior after the intervention. Villagers reported not following the recommended behaviors because of the perceived absence of avian influenza in their flocks, low risk of avian influenza, cost, inconvenience, personal discomfort, fear of being rebuked or ridiculed, and doubt about the necessity of the intervention.The villagers' awareness about avian influenza improved after the intervention, however, the intervention did not result in any measurable improvement in preventive behaviors. Low cost approaches that promote financial benefits and minimize personal discomfort should be developed and piloted.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3543-6

    View details for PubMedID 27552983

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4995615

  • Cultural and Economic Motivation of Pig Raising Practices in Bangladesh ECOHEALTH Nahar, N., Uddin, M., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Sultana, R., Luby, S. P. 2015; 12 (4): 611-620


    The interactions that pig raisers in Bangladesh have with their pigs could increase the risk of zoonotic disease transmission. Since raising pigs is a cultural taboo to Muslims, we aimed at understanding the motivation for raising pigs and resulting practices that could pose the risk of transmitting disease from pigs to humans in Bangladesh, a predominantly Muslim country. These understandings could help identify acceptable strategies to reduce the risk of disease transmission from pigs to people. To achieve this objective, we conducted 34 in-depth interviews among pig herders and backyard pig raisers in eight districts of Bangladesh. Informants explained that pig raising is an old tradition, embedded in cultural and religious beliefs and practices, the primary livelihood of pig herders, and a supplemental income of backyard pig raisers. To secure additional income, pig raisers sell feces, liver, bile, and other pig parts often used as traditional medicine. Pig raisers have limited economic ability to change the current practices that may put them at risk of exposure to diseases from their pigs. An intervention that improves their financial situation and reduces the risk of zoonotic disease may be of interest to pig raisers.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-015-1046-z

    View details for Web of Science ID 000367627300010

    View details for PubMedID 26122206

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4696915

  • The Interaction of Deworming, Improved Sanitation, and Household Flooring with Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection in Rural Bangladesh PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES Benjamin-Chung, J., Nazneen, A., Halder, A. K., Haque, R., Siddique, A., Uddin, M. S., Koporc, K., Arnold, B. F., Hubbard, A. E., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P., Addiss, D. G., Colford, J. M. 2015; 9 (12)
  • Early priming with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and intradermal fractional dose IPV administered by a microneedle device: A randomized controlled trial VACCINE Anand, A., Zaman, K., Estivariz, C. F., Yunus, M., Gary, H. E., Weldon, W. C., Bari, T. I., Oberste, M. S., Wassilak, S. G., Luby, S. P., Heffelfinger, J. D., Pallansch, M. A. 2015; 33 (48): 6816-6822
  • Early priming with inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) and intradermal fractional dose IPV administered by a microneedle device: A randomized controlled trial. Vaccine Anand, A., Zaman, K., Estívariz, C. F., Yunus, M., Gary, H. E., Weldon, W. C., Bari, T. I., Steven Oberste, M., Wassilak, S. G., Luby, S. P., Heffelfinger, J. D., Pallansch, M. A. 2015; 33 (48): 6816-6822


    Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) introduction and phased oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) cessation are essential for eradication of polio.Healthy 6-week old infants in Bangladesh were randomized to one of five study arms: receipt of trivalent OPV (tOPV) or bivalent OPV (bOPV) at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks, intramuscular IPV or intradermal one-fifth fractional dose IPV (f-IPV) at ages 6 and 14 weeks, or f-IPV at ages 6 and 14 weeks with bOPV at age 10 weeks (f-IPV/bOPV). All participants received tOPV at age 18 weeks.Of 975 infants randomized, 95% (922) completed follow-up. Type 1 seroconversion after 3 doses at 6, 10 and 14 weeks was higher with bOPV compared with tOPV (99% vs 94%, p=0.019). Seroconversions to types 1 and 3 after 2 IPV doses at ages 6 and 14 weeks were no different than after 3 doses of tOPV or bOPV at ages 6, 10 and 14 weeks. A priming response, seroconversion 1 week after IPV at 14 weeks among those who did not seroconvert after IPV at 6 weeks, was observed against poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3 in 91%, 84% and 97%, respectively. Compared with IPV, f-IPV failed non-inferiority tests for seroconversion with 1 or 2 doses and priming after 1 dose.The findings demonstrate considerable priming with IPV at age 6 weeks, comparable immunogenicity of tOPV and bOPV, and inferior immunogenicity of one-fifth f-IPV compared with IPV. If IPV induced priming at age 6 weeks is similar to that at age 14 weeks, IPV could be administered at a younger age and possibly with a higher coverage.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.09.039

    View details for PubMedID 26476367

  • Raw Sap Consumption Habits and Its Association with Knowledge of Nipah Virus in Two Endemic Districts in Bangladesh PLOS ONE Nahar, N., Paul, R. C., Sultana, R., Gurley, E. S., Garcia, F., Abedin, J., Sumon, S. A., Banik, K. C., Asaduzzaman, M., Rimi, N. A., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2015; 10 (11)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0142292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364422800023

    View details for PubMedID 26551202

  • An outbreak of hepatitis E in an urban area of Bangladesh JOURNAL OF VIRAL HEPATITIS Haque, F., Banu, S. S., Ara, K., Chowdhury, I. A., Chowdhury, S. A., Kamili, S., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2015; 22 (11): 948-956


    We investigated an outbreak of jaundice in urban Bangladesh in 2010 to examine the cause and risk factors and assess the diagnostic utility of commercial assays. We classified municipal residents reporting jaundice during the preceding 4 weeks as probable hepatitis E cases and their neighbours without jaundice in the previous 6 months as probable controls. We tested the sera collected from probable cases and probable controls for IgM anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV), and the IgM-negative sera for IgG anti-HEV using a commercial assay locally. We retested the IgM-positive sera for both IgM and IgG anti-HEV using another assay at the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), USA. Probable cases positive for IgM anti-HEV were confirmed cases; probable controls negative for both IgM and IgG anti-HEV were confirmed controls. We explored the local water supply and sanitation infrastructure and tested for bacterial concentration of water samples. Probable cases were more likely than probable controls to drink tap water (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.2-9.2). Fifty-eight percentage (36/62) of the case sera were IgM anti-HEV positive; and 75% of the IgM-positive samples were confirmed positive on retesting with another assay at CDC. Compared to confirmed controls, cases confirmed using either or both assays also identified drinking tap water as the risk factor. Two tap water samples had detectable thermotolerant coliforms. Research exploring decentralized water treatment technologies for sustainable safe water might prevent HEV transmission in resource-poor cities. Detection of serological markers in a majority of probable cases implied that available diagnostic assays could adequately identify HEV infection during outbreaks.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/jvh.12407

    View details for Web of Science ID 000362450600010

    View details for PubMedID 25817821

  • Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Huda, T. M., Unicomb, L., Islam, M. S., Arnold, B. F., Johnston, R. B. 2015; 93 (5): 904-911

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0274

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364437500005

    View details for PubMedID 26438031

  • Feasibility and effectiveness of oral cholera vaccine in an urban endemic setting in Bangladesh: a cluster randomised open-label trial LANCET Qadri, F., Ali, M., Chowdhury, F., Khan, A. I., Saha, A., Khan, I. A., Begum, Y. A., Bhuiyan, T. Q., Chowdhury, M. I., Uddin, M. J., Khan, J. A., Chowdhury, A. I., Rahman, A., Siddique, S. A., Asaduzzaman, M., Akter, A., Khan, A., You, Y. A., Siddik, A. U., Saha, N. C., Kabir, A., Riaz, B. K., Biswas, S. K., Begum, F., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P., Cravioto, A., Clemens, J. D. 2015; 386 (10001): 1362-1371
  • Why highly polluting methods are used to manufacture bricks in Bangladesh ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Luby, S. P., Biswas, D., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, I. 2015; 28: 68-74
  • Immunogenicity of three doses of bivalent, trivalent, or type 1 monovalent oral poliovirus vaccines with a 2 week interval between doses in Bangladesh: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES Estivariz, C. F., Anand, A., Gary, H. E., Rahman, M., Islam, J., Bari, T. I., Wassilak, S. G., Chu, S. Y., Weldon, W. C., Pallansch, M. A., Heffellfinger, J. D., Luby, S. P., Zaman, K. 2015; 15 (8): 898-904


    The provision of several doses of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) and bivalent OPV1 and 3 (bOPV) vaccines through campaigns is essential to stop the circulation of remaining wild polioviruses. Our study aimed to assess the shortening of intervals between campaigns with bOPV and mOPV1 and to assess the immunogenicity of bOPV in routine immunisation schedules.We did an open-label, non-inferiority, five-arm, randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh. We recruited healthy infants aged 6 weeks at 42 immunisation clinics and randomly assigned them (with blocks of 15, three per group) to receive a short three-dose schedule of bOPV (bOPV short) or mOPV1 (mOPV1 short) with the first dose given at age 6 weeks, the second at age 8 weeks, and the third at age 10 weeks; or to a standard three-dose schedule of bOPV (bOPV standard) or mOPV1 (mOPV1 standard) or trivalent OPV (tOPV standard) with the first dose given at age 6 weeks, the second at 10 weeks, and the third at age 14 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of infants with antibody seroconversion for type 1, type 2, and type 3 polioviruses. The primary, modified intention-to-treat analysis included all patients who had testable serum samples before and after receiving at least one OPV dose. We used a 10% margin to establish non-inferiority for bOPV groups versus mOPV1 groups in seroconversion for type 1 poliovirus, and for bOPV1 short versus bOPV1 standard for types 1 and 3. This trial is registered at, number NCT01633216, and is closed to new participants.Between May 13, 2012, and Jan 21, 2013, we randomly assigned 1000 infants to our study groups. 927 completed all study visits and were included in the primary analysis. Seroconversion for type-1 poliovirus was recorded in 183 (98%, 95% CI 95-100) of 186 infants given bOPV short, 179 (97%, 94-99) of 184 given bOPV standard, 180 (96%, 92-98) of 188 given mOPV short, 178 (99%, 97-100) of 179 given mOPV1 standard, and 175 (92%, 87-96) of 190 given tOPV standard. Seroconversion for type 2 was noted in 16 infants (9%, 5-14) on bOPV short, 29 (16%, 11-22) on bOPV standard, 19 (10%, 7-15) on mOPV short, 33 (18%, 13-25) on mOPV1 standard, and 182 (96%, 92-98) on tOPV standard. Seroconversion for type 3 was noted in 175 infants (94%, 90-97) on bOPV short, 176 (96%, 92-98) on bOPV standard, 18 (10%, 6-15) on mOPV short, 25 (14%, 10-20) on mOPV1 standard, and 167 (88%, 83-92) on tOPV standard. The short schedules for mOPV1 and bOPV elicited a non-inferior antibody response compared with the bOPV standard schedule. 104 adverse events were reported in 100 infants during follow up. 36 of these events needed admission to hospital (32 were pneumonia, two were vomiting or feeding disorders, one was septicaemia, and one was diarrhoea with severe malnutrition). One of the infants admitted to hospital for pneumonia died 5 days after admission. No adverse event was attributed to the vaccines.Our trial showed that three doses of mOPV1 or bOPV with a short schedule of 2 week intervals between doses induces an immune response similar to that obtained with the standard schedule of giving doses at 4 week intervals. These findings support the use of these vaccines in campaigns done at short intervals to rapidly increase population immunity against polioviruses to control outbreaks or prevent transmission in high-risk areas.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and UNICEF.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)00094-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000358182500028

    View details for PubMedID 26093980

  • Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Naser, A. M., Hossain, M. J., Sazzad, H. M., Homaira, N., Gurley, E. S., Podder, G., Afroj, S., Banu, S., ROLLIN, P. E., Daszak, P., Ahmed, B., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2015; 143 (9): 1922-1930


    This paper explores the utility of cluster- and case-based surveillance established in government hospitals in Bangladesh to detect Nipah virus, a stage III zoonotic pathogen. Physicians listed meningo-encephalitis cases in the 10 surveillance hospitals and identified a cluster when ⩾2 cases who lived within 30 min walking distance of one another developed symptoms within 3 weeks of each other. Physicians collected blood samples from the clustered cases. As part of case-based surveillance, blood was collected from all listed meningo-encephalitis cases in three hospitals during the Nipah season (January-March). An investigation team visited clustered cases' communities to collect epidemiological information and blood from the living cases. We tested serum using Nipah-specific IgM ELISA. Up to September 2011, in 5887 listed cases, we identified 62 clusters comprising 176 encephalitis cases. We collected blood from 127 of these cases. In 10 clusters, we identified a total of 62 Nipah cases: 18 laboratory-confirmed and 34 probable. We identified person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in four clusters. From case-based surveillance, we identified 23 (4%) Nipah cases. Faced with thousands of encephalitis cases, integrated cluster surveillance allows targeted deployment of investigative resources to detect outbreaks by stage III zoonotic pathogens in resource-limited settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268814002635

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355760600016

    View details for PubMedID 25342551

  • An Outbreak of Chikungunya in Rural Bangladesh, 2011. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Khatun, S., Chakraborty, A., Rahman, M., Nasreen Banu, N., Rahman, M. M., Hasan, S. M., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2015; 9 (7)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003907

    View details for PubMedID 26161995

  • An Outbreak of Chikungunya in Rural Bangladesh, 2011. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Khatun, S., Chakraborty, A., Rahman, M., Nasreen Banu, N., Rahman, M. M., Hasan, S. M., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2015; 9 (7)


    The first identified Chikungunya outbreak occurred in Bangladesh in 2008. In late October 2011, a local health official from Dohar Sub-district, Dhaka District, reported an outbreak of undiagnosed fever and joint pain. We investigated the outbreak to confirm the etiology, describe the clinical presentation, and identify associated vectors.During November 2-21, 2011, we conducted house-to-house surveys to identify suspected cases, defined as any inhabitant of Char Kushai village with fever followed by joint pain in the extremities with onset since August 15, 2011. We collected blood specimens and clinical histories from self-selected suspected cases using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were tested for IgM antibodies against Chikungunya virus. The village was divided into nine segments and we collected mosquito larvae from water containers in seven randomly selected houses in each segment. We calculated the Breteau index for the village and identified the mosquito species.The attack rate was 29% (1105/3840) and 29% of households surveyed had at least one suspected case: 15% had ≥3. The attack rate was 38% (606/1589) in adult women and 25% in adult men (320/1287). Among the 1105 suspected case-patients, 245 self-selected for testing and 80% of those (196/245) had IgM antibodies. In addition to fever and joint pain, 76% (148/196) of confirmed cases had rash and 38%(75/196) had long-lasting joint pain. The village Breteau index was 35 per 100 and 89%(449/504) of hatched mosquitoes were Aedes albopictus.The evidence suggests that this outbreak was due to Chikungunya. The high attack rate suggests that the infection was new to this area, and the increased risk among adult women suggests that risk of transmission may have been higher around households. Chikungunya is an emerging infection in Bangladesh and current surveillance and prevention strategies are insufficient to mount an effective public health response.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003907

    View details for PubMedID 26161995

  • Towards sustainable public health surveillance for enteric fever VACCINE Luby, S. P., Saha, S., Andrews, J. R. 2015; 33: C3-C7
  • Impact of Intensive Handwashing Promotion on Secondary Household Influenza-Like Illness in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial PLOS ONE Ram, P. K., DiVita, M. A., Khatun-E-Jannat, K., Islam, M., Krytus, K., Cercone, E., Sohel, B. M., Ahmed, M., Rahman, A. M., Rahman, M., Yu, J., Brooks, W. A., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Fry, A. M., Luby, S. P. 2015; 10 (6)


    There is little evidence for the efficacy of handwashing for prevention of influenza transmission in resource-poor settings. We tested the impact of intensive handwashing promotion on household transmission of influenza-like illness and influenza in rural Bangladesh.In 2009-10, we identified index case-patients with influenza-like illness (fever with cough or sore throat) who were the only symptomatic person in their household. Household compounds of index case-patients were randomized to control or intervention (soap and daily handwashing promotion). We conducted daily surveillance and collected oropharyngeal specimens. Secondary attack ratios (SAR) were calculated for influenza and ILI in each arm. Among controls, we investigated individual risk factors for ILI among household contacts of index case-patients.Among 377 index case-patients, the mean number of days between fever onset and study enrollment was 2.1 (SD 1.7) among the 184 controls and 2.6 (SD 2.9) among 193 intervention case-patients. Influenza infection was confirmed in 20% of controls and 12% of intervention index case-patients. The SAR for influenza-like illness among household contacts was 9.5% among intervention (158/1661) and 7.7% among control households (115/1498) (SAR ratio 1.24, 95% CI 0.92-1.65). The SAR ratio for influenza was 2.40 (95% CI 0.68-8.47). In the control arm, susceptible contacts <2 years old (RRadj 5.51, 95% CI 3.43-8.85), those living with an index case-patient enrolled ≤24 hours after symptom onset (RRadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.18-3.10), and those who reported multiple daily interactions with the index case-patient (RRadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.71-3.26) were at increased risk of influenza-like illness.Handwashing promotion initiated after illness onset in a household member did not protect against influenza-like illness or influenza. Behavior may not have changed rapidly enough to curb transmission between household members. A reactive approach to reduce household influenza transmission through handwashing promotion may be ineffective in the context of rural NCT00880659.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0125200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000356100900004

    View details for PubMedID 26066651

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4465839

  • Effects of oseltamivir treatment of index patients with influenza on secondary household illness in an urban setting in Bangladesh: secondary analysis of a randomised, placebo-controlled trial LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES Fry, A. M., Goswami, D., Nahar, K., Sharmin, A. T., Rahman, M., Gubareva, L., Trujillo, A., Barnes, J., Azim, T., Bresee, J., Luby, S. P., Brooks, W. A. 2015; 15 (6): 654-662


    Antiviral drugs are a proposed medical intervention to reduce household transmission of influenza viruses. In a previously described randomised, placebo-controlled trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we showed that oseltamivir treatment of index patients was able to reduce influenza symptom duration and virus shedding. In a further analysis that is part of the same study, we aimed to assess efficacy of oseltamivir to reduce secondary household illnesses in the same cohort.In this double-blind oseltamivir efficacy trial, we identified index patients aged older than 1 year through surveillance of households in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We randomly allocated eligible patients (1:1) to receive oseltamivir or placebo twice-daily for 5 days, and we stratified them by enrolment 48 h versus 48-120 h since illness onset. Participants provided nasal wash specimens at enrolment and 2, 4, and 7 days after enrolment and were visited daily by a research assistant to record symptoms, both in index patients and in household members. For this part of the study, household members were asked to give respiratory specimens for influenza PCR testing. Our primary outcomes were household secondary illness and PCR-confirmed influenza virus infection, assessed in household members of all randomly allocated index patients. This trial is registered with, number NCT00707941.From May 11, 2008, to Dec 31, 2010, we enrolled 1190 index patients with 4694 household members. 592 patients were allocated to placebo (2292 household members) and 598 to oseltamivir (2402 household members). Household secondary illness was lower in the oseltamivir group (196 [8%] influenza cases) than in the placebo group (233 [10%]; odds ratio [OR] 0·77, 95% CI 0·60-0·98, p=0·031). PCR-confirmed influenza virus infection did not differ between the placebo (103 [5%]) and oseltamivir groups (92 [4%]; 0·84, 0·59-1·19, p=0·319); however, only 243 (57%) of ill household members gave a specimen for analysis.In a crowded, low income setting, oseltamivir treatment of index patients resulted in a small reduction of secondary influenza in their households. Even this slight reduction, in the setting of widespread antiviral use during a community influenza outbreak, might result in reductions in overall disease burden.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (in an agreement with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(15)70041-1

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354638000030

    View details for PubMedID 25788164

  • Serological Evidence of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Cattle and Goats in Bangladesh. EcoHealth Haider, N., Rahman, M. S., Khan, S. U., Mikolon, A., Osmani, M. G., Gurley, E. S., Shanta, I. S., Paul, S. K., MacFarlane-Berry, L., Islam, A., Islam, A., Desmond, J., Epstein, J. H., Priestley, R. A., Kersh, G. J., Rahman, M. Z., Daszak, P., Luby, S. P., Massung, R. F., Zeidner, N. 2015; 12 (2): 354-358


    We tested 1149 ruminant sera conveniently collected from three districts of Bangladesh to identify the serological evidence of Coxiella burnetii infection in cattle and goats by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that 0.7% (8/1149) of ruminants had detectable immunoglobulin G for C. burnetii: 0.65% (4/620) in cattle and 0.76% (4/529) in goats. A sub-set of ruminant samples was retested and confirmed by immunofluorescence assay (18/112). Although we cannot rule out false-positive reactions, our study suggests the presence of C. burnetii in cattle and goats in Bangladesh. Further studies are required to estimate disease burden at the population level and identify risk factors for Q fever in ruminants in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-015-1011-x

    View details for PubMedID 25649716

  • Observed Practices and Perceived Advantages of Different Hand Cleansing Agents in Rural Bangladesh: Ash, Soil, and Soap AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Nizame, F. A., Nasreen, S., Halder, A. K., Arman, S., Winch, P. J., Unicomb, L., Luby, S. P. 2015; 92 (6): 1111-1116


    Bangladeshi communities have historically used ash and soil as handwashing agents. A structured observation study and qualitative interviews on the use of ash/soil and soap as handwashing agents were conducted in rural Bangladesh to help develop a handwashing promotion intervention. The observations were conducted among 1,000 randomly selected households from 36 districts. Fieldworkers observed people using ash/soil to wash their hand(s) on 13% of occasions after defecation and on 10% after cleaning a child's anus. This compares with 19% of people who used soap after defecation and 27% after cleaning a child who defecated. Using ash/soil or soap was rarely (< 1%) observed at other times recommended for handwashing. The qualitative study enrolled 24 households from three observation villages, where high usage of ash/soil for handwashing was detected. Most informants reported that ash/soil was used only for handwashing after fecal contact, and that ash/soil could clean hands as effectively as soap.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0378

    View details for Web of Science ID 000355785400005

    View details for PubMedID 25870425

  • Household-level risk factors for influenza among young children in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a case-control study TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Doshi, S., Silk, B. J., Dutt, D., Ahmed, M., Cohen, A. L., Taylor, T. H., Brooks, W. A., Goswami, D., Luby, S. P., Fry, A. M., Ram, P. K. 2015; 20 (6): 719-729


    To identify household-level factors associated with influenza among young children in a crowded community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.We conducted a case-control study using existing active surveillance for respiratory illness. Cases were children aged 12-59 months with laboratory-confirmed influenza. Controls were children frequency-matched by age group with no respiratory illness in the prior 6 months. We interviewed caregivers and observed household handwashing behaviour. Soap consumption was estimated by summing weight differences of three bars of soap sequentially left in each household. We measured concentrations of airborne particulate matter <2.5 μg in diameter (PM2.5) in a subset of households. We used logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).We enrolled 145 cases and 341 controls between March 2009 and April 2010. Case and control household members were observed to wash hands with similar frequency during a 5-h period (mean, 0.64 events vs. 0.63, P = 0.87), and similar daily soap consumption per capita (mean 2.92 grams vs. 2.93, P = 0.92). Case households were more likely than controls to have crowded (≥4 persons) sleeping areas (aOR = 1.67, CI: 1.06-2.63) and cross-ventilated cooking spaces (aOR = 1.75, CI: 1.16-2.63). Case and control households had similar median 24-h geometric mean PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking (69.2 vs. 69.6 μg/m(3), P = 0.45) and sleeping (65.4 vs. 67.4 μg/m(3), P = 0.19) spaces.Handwashing with soap was practiced infrequently and was not associated with paediatric influenza in this community. Interventions aimed at crowded households may reduce influenza incidence in young children.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12475

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354186900004

    View details for PubMedID 25682788

  • Explaining low rates of sustained use of siphon water filter: evidence from follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Najnin, N., Arman, S., Abedin, J., Unicomb, L., Levine, D. I., Mahmud, M., Leder, K., Yeasmin, F., Luoto, J. E., Albert, J., Luby, S. P. 2015; 20 (4): 471-483


    To assess sustained siphon filter usage among a low-income population in Bangladesh and study relevant motivators and barriers.After a randomised control trial in Bangladesh during 2009, 191 households received a siphon water filter along with educational messages. Researchers revisited households after 3 and 6 months to assess filter usage and determine relevant motivators and barriers. Regular users were defined as those who reported using the filter most of the time and were observed to be using the filter at follow-up visits. Integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene (IBM-WASH) was used to explain factors associated with regular filter use.Regular filter usage was 28% at the 3-month follow-up and 21% at the 6-month follow-up. Regular filter users had better quality water at the 6-month, but not at the 3-month visit. Positive predictors of regular filter usage explained through IBM-WASH at both times were willingness to pay >US$1 for filters, and positive attitude towards filter use (technology dimension at individual level); reporting boiling drinking water at baseline (psychosocial dimension at habitual level); and Bengali ethnicity (contextual dimension at individual level). Frequently reported barriers to regular filter use were as follows: considering filter use an additional task, filter breakage and time required for water filtering (technology dimension at individual level).The technological, psychosocial and contextual dimensions of IBM-WASH contributed to understanding the factors related to sustained use of siphon filter. Given the low regular usage rate and the hardware-related problems reported, the contribution of siphon filters to improving water quality in low-income urban communities in Bangladesh is likely to be minimal.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12448

    View details for Web of Science ID 000350755800008

    View details for PubMedID 25495859

  • Performance of Kala-Azar Surveillance in Gaffargaon Subdistrict of Mymensingh, Bangladesh PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES Rahman, K. M., Samarawickrema, I. V., Harley, D., Olsen, A., Butler, C. D., Sumon, S. A., Biswas, S. K., Luby, S. P., Sleigh, A. C. 2015; 9 (4)


    Elimination of kala-azar is planned for South Asia requiring good surveillance along with other strategies. We assessed surveillance in Gaffargaon upazila (a subdistrict of 13 unions) of Mymensingh district, Bangladesh highly endemic for kala-azar.In 4703 randomly sampled households, within nine randomly sampled villages, drawn from three randomly sampled unions, we actively searched for kala-azar cases that had occurred between January 2010 and December 2011. We then searched for medical records of these cases in the patient registers of Gaffargaon upazila health complex (UHC). We investigated factors associated with the medical recording by interviewing the cases and their families. We also did a general observation of UHC recording systems and interviewed health staff responsible for the monthly reports of kala-azar cases.Our active case finding detected 58 cases, but 29 were not recorded in the Gaffargaon UHC. Thus, only 50% (95% CI: 37%-63%) of kala-azar cases were reported via the government passive surveillance system. Interviews with health staff based in the study UHC revealed the heavy reporting burden for multiple diseases, variation in staff experience, high demands on the staff time and considerable complexity in the recording system. After adjusting for kala-azar treatment drug, recording was found more likely for those aged 18 years or more, males, receiving supply and administration of drug at the UHC, and more recent treatment.Fifty percent of kala-azar cases occurring in one highly endemic area of Bangladesh were recorded in registers that were the source for monthly reports to the national surveillance system. Recording was influenced by patient, treatment, staff and system factors. Our findings have policy implications for the national surveillance system. Future studies involving larger samples and including interviews with health authorities at more central level and surveillance experts at the national level will generate more precise and representative evidence on the performance of kala-azar surveillance in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003531

    View details for Web of Science ID 000354972200005

    View details for PubMedID 25860258

  • Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus Infection among Workers at Live Bird Markets, Bangladesh, 2009-2010 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Nasreen, S., Khan, S. U., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S., Abedin, J., Zaman, R. U., Sohel, B. M., Rahman, M., Hancock, K., Levine, M. Z., Veguilla, V., Wang, D., Holiday, C., Gillis, E., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Bresee, J. S., Rahman, M., Uyeki, T. M., Katz, J. M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2015; 21 (4): 629-637


    The risk for influenza A(H5N1) virus infection is unclear among poultry workers in countries where the virus is endemic. To assess H5N1 seroprevalence and seroconversion among workers at live bird markets (LBMs) in Bangladesh, we followed a cohort of workers from 12 LBMs with existing avian influenza surveillance. Serum samples from workers were tested for H5N1 antibodies at the end of the study or when LBM samples first had H5N1 virus-positive test results. Of 404 workers, 9 (2%) were seropositive at baseline. Of 284 workers who completed the study and were seronegative at baseline, 6 (2%) seroconverted (7 cases/100 poultry worker-years). Workers who frequently fed poultry, cleaned feces from pens, cleaned food/water containers, and did not wash hands after touching sick poultry had a 7.6 times higher risk for infection compared with workers who infrequently performed these behaviors. Despite frequent exposure to H5N1 virus, LBM workers showed evidence of only sporadic infection.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid2104.141281

    View details for Web of Science ID 000351652100010

    View details for PubMedID 25811942

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4378465

  • Piloting the promotion of bamboo skirt barriers to prevent Nipah virus transmission through date palm sap in Bangladesh GLOBAL HEALTH PROMOTION Nahar, N., Mondal, U. K., Hossain, M. J., Khan, M. S., Sultana, R., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2014; 21 (4): 7-15


    Drinking raw date palm sap contaminated with infected fruit bat saliva or urine is an important mode of Nipah virus transmission to humans in Bangladesh. Bamboo skirts are an effective way to interrupt bat access to the sap. We conducted a study from November 2008 to March 2009 to explore the effectiveness of higher- and lower-intensity interventions by promoting bamboo skirt preparation and use among sap harvesters (gachhis). We spent 280 person-hours in two villages for the higher-intensity intervention and half that amount of time in two other villages for the lower-intensity intervention. To evaluate the interventions we followed up all gachhis once a month for three months. A high percentage of gachhis (83% in higher-, 65% in lower-intensity interventions) prepared and used a skirt of bamboo or other materials - jute stalk, dhoincha (Sesbania aculeata), or polythene - at least once after intervention. In general, 15% of gachhis consistently used skirts throughout the sap collection season. The intensive nature of this intervention is very expensive for a large-scale programme. Future efforts should focus on developing a low-cost behaviour change intervention and evaluate if it reduces the human exposure to potentially contaminated fresh date palm sap.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1757975914528249

    View details for Web of Science ID 000345533700002

    View details for PubMedID 24755262

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4666517

  • Screening for long-term poliovirus excretion among children with primary immunodeficiency disorders: preparation for the polio posteradication era in Bangladesh. journal of infectious diseases Sazzad, H. M., Rainey, J. J., Kahn, A., Mach, O., Liyanage, J. B., Alam, A. N., Kawser, C. A., Hossain, A., Sutter, R., Luby, S. P. 2014; 210: S373-9


    Persons with primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDD) who receive oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) may transmit immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs) and cause paralytic polio. The objective of this study was to identify children with PIDD in Bangladesh, and estimate the proportion with chronic poliovirus excretion.Patients admitted at 5 teaching hospitals were screened for PIDD according to standardized clinical case definitions. PIDD was confirmed by age-specific quantitative immunoglobulin levels. Stool specimens were collected from patients with confirmed PIDD.From February 2011 through January 2013, approximately 96 000 children were screened, and 53 patients were identified who met the clinical case definition for PIDD. Thirteen patients (24%) had age-specific quantitative immunoglobulins results that confirmed PIDD. Of these, 9 (69%) received OPV 3-106 months before stool specimen collection. Among 11 patients, stool specimens from 1 patient tested positive for polioviruses 34 months after OPV ingestion. However, the poliovirus isolate was not available for genetic sequencing, and a subsequent stool specimen 45 days later was negative.The risk of chronic poliovirus excretion among children with PIDD in Bangladesh seems to be low. The national polio eradication program should incorporate strategies for screening for poliovirus excretion among patients with PIDD.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jiu221

    View details for PubMedID 25316858

  • Serological evidence of henipavirus exposure in cattle, goats and pigs in Bangladesh. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Chowdhury, S., Khan, S. U., Crameri, G., Epstein, J. H., Broder, C. C., Islam, A., Peel, A. J., Barr, J., Daszak, P., Wang, L., Luby, S. P. 2014; 8 (11)


    Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging disease that causes severe encephalitis and respiratory illness in humans. Pigs were identified as an intermediate host for NiV transmission in Malaysia. In Bangladesh, NiV has caused recognized human outbreaks since 2001 and three outbreak investigations identified an epidemiological association between close contact with sick or dead animals and human illness.We examined cattle and goats reared around Pteropus bat roosts in human NiV outbreak areas. We also tested pig sera collected under another study focused on Japanese encephalitis.We detected antibodies against NiV glycoprotein in 26 (6.5%) cattle, 17 (4.3%) goats and 138 (44.2%) pigs by a Luminex-based multiplexed microsphere assay; however, these antibodies did not neutralize NiV. Cattle and goats with NiVsG antibodies were more likely to have a history of feeding on fruits partially eaten by bats or birds (PR=3.1, 95% CI 1.6-5.7) and drinking palmyra palm juice (PR=3.9, 95% CI 1.5-10.2).This difference in test results may be due to the exposure of animals to one or more novel viruses with antigenic similarity to NiV. Further research may identify a novel organism of public health importance.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003302

    View details for PubMedID 25412358

  • Lot-to-lot consistency of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine manufactured in a good manufacturing practice facility and non-inferiority with respect to an earlier product. Vaccine Zaman, K., Naser, A. M., Power, M., Yaich, M., Zhang, L., Ginsburg, A. S., Luby, S. P., Rahman, M., Hills, S., Bhardwaj, M., Flores, J. 2014; 32 (46): 6061-6066


    We conducted a four-arm, double-blind, randomized controlled trial among 818 Bangladeshi infants between 10 and 12 months of age to establish equivalence among three lots of live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine manufactured by the China National Biotec Group's Chengdu Institute of Biological Products (CDIBP) in a new Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) facility and to evaluate non-inferiority of the product with a lot of the same vaccine manufactured in CDIBP's original facility. The study took place in two sites in Bangladesh, rural Matlab and Mirpur in urban Dhaka. We collected pre-vaccination (Day 0) and post-vaccination Day 28 (-4 to +14 days) blood samples to assess neutralizing anti-JE virus antibody titers in serum by plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT). Seroprotection following vaccination was defined as a PRNT titer ≥1:10 at Day 28 in participants non-immune at baseline. Follow-up for reactogenicity and safety was conducted through home visits at Day 7 and monitoring for serious adverse events through Day 28. Seroprotection rates ranged from 80.2% to 86.3% for all four lots of vaccine. Equivalence of the seroprotection rates between pairs of vaccine lots produced in the new GMP facility was satisfied at the pre-specified 10% margin of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for two of the three pairwise comparisons, but not for the third (-4.3% observed difference with 95% CI of -11.9 to 3.3%). Nevertheless, the aggregate seroprotection rate for all three vaccine lots manufactured in the GMP facility was calculated and found to be within the non-inferiority margin (within 10%) to the vaccine lot produced in the original facility. All four lots of vaccine were safe and well tolerated. These study results should facilitate the use of SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine as a routine component of immunization programs in Asian countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.09.012

    View details for PubMedID 25239483

  • Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission among Pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the Potential Impact of Pig Vaccination PLOS NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES Khan, S. U., Salje, H., Hannan, A., Islam, M. A., Bhuyan, A. A., Islam, M. A., Rahman, M. Z., Nahar, N., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2014; 8 (9)


    Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe disease in humans, resulting in death or permanent neurologic deficits among survivors. Studies indicate that the incidence of JE is high in northwestern Bangladesh. Pigs are amplifying hosts for JE virus (JEV) and a potentially important source of virus in the environment. The objectives of this study were to describe the transmission dynamics of JEV among pigs in northwestern Bangladesh and estimate the potential impact of vaccination to reduce incidence among pigs.We conducted a comprehensive census of pigs in three JE endemic districts and tested a sample of them for evidence of previous JEV infection. We built a compartmental model to describe JEV transmission dynamics in this region and to estimate the potential impact of pig vaccination. We identified 11,364 pigs in the study area. Previous JEV infection was identified in 30% of pigs with no spatial differences in the proportion of pigs that were seropositive across the study area. We estimated that JEV infects 20% of susceptible pigs each year and the basic reproductive number among pigs was 1.2. The model suggest that vaccinating 50% of pigs each year resulted in an estimated 82% reduction in annual incidence in pigs.The widespread distribution of historic JEV infection in pigs suggests they may play an important role in virus transmission in this area. Future studies are required to understand the contribution of pig infections to JE risk in humans and the potential impact of pig vaccination on human disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003166

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342796600047

    View details for PubMedID 25255286

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4177832

  • Outbreak of Hepatitis E in Urban Bangladesh Resulting in Maternal and Perinatal Mortality CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Paul, R. C., Sazzad, H. M., Islam, M. S., Parveen, S., Faruque, L. I., Husain, M., Ara, K., Jahan, Y., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2014; 59 (5): 658-665


    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes outbreaks of jaundice associated with maternal mortality. Four deaths among pregnant women with jaundice occurred in an urban community near Dhaka, Bangladesh, in late 2008 and were reported to authorities in January 2009. We investigated the etiology and risk factors for jaundice and death.Field workers identified suspected cases, defined as acute onset of yellow eyes or skin, through house-to-house visits. A subset of persons with suspected HEV was tested for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies to HEV to confirm infection. We used logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for HEV disease and for death. We estimated the increased risk of perinatal mortality associated with jaundice during pregnancy.We identified 4751 suspected HEV cases during August 2008-January 2009, including 17 deaths. IgM antibodies to HEV were identified in 56 of 73 (77%) case-patients tested who were neighbors of the case-patients who died. HEV disease was significantly associated with drinking municipally supplied water. Death among persons with HEV disease was significantly associated with being female and taking paracetamol (acetaminophen). Among women who were pregnant, miscarriage and perinatal mortality was 2.7 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.1) in pregnancies complicated by jaundice.This outbreak of HEV was likely caused by sewage contamination of the municipal water system. Longer-term efforts to improve access to safe water and license HEV vaccines are needed. However, securing resources and support for intervention will rely on convincing data about the endemic burden of HEV disease, particularly its role in maternal and perinatal mortality.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/cid/ciu383

    View details for Web of Science ID 000342921100014

    View details for PubMedID 24855146

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4130310

  • Nudging to use: Achieving safe water behaviors in Kenya and Bangladesh JOURNAL OF DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS Luoto, J., Levine, D., Albert, J., Luby, S. 2014; 110: 13-21
  • A duplex recombinant viral nucleoprotein microbead immunoassay for simultaneous detection of seroresponses to human respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus infections. Journal of virological methods Zhang, Y., Brooks, W. A., Goswami, D., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Erdman, D. D. 2014; 206: 55-62


    Serologic diagnosis of human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) infections has been shown to complement virus detection methods in epidemiologic studies. Enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using cultured virus lysate antigens are often used to diagnose infection by demonstration of a ≥4-fold rises in antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum pairs. In this study, hRSV and hMPV nucleocapsid (recN) proteins were expressed in a baculovirus system and their performance compared with virus culture lysate antigen in EIAs using paired serum specimens collected from symptomatic children. The recN proteins were also used to develop a duplex assay based on the Luminex microbead-based suspension array technology, where diagnostic rises in antibody levels could be determined simultaneously at a single serum dilution. Antibody levels measured by the recN and viral lysate EIAs correlated moderately (hRSV, r(2)=0.72; hMPV, r(2)=0.76); the recN EIAs identified correctly 35 of 37 (94.6%) and 48 of 50 (96%) serum pairs showing diagnostic antibody rises by viral lysate EIAs. Purified recN proteins were then coupled to microbeads and serum pairs were tested at a single dilution on a Luminex MAGPIX(®) analyzer. The duplex recN assay identified correctly 33 of 39 (85%) and 41 of 47 (86.7%) serum pairs showing diagnostic rises to hRSV and hMPV, respectively. The recN assay permits simultaneous testing for acute hRSV and hMPV infections and offers a platform for expanded multiplexing of other respiratory virus assays.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.05.008

    View details for PubMedID 24859050

  • Incidence of and Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Diarrhea in Three Tertiary Care Public Hospitals in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Bhuiyan, M. U., Luby, S. P., Zaman, R. U., Rahman, M. W., Sharker, M. A., Hossain, M. J., Rasul, C. H., Ekram, A. R., Rahman, M., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Gurley, E. S. 2014; 91 (1): 165-172
  • Economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh during 2010 INFLUENZA AND OTHER RESPIRATORY VIRUSES Bhuiyan, M. U., Luby, S. P., Alamgir, N. I., Homaira, N., Mamun, A. A., Khan, J. A., Abedin, J., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Gurley, E. S., Zaman, R. U., Alamgir, A. S., Rahman, M., Widdowson, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2014; 8 (4): 406-413


    Understanding the costs of influenza-associated illness in Bangladesh may help health authorities assess the cost-effectiveness of influenza prevention programs. We estimated the annual economic burden of influenza-associated hospitalizations and outpatient visits in Bangladesh.From May through October 2010, investigators identified both outpatients and inpatients at four tertiary hospitals with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection through rRT-PCR. Research assistants visited case-patients' homes within 30 days of hospital visit/discharge and administered a structured questionnaire to capture direct medical costs (physician consultation, hospital bed, medicines and diagnostic tests), direct non-medical costs (food, lodging and travel) and indirect costs (case-patients' and caregivers' lost income). We used WHO-Choice estimates for routine healthcare service costs. We added direct, indirect and healthcare service costs to calculate cost-per-episode. We used median cost-per-episode, published influenza-associated outpatient and hospitalization rates and Bangladesh census data to estimate the annual economic burden of influenza-associated illnesses in 2010.We interviewed 132 outpatients and 41 hospitalized patients. The median cost of an influenza-associated outpatient visit was US$4.80 (IQR = 2.93-8.11) and an influenza-associated hospitalization was US$82.20 (IQR = 59.96-121.56). We estimated that influenza-associated outpatient visits resulted in US$108 million (95% CI: 76-147) in direct costs and US$59 million (95% CI: 37-91) in indirect costs; influenza-associated hospitalizations resulted in US$1.4 million (95% CI: 0.4-2.6) in direct costs and US$0.4 million (95% CI: 0.1-0.8) in indirect costs in 2010.In Bangladesh, influenza-associated illnesses caused an estimated US$169 million in economic loss in 2010, largely driven by frequent but low-cost outpatient visits.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/irv.12254

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337608700003

    View details for PubMedID 24750586

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4181799

  • Identification and Epidemiology of a Rare HoBi-Like Pestivirus Strain in Bangladesh TRANSBOUNDARY AND EMERGING DISEASES Haider, N., Rahman, M. S., KHAN, S. U., Mikolon, A., Gurley, E. S., Osmani, M. G., Shanta, I. S., Paul, S. K., Macfarlane-Berry, L., Islam, A., Desmond, J., Epstein, J. H., Daszak, P., Azim, T., Luby, S. P., Zeidner, N., Rahman, M. Z. 2014; 61 (3): 193-198


    The genus pestivirus of the family flaviviridae consists of four recognized species: bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), bovine viral diarrhoea virus 2 (BVDV-2), classical swine fever virus and border disease virus. A new putative pestivirus species tentatively named as either 'HoBi-like pestivirus' or BVDV-3 has recently been identified in Brazil, Italy and Thailand. Despite reports of serological evidence of BVDV in Bangladesh, the types of the virus circulating in cattle have not been identified. We conducted surveillance in cattle from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals to characterize BVDV in cattle of Bangladesh. We tested serum for BVDV using an antigen-capture ELISA. Of 638 cattle samples, 3% (16/638) tested positive for BVDV antigen. The ELISA-positive samples were selected for further molecular detection and characterization of BVDV. Molecular analysis of the partial 5' untranslated region (UTR) nucleotide sequences of BVDV-positive samples identified the rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 virus circulating in cattle of Bangladesh. The identification of this rare HoBi-like pestivirus or BVDV-3 strain in Bangladesh warrants further surveillance to evaluate its impact on livestock production.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tbed.12218

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334298300001

    View details for PubMedID 24650238

  • Kala-azar in Pregnancy in Mymensingh, Bangladesh: A Social Autopsy. PLoS neglected tropical diseases Rahman, K. M., Olsen, A., Harley, D., Butler, C. D., Mondal, D., Luby, S. P., Sleigh, A. C. 2014; 8 (5)

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002710

    View details for PubMedID 24786280

  • Household Air Quality Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Pneumonia in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Ram, P. K., Dutt, D., Silk, B. J., Doshi, S., Rudra, C. B., Abedin, J., Goswami, D., Fry, A. M., Brooks, W. A., Luby, S. P., Cohen, A. L. 2014; 90 (5): 968-975


    To inform interventions to reduce the high burden of pneumonia in urban settings such as Kamalapur, Bangladesh, we evaluated household air quality risk factors for radiographically confirmed pneumonia in children. In 2009-2010, we recruited children < 5 years of age with pneumonia and controls from a population-based surveillance for respiratory and febrile illnesses. Piped natural gas was used by 85% of 331 case and 91% of 663 control households. Crowding, a tin roof in the living space, low socioeconomic status, and male sex of the child were risk factors for pneumonia. The living space in case households was 28% less likely than in control households to be cross-ventilated. Particulate matter concentrations were not significantly associated with pneumonia. With increasing urbanization and supply of improved cooking fuels to urban areas, the high burden of respiratory illnesses in urban populations such as Kamalapur may be reduced by decreasing crowding and improving ventilation in living spaces.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0532

    View details for Web of Science ID 000335707600033

    View details for PubMedID 24664785

  • Toys and toilets: cross-sectional study using children's toys to evaluate environmental faecal contamination in rural Bangladeshi households with different sanitation facilities and practices TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Vujcic, J., Ram, P. K., Hussain, F., Unicomb, L., Gope, P. S., Abedin, J., Mahmud, Z. H., Islam, M. S., Luby, S. P. 2014; 19 (5): 528-536


    To evaluate household faecal contamination using children's toys among 100 rural Bangladeshi households categorised as 'cleaner' (toilet that reliably separates faeces from the environment and no human faeces in/around living space) or 'less clean' (no toilet or toilet that does not reliably separate faeces from the environment and human faeces in/around living space).We distributed toy balls to each household and rinsed each study toy and a toy already owned by the household in 200 ml of Ringer's solution. We enumerated faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci from each rinse using membrane filtration methods.Study toys from 39 cleaner households had lower mean faecal coliform contamination than toys from 61 less clean households (2.4 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/200 ml vs. 3.2 log10 CFU/200 ml, P = 0.03). However, wealth measures explained a portion of this relationship. Repeat measures were moderately variable [coefficient of variation (CV) = 6.5 between two toys in the household at the same time, CV = 37.6 between toys in the household at two different times 3-4 days apart]. Too few households owned a non-porous toy to compare groups without risk of bias.In rural Bangladesh, improved sanitation facilities and practices were associated with less environmental contamination. Whether this association is independent of household wealth and whether the difference in contamination improves child health merit further study. The variation found was typical for measures of environmental contamination, and requires large sample sizes to ascertain differences between groups with statistical significance.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12292

    View details for Web of Science ID 000333984600006

    View details for PubMedID 24645919

  • Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter and Age at First Acute Lower Respiratory Infection in a Low-Income Urban Community in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Gurley, E. S., Salje, H., Homaira, N., Ram, P. K., Haque, R., Petri, W. A., Bresee, J., Moss, W. J., Luby, S. P., Breysse, P., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2014; 179 (8): 967-973


    The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/aje/kwu002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000334075700005

    View details for PubMedID 24607596

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3966716

  • Roosting behaviour and habitat selection of Pteropus giganteus reveal potential links to Nipah virus epidemiology JOURNAL OF APPLIED ECOLOGY Hahn, M. B., Epstein, J. H., Gurley, E. S., Islam, M. S., Luby, S. P., Daszak, P., Patz, J. A. 2014; 51 (2): 376-387
  • Impact of neighborhood biomass cooking patterns on episodic high indoor particulate matter concentrations in clean fuel homes in Dhaka, Bangladesh INDOOR AIR Salje, H., Gurley, E. S., Homaira, N., Ram, P. K., Haque, R., Petri, W., Moss, W. J., Luby, S. P., Breysse, P., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2014; 24 (2): 213-220


    Exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 ) from the burning of biomass is associated with increased risk of respiratory disease. In Dhaka, Bangladesh, households that do not burn biomass often still experience high concentrations of PM2.5 , but the sources remain unexplained. We characterized the diurnal variation in the concentrations of PM2.5 in 257 households and compared the risk of experiencing high PM2.5 concentrations in biomass and non-biomass users. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were estimated every minute over 24 h once a month from April 2009 through April 2010. We found that households that used gas or electricity experienced PM2.5 concentrations exceeding 1000 μg/m(3) for a mean of 35 min within a 24-h period compared with 66 min in biomass-burning households. In both households that used biomass and those that had no obvious source of particulate matter, the probability of PM2.5 exceeding 1000 μg/m(3) were highest during distinct morning, afternoon, and evening periods. In such densely populated settings, indoor pollution in clean fuel households may be determined by biomass used by neighbors, with the highest risk of exposure occurring during cooking periods. Community interventions to reduce biomass use may reduce exposure to high concentrations of PM2.5 in both biomass and non-biomass using households.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ina.12065

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332773100011

    View details for PubMedID 24033488

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3932152

  • Family caregivers in public tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh: Risks and opportunities for infection control AMERICAN JOURNAL OF INFECTION CONTROL Islam, M. S., Luby, S. P., Sultana, R., Rimi, N. A., Zaman, R. U., Uddin, M., Nahar, N., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E. S. 2014; 42 (3): 305-310


    Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals.Trained qualitative researchers conducted a total of 48 hours of observation in 3 public tertiary care hospitals and 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers.Family caregivers provided care 24 hours a day, including bedside nursing, cleaning care, and psychologic support. During observations, family members provided 2,065 episodes of care giving, 75% (1,544) of which involved close contact with patients. We observed family caregivers washing their hands with soap on only 4 occasions. The majority of respondents said diseases are transmitted through physical contact with surfaces and objects that have been contaminated with patient secretions and excretions, and avoiding contact with these contaminated objects would help prevent disease.Family caregivers are at risk for hospital-acquired infection from their repeated exposure to infectious agents combined with their inadequate hand hygiene and knowledge about disease transmission. Future research should explore potential strategies to improve family caregivers' knowledge about disease transmission and reduce family caregiver exposures, which may be accomplished by improving care provided by health care workers.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.09.012

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332311500019

    View details for PubMedID 24406254

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4681270

  • Investigating a crow die-off in January-February 2011 during the introduction of a new clade of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 into Bangladesh ARCHIVES OF VIROLOGY Khan, S. U., Berman, L., Haider, N., Gerloff, N., Rahman, M. Z., Shu, B., Rahman, M., Dey, T. K., Davis, T. C., Das, B. C., Balish, A., Islam, A., Teifke, J. P., Zeidner, N., Lindstrom, S., Klimov, A., Donis, R. O., Luby, S. P., Shivaprasad, H. L., Mikolon, A. B. 2014; 159 (3): 509-518


    We investigated unusual crow mortality in Bangladesh during January-February 2011 at two sites. Crows of two species, Corvus splendens and C. macrorhynchos, were found sick and dead during the outbreaks. In selected crow roosts, morbidity was ~1 % and mortality was ~4 % during the investigation. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 clade was isolated from dead crows. All isolates were closely related to A/duck/India/02CA10/2011 (H5N1) with 99.8 % and A/crow/Bangladesh/11rs1984-15/2011 (H5N1) virus with 99 % nucleotide sequence identity in their HA genes. The phylogenetic cluster of Bangladesh viruses suggested a common ancestor with viruses found in poultry from India, Myanmar and Nepal. Histopathological changes and immunohistochemistry staining in brain, pancreas, liver, heart, kidney, bursa of Fabricius, rectum, and cloaca were consistent with influenza virus infection. Through our limited investigation in domesticated birds near the crow roosts, we did not identify any samples that tested positive for influenza virus A/H5N1. However, environmental samples collected from live-bird markets near an outbreak site during the month of the outbreaks tested very weakly positive for influenza virus A/H5N1 in clade rRT-PCR. Continuation of surveillance in wild and domestic birds may identify evolution of new avian influenza virus and associated public-health risks.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s00705-013-1842-0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332019500012

    View details for PubMedID 24081824

  • Poultry Slaughtering Practices in Rural Communities of Bangladesh and Risk of Avian Influenza Transmission: A Qualitative Study ECOHEALTH Rimi, N. A., Sultana, R., Ishtiak-Ahmed, K., Khan, S. U., Sharker, M. A., Zaman, R. U., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Gurley, E. S., Nahar, N., Luby, S. P. 2014; 11 (1): 83-93


    Slaughtering sick poultry is a risk factor for human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza and is a common practice in Bangladesh. This paper describes human exposures to poultry during slaughtering process and the customs and rituals influencing these practices in two Bangladeshi rural communities. In 2009, we conducted 30 observations to observe slaughtering practices and 110 in-depth and short interviews and 36 group discussions to explore reasons behind those practices. The villagers reported slaughtering 103 poultry, including 20 sick poultry during 2 months. During different stages of slaughtering, humans, the environment, healthy poultry, and other animals were exposed to poultry blood and body parts. Women performed most of the slaughtering tasks, including evisceration. Defeathering required the most time and involved several persons. During festivals, ceremonies, and rituals, many people gathered and participated in the slaughtering of poultry. Exposure to poultry slaughtering created numerous opportunities for potential avian influenza transmission. Strategies that can be further tested to determine if they reduce the risk of transmission include skinning the carcasses of sick poultry, using hot water for defeathering and cleaning, using a bucket to contain slaughtering blood and carcass, burying the offal and encouraging handwashing.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-013-0885-8

    View details for Web of Science ID 000337076000011

    View details for PubMedID 24306550

  • The Prevalence and Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Maternal Distress in a Community of Low-Income Bangladeshi and Displaced Ethnic Bihari Mothers Dhaka, 2008-2009 SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF IMMUNOLOGY Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Homaira, N., Hamadani, J. D., Tofail, F., Dahlberg, L. L., Haque, R., Luby, S. P., Naved, R. T. 2014; 79 (3): 59-73
  • Population-Based Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Virus Infections among Children Aged < 5 Years in Rural Bangladesh, June-October 2010 PLOS ONE Nasreen, S., Luby, S. P., Brooks, W. A., Homaira, N., Al Mamun, A., Bhuiyan, M. U., Rahman, M., Ahmed, D., Abedin, J., Rahman, M., Alamgir, A. S., Fry, A. M., Streatfield, P. K., Rahman, A., Bresee, J., Widdowson, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2014; 9 (2)


    Better understanding the etiology-specific incidence of severe acute respiratory infections (SARIs) in resource-poor, rural settings will help further develop and prioritize prevention strategies. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of SARIs among children in rural Bangladesh.During June through October 2010, we followed children aged <5 years in 67 villages to identify those with cough, difficulty breathing, age-specific tachypnea and/or danger signs in the community or admitted to the local hospital. A study physician collected clinical information and obtained nasopharyngeal swabs from all SARI cases and blood for bacterial culture from those hospitalized. We tested swabs for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, human metapneumoviruses, adenoviruses and human parainfluenza viruses 1-3 (HPIV) by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We calculated virus-specific SARI incidence by dividing the number of new illnesses by the person-time each child contributed to the study.We followed 12,850 children for 279,029 person-weeks (pw) and identified 141 SARI cases; 76 (54%) at their homes and 65 (46%) at the hospital. RSV was associated with 7.9 SARI hospitalizations per 100,000 pw, HPIV3 2.2 hospitalizations/100,000 pw, and influenza 1.1 hospitalizations/100,000 pw. Among non-hospitalized SARI cases, RSV was associated with 10.8 illnesses/100,000 pw, HPIV3 1.8/100,000 pw, influenza 1.4/100,000 pw, and adenoviruses 0.4/100,000 pw.Respiratory viruses, particularly RSV, were commonly associated with SARI among children. It may be useful to explore the value of investing in prevention strategies, such as handwashing and respiratory hygiene, to reduce respiratory infections among young children in such settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0089978

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332385900104

    View details for PubMedID 24587163

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3934972

  • Infrastructure and Contamination of the Physical Environment in Three Bangladeshi Hospitals: Putting Infection Control into Context PLOS ONE Rimi, N. A., Sultana, R., Luby, S. P., Islam, M. S., Uddin, M., Hossain, M. J., Zaman, R. U., Nahar, N., Gurley, E. S. 2014; 9 (2)


    This paper describes the physical structure and environmental contamination in selected hospital wards in three government hospitals in Bangladesh.The qualitative research team conducted 48 hours of observation in six wards from three Bangladeshi tertiary hospitals in 2007. They recorded environmental contamination with body secretions and excretions and medical waste and observed ward occupant handwashing and use of personal protective equipment. They recorded number of persons, number of open doors and windows, and use of fans. They measured the ward area and informally observed waste disposal outside the wards. They conducted nine focus group discussions with doctors, nurses and support staff.A median of 3.7 persons were present per 10 m(2) of floor space in the wards. A median of 4.9 uncovered coughs or sneezes were recorded per 10 m(2) per hour per ward. Floors in the wards were soiled with saliva, spit, mucous, vomitus, feces and blood 125 times in 48 hours. Only two of the 12 patient handwashing stations had running water and none had soap. No disinfection was observed before or after using medical instruments. Used medical supplies were often discarded in open containers under the beds. Handwashing with soap was observed in only 32 of 3,373 handwashing opportunities noted during 48 hours. Mosquitoes and feral cats were commonly observed in the wards.The physical structure and environment of our study hospitals are conducive to the spread of infection to people in the wards. Low-cost interventions on hand hygiene and cleaning procedures for rooms and medical equipment should be developed and evaluated for their practicality and effectiveness.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0089085

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331711900086

    View details for PubMedID 24586516

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3929649

  • Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh VIROLOGY Gerloff, N. A., Khan, S. U., Balish, A., Shanta, I. S., Simpson, N., Berman, L., Haider, N., Poh, M. K., Islam, A., Gurley, E., Hasnat, M. A., Dey, T., Shu, B., Emery, S., Lindstrom, S., Haque, A., Klimov, A., Villanueva, J., Rahman, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Rahman, M. Z., Luby, S. P., Zeidner, N., Donis, R. O., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Davis, C. T. 2014; 450: 297-307
  • Multiple reassortment events among highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses detected in Bangladesh. Virology Gerloff, N. A., Khan, S. U., Balish, A., Shanta, I. S., Simpson, N., Berman, L., Haider, N., Poh, M. K., Islam, A., Gurley, E., Hasnat, M. A., Dey, T., Shu, B., Emery, S., Lindstrom, S., Haque, A., Klimov, A., Villanueva, J., Rahman, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Ziaur Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Zeidner, N., Donis, R. O., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Davis, C. T. 2014; 450-451: 297-307


    In Bangladesh, little is known about the genomic composition and antigenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses, their geographic distribution, temporal patterns, or gene flow within the avian host population. Forty highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses isolated from humans and poultry in Bangladesh between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed by full genome sequencing and antigenic characterization. The analysis included viruses collected from avian hosts and environmental sampling in live bird markets, backyard poultry flocks, outbreak investigations in wild birds or poultry and from three human cases. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the ancestors of these viruses reassorted (1) with other gene lineages of the same clade, (2) between different clades and (3) with low pathogenicity avian influenza A virus subtypes. Bayesian estimates of the time of most recent common ancestry, combined with geographic information, provided evidence of probable routes and timelines of virus spread into and out of Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2013.12.023

    View details for PubMedID 24503093

  • Efficacy of oseltamivir treatment started within 5 days of symptom onset to reduce influenza illness duration and virus shedding in an urban setting in Bangladesh: a randomised placebo-controlled trial LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES Fry, A. M., Goswami, D., Nahar, K., Sharmin, A. T., Rahman, M., Gubareva, L., Azim, T., Bresee, J., Luby, S. P., Brooks, W. A. 2014; 14 (2): 109-118


    Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Few data exist for the efficacy of neuraminidase inhibitors, which are the only readily available influenza treatment options, especially in low-income settings. We assessed the efficacy of treatment with the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to reduce patient illness and viral shedding in people with influenza, in whom treatment was started within 5 days of symptom onset, in an urban setting in Bangladesh.We undertook a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial between May, 2008, and December, 2010. Patients with a positive rapid influenza test identified by surveillance of households in Kamalapur, Bangladesh were randomly allocated on a 1:1 basis to receive oseltamivir or placebo twice daily for 5 days. Randomisation lists for individuals enrolled less than 48 h and 48 h or longer since illness onset were generated with permuted blocks of variable length between two and eight. Participants and study staff were masked to treatment group. Participants provided nasal wash specimens at enrolment and 2, 4, and 7 days later, and were visited daily to record symptoms. All specimens were tested for influenza with reverse-transcriptase PCR, and if the result was positive, we isolated the virus. The primary endpoints were duration of clinical illness and viral shedding in patients treated less than and more than 48 h since illness onset and the frequency of oseltamivir resistance during treatment. Analyses were intention to treat unless otherwise specified. This trial is registered with, number NCT00707941.Overall, 1190 people with a median age of 5 years (IQR 2-9) were enrolled: 794 (67%) less than 48 h since symptom onset and 396 (33%) 48 h or longer since symptom onset. 592 participants were assigned to placebo and 598 to oseltamivir. The median duration of symptoms was shorter in the oseltamivir group (3 days, IQR 1-5) than in the placebo group (4 days, 1-6; p=0.01). When stratified by timing of treatment initiation, in participants enrolled 48 h or longer since illness onset, the median duration of symptoms was similar in both groups (oseltamivir 3 days [IQR 2-5], placebo 3 days [1-5]; p=0.04). The median duration of symptoms was reduced by 1 day in the group given oseltamivir who were enrolled less than 48 h since symptom onset compared with those given placebo, but this difference was not significant. In those with all swab specimens (n=1134), oseltamivir significantly reduced virus isolation on days 2 (placebo 374 [66%] vs oseltamivir 321 [56%]; difference 15.2%, 95% CI 9.5-20.8, p=0.0004), 4 (241 [43%] vs 174 [30%]; difference 30.2%, 95% CI 24.6-35.8, p<0.0001), and 7 (68 [12%] vs 36 [6%]; difference 47.5%, 95% CI 44.2-50.8, p=0.0009). In participants enrolled 48 h or longer since illness onset, oseltamivir treatment significantly reduced virus isolation on days 2 and 4, but not day 7. In participants enrolled less than 48 h since illness onset, oseltamivir treatment significantly reduced virus isolation on days 2, 4, and 7. The emergency of resistance to oseltamivir during treatment was rare overall (<1%) and in influenza A H1N1pdm09 viruses (3.9%).Oseltamivir treatment resulted in a modest reduction in the duration of symptoms and virus shedding in people with uncomplicated influenza infections, even when treatment was started 48 h or longer after illness onset.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (in agreement with the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh).

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70267-6

    View details for Web of Science ID 000330420400024

    View details for PubMedID 24268590

  • The Prevalence and Impact of Intimate Partner Violence on Maternal Distress in a Community of Low-Income Bangladeshi and Displaced Ethnic Bihari Mothers: Dhaka, 2008-2009 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Homaira, N., Hamadani, J. D., Tofail, F., Dahlberg, L. L., Haque, R., Luby, S. P., Naved, R. T. 2014; 20 (1): 59-73


    Low-income, ethnic, and/or displaced mothers are frequently victimized; we explored the burden of intimate partner violence (IPV) among such women. Teams administered IPV and maternal distress questionnaires to quantify victimization after the birth of a child. Of 250 mothers reporting abuse, 133 (53%) reported their husband hitting; 111 (44%) kicking, dragging, or beating; 61 (24%) choking or burning; and 33 (13%) injuring them with a knife or gun (12 case-patients per 100 person-years). Women who experienced more forms of victimization reported more distress (p = .01). Mothers in this low-income community experienced severe victimization and distress.

    View details for DOI 10.1177/1077801213520579

    View details for Web of Science ID 000331690300005

    View details for PubMedID 24567536

  • The risk of misclassifying subjects within principal component based asset index. Emerging themes in epidemiology Sharker, M. Y., Nasser, M., Abedin, J., Arnold, B. F., Luby, S. P. 2014; 11: 6-?


    The asset index is often used as a measure of socioeconomic status in empirical research as an explanatory variable or to control confounding. Principal component analysis (PCA) is frequently used to create the asset index. We conducted a simulation study to explore how accurately the principal component based asset index reflects the study subjects' actual poverty level, when the actual poverty level is generated by a simple factor analytic model. In the simulation study using the PC-based asset index, only 1% to 4% of subjects preserved their real position in a quintile scale of assets; between 44% to 82% of subjects were misclassified into the wrong asset quintile. If the PC-based asset index explained less than 30% of the total variance in the component variables, then we consistently observed more than 50% misclassification across quintiles of the index. The frequency of misclassification suggests that the PC-based asset index may not provide a valid measure of poverty level and should be used cautiously as a measure of socioeconomic status.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1742-7622-11-6

    View details for PubMedID 24987446

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Circulation in Seven Countries With Global Disease Detection Regional Centers JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Haynes, A. K., Manangan, A. P., Iwane, M. K., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Homaira, N., Brooks, W. A., Luby, S., Rahman, M., Klena, J. D., Zhang, Y., Yu, H., Zhan, F., Dueger, E., Mansour, A. M., Azazzy, N., Mccracken, J. P., Bryan, J. P., Lopez, M. R., Burton, D. C., Bigogo, G., Breiman, R. F., Feikin, D. R., Njenga, K., Montgomery, J., Cohen, A. L., Moyes, J., Pretorius, M., Cohen, C., Venter, M., Chittaganpitch, M., Thamthitiwat, S., Sawatwong, P., Baggett, H. C., Luber, G., Gerber, S. I. 2013; 208: S246-S254


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children globally, with the highest burden in low- and middle-income countries where the association between RSV activity and climate remains unclear.Monthly laboratory-confirmed RSV cases and associations with climate data were assessed for respiratory surveillance sites in tropical and subtropical areas (Bangladesh, China, Egypt, Guatemala, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand) during 2004-2012. Average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures, relative humidity, and precipitation were calculated using daily local weather data from the US National Climatic Data Center.RSV circulated with 1-2 epidemic periods each year in site areas. RSV seasonal timing and duration were generally consistent within country from year to year. Associations between RSV and weather varied across years and geographic locations. RSV usually peaked in climates with high annual precipitation (Bangladesh, Guatemala, and Thailand) during wet months, whereas RSV peaked during cooler months in moderately hot (China) and arid (Egypt) regions. In South Africa, RSV peaked in autumn, whereas no associations with seasonal weather trends were observed in Kenya.Further understanding of RSV seasonality in developing countries and various climate regions will be important to better understand the epidemiology of RSV and for timing the use of future RSV vaccines and immunoprophylaxis in low- and middle-income countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jit515

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327544900012

    View details for PubMedID 24265484

  • Coverage and cost of a large oral cholera vaccination program in a high-risk cholera endemic urban population in Dhaka, Bangladesh VACCINE Khan, I. A., Saha, A., Chowdhury, F., Khan, A. I., Uddin, M. J., Begum, Y. A., Riaz, B. K., Islam, S., Ali, M., Luby, S. P., Clemens, J. D., Cravioto, A., Qadri, F. 2013; 31 (51): 6058-6064


    A feasibility study of an oral cholera vaccine was carried out to test strategies to reach high-risk populations in urban Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The study was cluster randomized, with three arms: vaccine, vaccine plus safe water and hand washing practice, and no intervention. High risk people of age one year and above (except pregnant woman) from the two intervention arms received two doses of the oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™. Vaccination was conducted between 17th February and 16th April 2011, with a minimum interval of fourteen days between two doses. Interpersonal communication preceded vaccination to raise awareness amongst the target population. The number of vaccine doses used, the population vaccinated, left-out, drop out, vaccine wastage and resources required were documented. Fixed outreach site vaccination strategy was adopted as the mode of vaccine delivery. Additionally, mobile vaccination sites and mop-up activities were carried out to reach the target communities. Of the 172,754 target population, 141,839 (82%) and 123,666 (72%) received complete first and second doses of the vaccine, respectively. Dropout rate from the first to the second dose was 13%. Two complete doses were received by 123,661 participants. Vaccine coverage in children was 81%. Coverage was significantly higher in females than in males (77% vs. 66%, P<0.001). Vaccine wastage for delivering the complete doses was 1.2%. The government provided cold-chain related support at no cost to the project. Costs for two doses of vaccine per-person were US$3.93, of which US$1.63 was spent on delivery. Cost for delivering a single dose was US$0.76. We observed no serious adverse events. Mass vaccination with oral cholera vaccine is feasible for reaching high risk endemic population through the existing national immunization delivery system employed by the government.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.021

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329010400005

    View details for PubMedID 24161413

  • Handwashing before Food Preparation and Child Feeding: A Missed Opportunity for Hygiene Promotion AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Nizame, F. A., Unicomb, L., Sanghvi, T., Roy, S., Nuruzzaman, M., Ghosh, P. K., Winch, P. J., Luby, S. P. 2013; 89 (6): 1179-1185


    Enteric diseases are often caused by poor hygiene and can contribute to stunting. From 50 randomly selected villages in Bangladesh, we collected quantitative and qualitative data on handwashing linked to child feeding to integrate handwashing promotion into a young child complementary feeding program. Most participants stated that the community knew the importance of handwashing with soap before food preparation and feeding a child, but had not developed the habit. We observed no handwashing with soap at these key times; sometimes hands were rinsed with water only. Most participants cited the unavailability of soap and water near the cooking place as a barrier to handwashing before food preparation. Most caregivers ranked nurturing messages as the best motivator to encourage handwashing with soap. An integrated intervention should include having soap and water available near the food preparation area and should use nurturing themes to encourage habitual handwashing with soap.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.13-0434

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328726100019

    View details for PubMedID 24080638

  • Isolation of Salmonella Virchow from a Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus) ECOHEALTH Islam, A., Mikolon, A., Mikoleit, M., Ahmed, D., Khan, S. U., Sharker, M. A., Hossain, M. J., Islam, A., Epstein, J. H., Zeidner, N., Luby, S. P. 2013; 10 (4): 348-351


    Detection of zoonotic pathogens carried by bats is important both for understanding disease ecology and for developing preventive measures. Pteropus fruit bats have been identified as potential carriers of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Salmonella Typhi and other Salmonella serotypes in Pteropus giganteus fruit bats in Bangladesh. Rectal swabs were collected from 302 bats and cultured for Salmonella species. The bats were trapped in three districts (Faridpur, Rajbari, and Cox's Bazar). Salmonella Typhi was not found but one juvenile female bat from Faridpur district was positive for Salmonella Virchow. Close associations between frugivorous bats, humans, and livestock in rural Bangladesh make it likely that the bat was infected by consuming contaminated water.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-013-0866-y

    View details for Web of Science ID 000332375100005

    View details for PubMedID 24136382

  • Outbreak of Mass Sociogenic Illness in a School Feeding Program in Northwest Bangladesh, 2010 PLOS ONE Haque, F., Kundu, S. K., Islam, M. S., Hasan, S. M., Khatun, A., Gope, P. S., Mahmud, Z. H., Alamgir, A. S., Islam, M. S., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 8 (11)


    In 2010, an acute illness outbreak was reported in school students eating high-energy biscuits supplied by the school feeding programme in northwest Bangladesh. We investigated this outbreak to describe the illness in terms of person, place and time, develop the timeline of events, and determine the cause and community perceptions regarding the outbreak.We defined case-patients as students from affected schools reporting any two symptoms including abdominal pain, heartburn, bitter taste, and headache after eating biscuits on the day of illness. We conducted in-depth interviews and group discussions with students, teachers, parents and community members to explore symptoms, exposures, and community perceptions. We conducted a questionnaire survey among case-patients to determine the symptoms and ascertain food items eaten 12 hours before illness onset, and microbiological and environmental investigations.Among 142 students seeking hospital care, 44 students from four schools qualified as case-patients. Of these, we surveyed 30 who had a mean age of 9 years; 70% (21/30) were females. Predominant symptoms included abdominal pain (93%), heartburn (90%), and bitter taste (57%). All students recovered within a few hours. No pathogenic Vibrio cholerae, Shigella or Salmonella spp. were isolated from collected stool samples. We found no rancid biscuits in schools and storage sites. The female index case perceived the unusually darker packet label as a "devil's deed" that made the biscuits poisonous. Many students, parents and community members reported concerns about rumors of students dying from biscuit poisoning.Rapid onset, followed by rapid recovery of symptoms; female preponderance; inconsistent physical, microbiological and environmental findings suggested mass sociogenic illness rather than a foodborne or toxic cause. Rumours of student deaths heightening community anxiety apparently propagated this outbreak. Sharing investigation results and reassuring students and parents through health communication campaigns could limit similar future outbreaks and help retain beneficiaries' trust on nutrition supplementation initiatives.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0080420

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327143800145

    View details for PubMedID 24244685

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3828262

  • Indoor exposure to particulate matter and the incidence of acute lower respiratory infections among children: A birth cohort study in urban Bangladesh INDOOR AIR Gurley, E. S., Homaira, N., Salje, H., Ram, P. K., Haque, R., Petri, W., Bresee, J., Moss, W. J., Breysse, P., Luby, S. P., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2013; 23 (5): 379-386


    Approximately half of all children under two years of age in Bangladesh suffer from an acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) each year. Exposure to indoor biomass smoke has been consistently associated with an increased risk of ALRI in young children. Our aim was to estimate the effect of indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM2.5 ) on the incidence of ALRI among children in a low-income, urban community in Bangladesh. We followed 257 children through two years of age to determine their frequency of ALRI and measured the PM2.5 concentrations in their sleeping space. Poisson regression was used to estimate the association between ALRI and the number of hours per day that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m(3) , adjusting for known confounders. Each hour that PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 μg/m(3) was associated with a 7% increase in incidence of ALRI among children aged 0-11 months (adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.14), but not in children 12-23 months old (adjusted IRR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.09). Results from this study suggest that reducing indoor PM2.5 exposure could decrease the frequency of ALRI among infants, the children at highest risk of death from these infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/ina.12038

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324385600004

    View details for PubMedID 23906055

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3773273

  • Designing a handwashing station for infrastructure-restricted communities in Bangladesh using the integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene interventions (IBM-WASH) BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Hulland, K. R., Leontsini, E., Dreibelbis, R., Unicomb, L., Afroz, A., Dutta, N. C., Nizame, F. A., Luby, S. P., Ram, P. K., Winch, P. J. 2013; 13


    In Bangladesh diarrhoeal disease and respiratory infections contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality. Handwashing with soap reduces the risk of infection; however, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain low. Handwashing stations--a dedicated, convenient location where both soap and water are available for handwashing--are associated with improved handwashing practices. Our aim was to identify a locally feasible and acceptable handwashing station that enabled frequent handwashing for two subsequent randomized trials testing the health effects of this behaviour.We conducted formative research in the form of household trials of improved practices in urban and rural Bangladesh. Seven candidate handwashing technologies were tested by nine to ten households each during two iterative phases. We conducted interviews with participants during an introductory visit and two to five follow up visits over two to six weeks, depending on the phase. We used the Integrated Behavioural Model for Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IBM-WASH) to guide selection of candidate handwashing stations and data analysis. Factors presented in the IBM-WASH informed thematic coding of interview transcripts and contextualized feasibility and acceptability of specific handwashing station designs.Factors that influenced selection of candidate designs were market availability of low cost, durable materials that were easy to replace or replenish in an infrastructure-restricted and shared environment. Water storage capacity, ease of use and maintenance, and quality of materials determined the acceptability and feasibility of specific handwashing station designs. After examining technology, psychosocial and contextual factors, we selected a handwashing system with two different water storage capacities, each with a tap, stand, basin, soapy water bottle and detergent powder for pilot testing in preparation for the subsequent randomized trials.A number of contextual, psychosocial and technological factors influence use of handwashing stations at five aggregate levels, from habitual to societal. In interventions that require a handwashing station to facilitate frequent handwashing with soap, elements of the technology, such as capacity, durability and location(s) within the household are key to high feasibility and acceptability. More than one handwashing station per household may be required. IBM-WASH helped guide the research and research in-turn helped validate the framework.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-13-877

    View details for Web of Science ID 000329279200002

    View details for PubMedID 24060247

  • Seroprevalence of Antibodies against Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus among Poultry Workers in Bangladesh, 2009 PLOS ONE Nasreen, S., Khan, S. U., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Hancock, K., Veguilla, V., Wang, D., Rahman, M., Alamgir, A. S., Sturm-Ramirez, K., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P., Katz, J. M., Uyeki, T. M. 2013; 8 (9)


    We conducted a cross-sectional study in 2009 to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) [HPAI H5N1] virus antibodies among poultry workers at farms and live bird markets with confirmed/suspected poultry outbreaks during 2009 in Bangladesh. We tested sera by microneutralization assay using A/Bangladesh/207095/2008 (H5N1; clade 2.2.2) virus with confirmation by horse red blood cell hemagglutination inhibition and H5-specific Western blot assays. We enrolled 212 workers from 87 farms and 210 workers from three live bird markets. One hundred and two farm workers (48%) culled poultry. One hundred and ninety-three farm workers (91%) and 178 market workers (85%) reported direct contact with poultry that died during a laboratory confirmed HPAI H5N1 poultry farm outbreak or market poultry die-offs from suspected HPAI H5N1. Despite exposure to sick poultry, no farm or market poultry workers were seropositive for HPAI H5N1 virus antibodies (95% confidence interval 0-1%).

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0073200

    View details for Web of Science ID 000324481600057

    View details for PubMedID 24039887

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3764173

  • A Strategy To Estimate Unknown Viral Diversity in Mammals MBIO Anthony, S. J., Epstein, J. H., Murray, K. A., Navarrete-Macias, I., Zambrana-Torrelio, C. M., Solovyov, A., Ojeda-Flores, R., Arrigo, N. C., Islam, A., Khan, S. A., Hosseini, P., Bogich, T. L., Olival, K. J., Sanchez-Leon, M. D., Karesh, W. B., Goldstein, T., Luby, S. P., Morse, S. S., Mazet, J. A., Daszak, P., Lipkin, W. I. 2013; 4 (5)


    The majority of emerging zoonoses originate in wildlife, and many are caused by viruses. However, there are no rigorous estimates of total viral diversity (here termed "virodiversity") for any wildlife species, despite the utility of this to future surveillance and control of emerging zoonoses. In this case study, we repeatedly sampled a mammalian wildlife host known to harbor emerging zoonotic pathogens (the Indian Flying Fox, Pteropus giganteus) and used PCR with degenerate viral family-level primers to discover and analyze the occurrence patterns of 55 viruses from nine viral families. We then adapted statistical techniques used to estimate biodiversity in vertebrates and plants and estimated the total viral richness of these nine families in P. giganteus to be 58 viruses. Our analyses demonstrate proof-of-concept of a strategy for estimating viral richness and provide the first statistically supported estimate of the number of undiscovered viruses in a mammalian host. We used a simple extrapolation to estimate that there are a minimum of 320,000 mammalian viruses awaiting discovery within these nine families, assuming all species harbor a similar number of viruses, with minimal turnover between host species. We estimate the cost of discovering these viruses to be ~$6.3 billion (or ~$1.4 billion for 85% of the total diversity), which if annualized over a 10-year study time frame would represent a small fraction of the cost of many pandemic zoonoses.Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in viral discovery efforts. However, most lack rigorous systematic design, which limits our ability to understand viral diversity and its ecological drivers and reduces their value to public health intervention. Here, we present a new framework for the discovery of novel viruses in wildlife and use it to make the first-ever estimate of the number of viruses that exist in a mammalian host. As pathogens continue to emerge from wildlife, this estimate allows us to put preliminary bounds around the potential size of the total zoonotic pool and facilitates a better understanding of where best to allocate resources for the subsequent discovery of global viral diversity.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00598-13

    View details for Web of Science ID 000326881800020

    View details for PubMedID 24003179

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3760253

  • Piloting the use of indigenous methods to prevent Nipah virus infection by interrupting bats access to date palm sap in Bangladesh HEALTH PROMOTION INTERNATIONAL Nahar, N., Mondal, U. K., Sultana, R., Hossain, M. J., Khan, M. S., Gurley, E. S., Oliveras, E., Luby, S. P. 2013; 28 (3): 378-386


    People in Bangladesh frequently drink fresh date palm sap. Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) also drink raw sap and may contaminate the sap by shedding Nipah virus through saliva and urine. In a previous study we identified two indigenous methods to prevent bats accessing the sap, bamboo skirts and lime (calcium carbonate). We conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these two methods among sap harvesters. We used interactive community meetings and group discussions to encourage all the sap harvesters (n = 12) from a village to use either bamboo skirts or lime smear that some of them (n = 4) prepared and applied. We measured the preparation and application time and calculated the cost of bamboo skirts. We conducted interviews after the use of each method. The sap harvesters found skirts effective in preventing bats from accessing sap. They were sceptical that lime would be effective as the lime was washed away by the sap flow. Preparation of the skirt took ∼105 min. The application of each method took ∼1 min. The cost of the bamboo skirt is minimal because bamboo is widely available and they made the skirts with pieces of used bamboo. The bamboo skirt method appeared practical and affordable to the sap harvesters. Further studies should explore its ability to prevent bats from accessing date palm sap and assess if its use produces more or better quality sap, which would provide further incentives to make it more acceptable for its regular use.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/heapro/das020

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322975000010

    View details for PubMedID 22669914

  • Household Environmental Conditions Are Associated with Enteropathy and Impaired Growth in Rural Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Lin, A., Arnold, B. F., Afreen, S., Goto, R., Huda, T. M., Haque, R., Raqib, R., Unicomb, L., Ahmed, T., Colford, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 89 (1): 130-137
  • An improved tool for household faeces management in rural Bangladeshi communities TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Sultana, R., Mondal, U. K., Rimi, N. A., Unicomb, L., Winch, P. J., Nahar, N., Luby, S. P. 2013; 18 (7): 854-860


    To explore child defecation and faeces management practices in rural Bangladesh with the aim to redesign and pilot a tool to facilitate removal and disposal of faeces.We conducted six group discussions, six short interviews and three observations of practices and designed the new tool. We piloted the new tool and elicited feedback through two in-depth interviews and two observations.Until three years of age, a child commonly defecates in the courtyard and occasionally inside the house. A heavy digging hoe was commonly used to remove child faeces. Mothers preferred a redesigned 'mini-hoe' and found it easier to use for removal and disposal of liquid faeces.Promoting modified local tools may contribute to improving environmental sanitation and health.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000320335400009

    View details for PubMedID 23557125

  • Aflatoxin contamination in food commodities in Bangladesh FOOD ADDITIVES & CONTAMINANTS PART B-SURVEILLANCE Roy, M., Harris, J., Afreen, S., Deak, E., Gade, L., Balajee, S. A., Park, B., Chiller, T., Luby, S. 2013; 6 (1): 17-23


    During September 2009, we performed a rapid cross-sectional study to investigate the extent of aflatoxin contamination among common Bangladeshi foods. We collected eight common human food commodities (rice, lentils, wheat flour, dates, betelnut, red chili powder, ginger and groundnuts) and poultry feed samples from two large markets in each of three cities in Bangladesh. We quantified aflatoxin levels from pooled subsamples using fluorescence high-performance liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels were highest in dates and groundnuts (maximum 623 and 423 ng/g), respectively. Samples of betelnut (mean 30.6 ng/g), lentils (mean 21.2 ng/g) and red chili powder (>20 ng/g) also had elevated levels. The mean aflatoxin level among poultry feed samples was 73.0 ng/g. Aflatoxin levels were above the US maximum regulatory levels of 20 ng/g in five of eight commonly ingested human food commodities tested.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/19393210.2012.720617

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327914400004

    View details for PubMedID 24786620

  • Sustained improvements in handwashing indicators more than 5years after a cluster-randomised, community-based trial of handwashing promotion in Karachi, Pakistan TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Bowen, A., Agboatwalla, M., Ayers, T., Tobery, T., Tariq, M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 18 (3): 259-267


    To evaluate handwashing behaviour 5 years after a handwashing intervention in Karachi, Pakistan.In 2003, we randomised neighbourhoods to control, handwashing promotion, or handwashing promotion and water treatment. Intervention households were given soap +/- water treatment product and weekly handwashing education for 9 months. In 2009, we re-enrolled 461 households from the three study groups: control (160), handwashing (141), and handwashing + water treatment (160) and assessed hygiene-related outcomes, accounting for clustering.Intervention households were 3.4 times more likely than controls to have soap at their handwashing stations during the study visit [293/301 (97%) vs. 45/159 (28%), P < 0.0001]. While nearly all households reported handwashing after toileting, intervention households more commonly reported handwashing before cooking [relative risk (RR) 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.4)] and before meals [RR 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.1)]. Control households cited a mean of 3.87 occasions for washing hands; handwashing households, 4.74 occasions; and handwashing + water treatment households, 4.78 occasions (P < 0.0001). Households reported purchasing a mean of 0.65 (control), 0.91 (handwashing) and 1.1 (handwashing + water treatment) bars of soap/person/month (P < 0.0001).Five years after receiving handwashing promotion, intervention households were more likely to have soap at the household handwashing station, know key times to wash hands and report purchasing more soap than controls, suggesting habituation of improved handwashing practices in this population. Intensive handwashing promotion may be an effective strategy for habituating hygiene behaviours and improving health.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/tmi.12046

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315103700004

    View details for PubMedID 23294343

  • Effect of recent diarrhoeal episodes on risk of pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years in Karachi, Pakistan INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Ashraf, S., Huque, M. H., Kenah, E., Agboatwalla, M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 42 (1): 194-200


    We assessed the association between the duration of diarrhoea and the risk ofpneumonia incidence among children <5 years of age.We analysed data from a cluster randomized controlled trial in Karachi, Pakistan, which assessed the effect of promoting hand washing with soap (antibacterial and plain) on child health. Field workers visited households with children <5 years of age weekly and asked primary caregivers if their child had diarrhoea, cough or difficulty breathing in the preceding week. We used the WHO clinical case definitions for diarrhoea and pneumonia.We used adjusted time-to-event analyses with cumulative diarrhoea prevalence over the previous 2 and 4 weeks as exposure and pneumonia as outcome. We calculated the attributable risk of pneumonia due to recent diarrhoea across the intervention groups.873 households with children <5 years were visited. Children had an increased risk of pneumonia for every additional day of diarrhoea in the 2 weeks (1.06, 95% CI: 1.03-1.09) and 4 weeks (1.04, 95% CI: 1.03-1.06) prior to the week of pneumonia onset. The attributable risk of pneumonia cases due to recent exposure to diarrhoea was 6%. A lower associated pneumonia risk following diarrhoea was found in the control group: (3%) compared with soap groups (6% in antibacterial soap, 9% in plain soap).Children <5 years of age are at an increased risk of pneumonia following recent diarrhoeal illness. Public health programmes that prevent diarrhoea may also reduce the burden of respiratory illnesses.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dys233

    View details for Web of Science ID 000316699300021

    View details for PubMedID 23378152

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4666596

  • Seasonal concentrations and determinants of indoor particulate matter in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH Gurley, E. S., Salje, H., Homaira, N., Ram, P. K., Haque, R., Petri, W. A., Bresee, J., Moss, W. J., Luby, S. P., Breysse, P., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2013; 121: 11-16


    Indoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of acute lower respiratory tract infections, which are the leading cause of death in young children in Bangladesh. Few studies, however, have measured children's exposures to indoor PM over time. The World Health Organization recommends that daily indoor concentrations of PM less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM(2.5)) not exceed 25μg/m(3). This study aimed to describe the seasonal variation and determinants of concentrations of indoor PM(2.5) in a low-income community in urban Dhaka, Bangladesh. PM(2.5) was measured in homes monthly during May 2009 to April 2010. We calculated the time-weighted average, 90th percentile PM(2.5) concentrations and the daily hours PM(2.5) exceeded 100μg/m(3). Linear regression models were used to estimate the associations between fuel use, ventilation, indoor smoking, and season to each metric describing indoor PM(2.5) concentrations. Time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations were 190μg/m(3) (95% CI 170-210). Sixteen percent of 258 households primarily used biomass fuels for cooking and PM(2.5) concentrations in these homes had average concentrations 75μg/m(3) (95% CI 56-124) greater than other homes. PM(2.5) concentrations were also associated with burning both biomass and kerosene, indoor smoking, and ventilation, and were more than twice as high during winter than during other seasons. Young children in this community are exposed to indoor PM(2.5) concentrations 7 times greater than those recommended by World Health Organization guidelines. Interventions to reduce biomass burning could result in a daily reduction of 75μg/m(3) (40%) in time-weighted average PM(2.5) concentrations.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.envres.2012.10.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000315753700002

    View details for PubMedID 23127494

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3582809

  • Nipah Virus Infection Outbreak with Nosocomial and Corpse-to-Human Transmission, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Sazzad, H. M., Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E. S., Ameen, K. M., Parveen, S., Islam, M. S., Faruque, L. I., Podder, G., Banu, S. S., Lo, M. K., Rollin, P. E., Rota, P. A., Daszak, P., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 19 (2): 210-217


    Active Nipah virus encephalitis surveillance identified an encephalitis cluster and sporadic cases in Faridpur, Bangladesh, in January 2010. We identified 16 case-patients; 14 of these patients died. For 1 case-patient, the only known exposure was hugging a deceased patient with a probable case, while another case-patient's exposure involved preparing the same corpse for burial by removing oral secretions and anogenital excreta with a cloth and bare hands. Among 7 persons with confirmed sporadic cases, 6 died, including a physician who had physically examined encephalitis patients without gloves or a mask. Nipah virus-infected patients were more likely than community-based controls to report drinking raw date palm sap and to have had physical contact with an encephalitis patient (29% vs. 4%, matched odds ratio undefined). Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on reducing caregivers' exposure to infected patients' bodily secretions during care and traditional burial practices.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1902.120971

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328172900004

    View details for PubMedID 23347678

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3559054

  • Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Olival, K. J., Islam, A., Yu, M., Anthony, S. J., Epstein, J. H., Khan, S. A., Khan, S. U., Crameri, G., Wang, L., Lipkin, W. I., Luby, S. P., Daszak, P. 2013; 19 (2): 270-273


    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1902.120524

    View details for Web of Science ID 000328172900014

    View details for PubMedID 23343532

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3559038

  • Challenges to Evaluating Respiratory Syncytial Virus Mortality in Bangladesh, 2004-2008 PLOS ONE Stockman, L. J., Brooks, W. A., Streatfield, P. K., Rahman, M., Goswami, D., Nahar, K., Rahman, M. Z., Luby, S. P., Anderson, L. J. 2013; 8 (1)


    Acute lower respiratory illness is the most common cause of death among children, globally. Data are not available to make accurate estimates on the global mortality from respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), specifically.Respiratory samples collected from children under 5 years of age during 2004 to 2008 as part of population-based respiratory disease surveillance in an urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh were tested for RSV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (PIV) types 1, 2, and 3, influenza and adenovirus by RT-PCR. Verbal autopsy data were used to identify children who died from respiratory illness in a nearby rural community. Significance of the correlation between detections and community respiratory deaths was determined using Spearman's coefficient.RSV activity occurred during defined periods lasting approximately three months but with no clear seasonal pattern. There was no significant correlation between respiratory deaths and detection of any of the respiratory viruses studied.Outbreaks of respiratory viruses may not be associated with deaths in children in the study site; however, the few respiratory deaths observed and community-to-community variation in the timing of outbreaks may have obscured an association. An accurate assessment of respiratory virus-associated deaths will require detections and death data to come from the same location and a larger study population.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0053857

    View details for Web of Science ID 000314023600023

    View details for PubMedID 23365643

  • Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale. BMJ open Arnold, B. F., Null, C., Luby, S. P., Unicomb, L., Stewart, C. P., Dewey, K. G., Ahmed, T., Ashraf, S., Christensen, G., Clasen, T., Dentz, H. N., Fernald, L. C., Haque, R., Hubbard, A. E., Kariger, P., Leontsini, E., Lin, A., Njenga, S. M., Pickering, A. J., Ram, P. K., Tofail, F., Winch, P. J., Colford, J. M. 2013; 3 (8)


    Enteric infections are common during the first years of life in low-income countries and contribute to growth faltering with long-term impairment of health and development. Water quality, sanitation, handwashing and nutritional interventions can independently reduce enteric infections and growth faltering. There is little evidence that directly compares the effects of these individual and combined interventions on diarrhoea and growth when delivered to infants and young children. The objective of the WASH Benefits study is to help fill this knowledge gap.WASH Benefits includes two cluster-randomised trials to assess improvements in water quality, sanitation, handwashing and child nutrition-alone and in combination-to rural households with pregnant women in Kenya and Bangladesh. Geographically matched clusters (groups of household compounds in Bangladesh and villages in Kenya) will be randomised to one of six intervention arms or control. Intervention arms include water quality, sanitation, handwashing, nutrition, combined water+sanitation+handwashing (WSH) and WSH+nutrition. The studies will enrol newborn children (N=5760 in Bangladesh and N=8000 in Kenya) and measure outcomes at 12 and 24 months after intervention delivery. Primary outcomes include child length-for-age Z-scores and caregiver-reported diarrhoea. Secondary outcomes include stunting prevalence, markers of environmental enteropathy and child development scores (verbal, motor and personal/social). We will estimate unadjusted and adjusted intention-to-treat effects using semiparametric estimators and permutation tests.Study protocols have been reviewed and approved by human subjects review boards at the University of California, Berkeley, Stanford University, the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, the Kenya Medical Research Institute, and Innovations for Poverty Action. Independent data safety monitoring boards in each country oversee the trials. This study is funded by a grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to the University of California, Berkeley.Trial registration identifiers ( NCT01590095 (Bangladesh), NCT01704105 (Kenya).

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003476

    View details for PubMedID 23996605

  • Cholera Outbreaks in Urban Bangladesh In 2011. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale, Calif.) Haque, F., Hossain, M. J., Kundu, S. K., Naser, A. M., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2013; 3


    In 2011, a multidisciplinary team investigated two diarrhoea outbreaks affecting urban Bangladeshi communities from the districts of Bogra and Kishorganj to identify etiology, pathways of transmission, and factors contributing to these outbreaks.We defined case-patients with severe diarrhoea as residents from affected communities admitted with ≥3 loose stools per day. We listed case-patients, interviewed and examined them, and collected rectal swabs. We visited the affected communities to explore the water and sanitation infrastructure. We tested the microbial load of water samples from selected case household taps, tube wells, and pump stations. We conducted anthropological investigations to understand community perceptions regarding the outbreaks.We identified 21 case-patients from Bogra and 84 from Kishorganj. The median age in Bogra was 23 years, and 21 years in Kishorganj. There were no reported deaths. We isolated Vibrio in 29% (5/17) of rectal swabs from Bogra and in 40% (8/20) from Kishorganj. We found Vibrio in 1/8 tap water samples from Bogra and in both of the samples from Kishorganj. We did not find Vibrio in water samples from pumps or tube wells in either outbreak. Ground water extracted through deep tube wells was supplied intermittently through interconnected pipes without treatment in both areas. We found leakages in the water pipes in Bogra, and in Kishorganj water pipes passed through open sewers.The rapid onset of severe diarrhoea predominantly affecting adults and the isolation of cholera in rectal swabs confirmed that these outbreaks were caused by Vibrio cholerae. The detection of Vibrio in water samples organisms from taps but not from pumps or tube wells, suggested contamination within the pipes. Safe water provision is difficult in municipalities where supply is intermittent, and where pipes commonly leak. Research to develop and evaluate water purification strategies could identify appropriate approaches for ensuring safe drinking water in resource-poor cities.

    View details for PubMedID 26702366

  • Risk practices for animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh: an exploratory study. Infection ecology & epidemiology Islam, M. S., Hossain, M. J., Mikolon, A., Parveen, S., Khan, M. S., Haider, N., Chakraborty, A., Titu, A. M., Rahman, M. W., Sazzad, H. M., Rahman, M., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2013; 3


    From August 2009 to October 2010, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh and the Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research together investigated 14 outbreaks of anthrax which included 140 animal and 273 human cases in 14 anthrax-affected villages. Our investigation objectives were to explore the context in which these outbreaks occurred, including livestock rearing practices, human handling of sick and dead animals, and the anthrax vaccination program.Field anthropologists used qualitative data-collection tools, including 15 hours of unstructured observations, 11 key informant interviews, 32 open-ended interviews, and 6 group discussions in 5 anthrax-affected villages.Each cattle owner in the affected communities raised a median of six ruminants on their household premises. The ruminants were often grazed in pastures and fed supplementary rice straw, green grass, water hyacinth, rice husk, wheat bran, and oil cake; lactating cows were given dicalcium phosphate. Cattle represented a major financial investment. Since Islamic law forbids eating animals that die from natural causes, when anthrax-infected cattle were moribund, farmers often slaughtered them on the household premises while they were still alive so that the meat could be eaten. Farmers ate the meat and sold it to neighbors. Skinners removed and sold the hides from discarded carcasses. Farmers discarded the carcasses and slaughtering waste into ditches, bodies of water, or open fields. Cattle in the affected communities did not receive routine anthrax vaccine due to low production, poor distribution, and limited staffing for vaccination.Slaughtering anthrax-infected animals and disposing of butchering waste and carcasses in environments where ruminants live and graze, combined with limited vaccination, provided a context that permitted repeated anthrax outbreaks in animals and humans. Because of strong financial incentives, slaughtering moribund animals and discarding carcasses and waste products will likely continue. Long-term vaccination coverage for at-risk animal populations may reduce anthrax infection.

    View details for DOI 10.3402/iee.v3i0.21356

    View details for PubMedID 24298326

  • Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions VETERINARIA ITALIANA Nahar, N., Uddin, M., Sarkar, R. A., Gurley, E. S., Khan, M. S., Hossain, M. J., Sultana, R., Luby, S. P. 2013; 49 (1): 7-17


    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000317957400002

    View details for PubMedID 23564585

  • Cluster-randomised controlled trials of individual and combined water, sanitation, hygiene and nutritional interventions in rural Bangladesh and Kenya: the WASH Benefits study design and rationale. BMJ open Arnold, B. F., Null, C., Luby, S. P., Unicomb, L., Stewart, C. P., Dewey, K. G., Ahmed, T., Ashraf, S., Christensen, G., Clasen, T., Dentz, H. N., Fernald, L. C., Haque, R., Hubbard, A. E., Kariger, P., Leontsini, E., Lin, A., Njenga, S. M., Pickering, A. J., Ram, P. K., Tofail, F., Winch, P. J., Colford, J. M. 2013; 3 (8)

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003476

    View details for PubMedID 23996605

  • Bronchiolitis outbreak caused by respiratory syncytial virus in southwest Bangladesh, 2010 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Haque, F., Husain, M. M., Ameen, K. M., Rahima, R., Hossain, M. J., Alamgir, A. S., Rahman, M., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2012; 16 (12): E866-E871


    During July 2010, newspapers reported a respiratory disease outbreak in southwestern Bangladesh resulting in the admission of children to a secondary care hospital. We investigated this outbreak to determine the etiology and explore possible risk factors.The hospital's physician diagnosed children aged <2 years with cough, tachypnea or dyspnea, and expiratory wheeze as having acute bronchiolitis. We reviewed the hospital records and listed case patients admitted between 26 June and 26 July 2010. We surveyed the case patients and collected nasal and throat swabs to test for respiratory viruses.We identified 101 admitted acute bronchiolitis case patients. Fifty-nine (58%) of these were admitted between 16 and 20 July. Among the 29 case patients surveyed, the median age was 4 months and 65% were males. We identified respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in 91% (21/23) of the samples, 43% of which had a dual viral infection. Most case patients (90%) were treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. There were no reported deaths.The sudden increase in admitted acute bronchiolitis case patients, their median age, and identification of RSV in the majority of samples suggest an outbreak of RSV bronchiolitis. Research to identify strategies to prevent respiratory infections including RSV in low-income settings should be prioritized. Factors that perpetuate antibiotic use in managing this viral syndrome should also be explored.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2012.07.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311223700007

    View details for PubMedID 22938872

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4629474

  • Estimating the Burden of Maternal and Neonatal Deaths Associated With Jaundice in Bangladesh: Possible Role of Hepatitis E Infection AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH Gurley, E. S., Halder, A. K., Streatfield, P. K., Sazzad, H. M., Huda, T. M., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P. 2012; 102 (12): 2248-2254


    We estimated the population-based incidence of maternal and neonatal mortality associated with hepatitis E virus (HEV) in Bangladesh.We analyzed verbal autopsy data from 4 population-based studies in Bangladesh to calculate the maternal and neonatal mortality ratios associated with jaundice during pregnancy. We then reviewed the published literature to estimate the proportion of maternal deaths associated with liver disease during pregnancy that were the result of HEV in hospitals.We found that 19% to 25% of all maternal deaths and 7% to 13% of all neonatal deaths in Bangladesh were associated with jaundice in pregnant women. In the published literature, 58% of deaths in pregnant women with acute liver disease in hospitals were associated with HEV.Jaundice is frequently associated with maternal and neonatal deaths in Bangladesh, and the published literature suggests that HEV may cause many of these deaths. HEV is preventable, and studies to estimate the burden of HEV in endemic countries are urgently needed.

    View details for DOI 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300749

    View details for Web of Science ID 000311589100014

    View details for PubMedID 23078501

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3519295

  • Association Between Intensive Handwashing Promotion and Child Development in Karachi, Pakistan A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial ARCHIVES OF PEDIATRICS & ADOLESCENT MEDICINE Bowen, A., Agboatwalla, M., Luby, S., Tobery, T., Ayers, T., Hoekstra, R. M. 2012; 166 (11): 1037-1044


    To evaluate associations between handwashing promotion and child growth and development.Cluster randomized controlled trial.Informal settlements in Karachi, Pakistan.A total of 461 children who were enrolled in a trial of household-level handwashing promotion in 2003 and were younger than 8 years at reassessment in 2009.In 2003, neighborhoods were randomized to control (n = 9), handwashing promotion (n = 9), or handwashing promotion and drinking water treatment (n = 10); intervention households received free soap and weekly handwashing promotion for 9 months.Anthropometrics and developmental quotients measured with the Battelle Developmental Inventory II at 5 to 7 years of age.Overall, 24.9% (95% CI, 20.0%-30.6%) and 22.1% (95% CI, 18.0%-26.8%) of children had z scores that were more than 2 SDs below the expected z scores for height and body mass index for age, respectively; anthropometrics did not differ significantly across study groups. Global developmental quotients averaged 104.4 (95% CI, 101.9-107.0) among intervention children and 98.3 (95% CI, 93.1-103.4) among control children (P = .04). Differences of similar magnitude were measured across adaptive, personal-social, communication, cognitive, and motor domains.Although growth was similar across groups, children randomized to the handwashing promotion during their first 30 months of age attained global developmental quotients 0.4 SDs greater than those of control children at 5 to 7 years of age. These gains are comparable to those of at-risk children enrolled in publicly funded preschools in the United States and suggest that handwashing promotion could improve child well-being and societal Identifier: NCT01538953.

    View details for DOI 10.1001/archpediatrics.2012.1181

    View details for Web of Science ID 000310686400007

    View details for PubMedID 22986783

  • Seasonality, Timing, and Climate Drivers of Influenza Activity Worldwide JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Baumgartner, E. A., Dao, C. N., Nasreen, S., Bhuiyan, M. U., Mah-e-Muneer, S., Al Mamun, A., Sharker, M. A., Zaman, R. U., Cheng, P., Klimov, A. I., Widdowson, M., Uyeki, T. M., Luby, S. P., Mounts, A., Bresee, J. 2012; 206 (6): 838-846


    Although influenza is a vaccine-preventable disease that annually causes substantial disease burden, data on virus activity in tropical countries are limited. We analyzed publicly available influenza data to better understand the global circulation of influenza viruses.We reviewed open-source, laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data. For each country, we abstracted data on the percentage of samples testing positive for influenza each epidemiologic week from the annual number of samples testing positive for influenza. The start of influenza season was defined as the first week when the proportion of samples that tested positive remained above the annual mean. We assessed the relationship between percentage of samples testing positive and mean monthly temperature with use of regression models.We identified data on laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection from 85 countries. More than one influenza epidemic period per year was more common in tropical countries (41%) than in temperate countries (15%). Year-round activity (ie, influenza virus identified each week having ≥ 10 specimens submitted) occurred in 3 (7%) of 43 temperate, 1 (17%) of 6 subtropical, and 11 (37%) of 30 tropical countries with available data (P = .006). Percentage positivity was associated with low temperature (P = .001).Annual influenza epidemics occur in consistent temporal patterns depending on climate.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jis467

    View details for Web of Science ID 000308233500007

    View details for PubMedID 22829641

  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Interventions to Impede Date Palm Sap Contamination by Bats to Prevent Nipah Virus Transmission in Bangladesh PLOS ONE Khan, S. U., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Nahar, N., Sharker, M. A., Luby, S. P. 2012; 7 (8)


    Drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah virus (NiV) infection. Fruit bats, the natural reservoir of NiV, commonly contaminate raw sap with saliva by licking date palm's sap producing surface. We evaluated four types of physical barriers that may prevent bats from contacting sap.During 2009, we used a crossover design and randomly selected 20 date palm sap producing trees and observed each tree for 2 nights: one night with a bamboo skirt intervention applied and one night without the intervention. During 2010, we selected 120 trees and randomly assigned four types of interventions to 15 trees each: bamboo, dhoincha (local plant), jute stick and polythene skirts covering the shaved part, sap stream, tap and collection pot. We enrolled the remaining 60 trees as controls. We used motion sensor activated infrared cameras to examine bat contact with sap.During 2009 bats contacted date palm sap in 85% of observation nights when no intervention was used compared with 35% of nights when the intervention was used [p<0.001]. Bats were able to contact the sap when the skirt did not entirely cover the sap producing surface. Therefore, in 2010 we requested the sap harvesters to use larger skirts. During 2010 bats contacted date palm sap [2% vs. 83%, p<0.001] less frequently in trees protected with skirts compared to control trees. No bats contacted sap in trees with bamboo (p<0.001 compared to control), dhoincha skirt (p<0.001) or polythene covering (p<0.001), but bats did contact sap during one night (7%) with the jute stick skirt (p<0.001).Bamboo, dhoincha, jute stick and polythene skirts covering the sap producing areas of a tree effectively prevented bat-sap contact. Community interventions should promote applying these skirts to prevent occasional Nipah spillovers to human.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0042689

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307331100056

    View details for PubMedID 22905160

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3414453

  • The feasibility of identifying children with primary immunodeficiency disorders: Preparation for the polio post-eradication era in Bangladesh VACCINE Sazzad, H. M., Rainey, J. J., Mach, O., Sutter, R., Diordista, S., Kawser, C. A., Mobarak, R., Alam, D., Chowdhury, M. A., Hossain, M. J., Hasan, A. S., Luby, S. P. 2012; 30 (36): 5396-5400


    Persons with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDD) who receive oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) or are household contacts of OPV recipients are at risk of excreting immunodeficiency-associated vaccine-derived polioviruses (iVDPVs). iVDPVs can be transmitted and cause paralytic polio. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of identifying infants and young children with PIDD in Bangladesh, and among those identified, to estimate the proportion excreting iVDPVs.Patients admitted at 5 referral and teaching hospitals from the hospital catchment area were screened for PIDD using a standardized clinical case definition. PIDD was confirmed using results of testing for age-specific quantitative immunoglobulins (QIGs) levels. Stool specimens were collected according to WHO guidelines from children with confirmed PIDD.During February-July 2009, 13 patients were identified who met the clinical case definition for PIDD; their median age was 1.4 years (range: 2 months to 10 years). Six (46%) of the patients had age-specific QIG results that confirmed PIDD. Stool specimens from four patients tested negative for polio vaccine viruses. All four had received OPV between 50 and 264 days prior to study recruitment.Identifying children with PIDD at referral and teaching hospitals in Bangladesh is feasible, but a larger number of patients is needed to estimate the risk for iVDPV excretion. The national polio eradication program should expand surveillance for PIDD case-patients and regularly test persons with PIDD for poliovirus excretion. These efforts will be essential for developing effective prevention and control strategies following OPV cessation, especially for densely populated and tropical countries like Bangladesh where even a minimal iVDPV risk could have significant public health consequences.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.06.017

    View details for Web of Science ID 000307698800016

    View details for PubMedID 22728220

  • Interim evaluation of a large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme on childhood diarrhea and respiratory disease in rural Bangladesh SOCIAL SCIENCE & MEDICINE Huda, T. M., Unicomb, L., Johnston, R. B., Halder, A. K., Sharker, M. A., Luby, S. P. 2012; 75 (4): 604-611


    Started in 2007, the Sanitation Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh (SHEWA-B) project aims to improve the hygiene, sanitation and water supply for 20 million people in Bangladesh, and thus reduce disease among this population. This paper assesses the effectiveness of SHEWA-B on changing behaviors and reducing diarrhea and respiratory illness among children < 5 years of age. We assessed behaviors at baseline in 2007 and after 6 months and 18 months by conducting structured observation of handwashing behavior in 500 intervention and 500 control households. In addition we conducted spot checks of water and sanitation facilities in 850 intervention and 850 control households. We also collected monthly data on diarrhea and respiratory illness from 500 intervention and 500 control households from October 2007 to September 2009. Participants washed their hands with soap < 3% of the time around food related events in both intervention and control households at baseline and after 18 months. Washing both hands with soap or ash after cleaning a child's anus increased from 22% to 36%, and no access to a latrine decreased from 10% to 6.8% from baseline to 18 months. The prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory illness, among children <5 years of age were similar in intervention and control communities throughout the study. This large scale sanitation, hygiene and water improvement programme resulted in improvements in a few of its targeted behaviors, but these modest behavior changes have not yet resulted in a measurable reduction in childhood diarrhea and respiratory illness.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.10.042

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306890000003

    View details for PubMedID 22197292

  • Backyard poultry raising in Bangladesh: a valued resource for the villagers and a setting for zoonotic transmission of avian influenza. A qualitative study RURAL AND REMOTE HEALTH Sultana, R., Nahar, N., Rimi, N. A., Azad, S., Islam, M. S., Gurley, E. S., Luby, S. P. 2012; 12 (3)


    Backyard poultry raising is common in rural communities and a valued resource that provides food and income for subsistence farmers. Close contact with infected backyard poultry has been associated with H5N1 human cases in different countries. The emergence of this virus within Bangladesh means that backyard poultry raisers are at risk of avian influenza infections. The aim of this study was to understand why people raise backyard poultry and to characterize people's regular interaction with their poultry.In 2008, a qualitative study was conducted in two villages from two districts of Bangladesh. In a social mapping exercise the villagers drew all the households in their village: 115 households in the village in Netrokona and 85 households in the village in Rajshahi District. Selected were 40 households (20 households from each of the two villages) for data collection through in-depth interviews (n=40) and household mapping (n=40), and observation sessions (n=16).In both villages, 92% of households raised backyard poultry. The majority of the owners was female and used the money earned from poultry raising to purchase cooking ingredients, clothing, and agricultural seeds, and pay for children's education expenses. The households consumed poultry meat and eggs. In the village in Netrokona, 80% (85/106) of households kept poultry inside the bedroom. In the village in Rajshahi, 87% (68/78) of households had separate cage/night sheds. During feeding the poultry and cleaning the poultry raising areas, villagers came into contact with poultry and poultry feces. Poultry scavenged for food on the floor, bed, in the food pot and around the place where food was cooked. Poultry drank from and bathed in the same body of water that villagers used for bathing and washing utensils and clothes.Although raising poultry provides essential support to the families' livelihoods, it exposes them to the risk of avian influenza through close contact with their poultry. Simple warnings to avoid poultry contact are unlikely to change practices that are essential to household survival. Interventions that help to protect poultry flocks and improve household profitability are more likely to be practiced.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318412500007

    View details for PubMedID 22950607

  • Learning to Dislike Safe Water Products: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Direct and Peer Experience on Willingness to Pay ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Luoto, J., Mahmud, M., Albert, J., Luby, S., Najnin, N., Unicomb, L., Levine, D. I. 2012; 46 (11): 6244-6251


    Low-cost point-of-use (POU) safe water products have the potential to reduce waterborne illness, but adoption by the global poor remains low. We performed an eight-month randomized trial of four low-cost household water treatment products in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Intervention households (n = 600) received repeated educational messages about the importance of drinking safe water along with consecutive two-month free trials with each of four POU products in random order. Households randomly assigned to the control group (n = 200) did not receive free products or repeated educational messages. Households' willingness to pay for these products was quite low on average (as measured by bids in an incentive-compatible real-money auction), although a modest share was willing to pay the actual or expected retail price for low-cost chlorine-based products. Furthermore, contrary to our hypotheses that both one's own personal experience and the influence of one's peers would increase consumers' willingness to pay, direct experience significantly decreased mean bids by 18-55% for three of the four products and had no discernible effect on the fourth. Neighbor experience also did not increase bids. Widespread dissemination of safe water products is unlikely until we better understand the preferences and aspirations of these at-risk populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1021/es2027967

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304783000079

    View details for PubMedID 22563851

  • Methodology and lessons-learned from the efficacy clinical trial of the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in Bangladesh VACCINE Zaman, K., Yunus, M., El Arifeen, S., Azim, T., Faruque, A. S., Huq, E., Hossain, I., Luby, S. P., Victor, J. C., Dallas, M. J., Lewis, K. D., Rivers, S. B., Steele, A. D., Neuzil, K. M., Ciarlet, M., Sack, D. A. 2012; 30: A94-A100


    An efficacy clinical trial with pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (PRV), RotaTeq(®), was conducted at Matlab field site of ICDDR,B, Bangladesh from March 2007 to March 2009. The methodology, including operation logistics, and lessons-learned are described in this report. Vaccination was organized at 41 fixed-site clinics twice/month. A total of 1136 infants were randomized 1:1 to receive 3 doses of PRV/placebo at approximately 6-, 10-, and 14-weeks of age with routine vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) schedule. Twelve field-workers routinely visited study participants for safety and efficacy follow-up. The study was conducted following good clinical practices and maintaining cold-chain requirements. There were no temperature deviations of clinical vaccine supplies. Data entry was done using the source documents to a central database developed by the sponsor which was linked to web. Among enrolled infants, 1128 (99.3%) received 3 doses of PRV/placebo and efficacy follow-up was conducted for a median of 554 days. For the evaluation of immunogenicity, blood samples were collected from 150 participants predose 1 and from 147 (98%) of the same participants post dose 3. Stool samples were collected from 778 (99.9%) acute gastroenteritis episodes among children who reported to diarrhoea treatment centres. Thirty-nine serious adverse events, including 6 deaths, occurred among study participants. The efficacy of PRV against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis was 42.7% through the entire follow-up period; serum anti-rotavirus IgA response was 78.1%. Inclement weather, difficult transportation, and movement of study participants were some of the challenges identified. This is the first vaccine trial in rural Bangladesh with online data entry. The study was well accepted in the community and was completed successfully.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.07.117

    View details for Web of Science ID 000304850100014

    View details for PubMedID 22520143

  • Influenza-associated mortality in 2009 in four sentinel sites in Bangladesh BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Homaira, N., Luby, S. P., Alamgir, A. S., Islam, K., Paul, R., Abedin, J., Rahman, M., Azim, T., Podder, G., Sohel, B. M., Brooks, A., Fry, A. M., Widdowson, M., Bresee, J., Rahman, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2012; 90 (4): 272-278


    To estimate influenza-associated mortality in Bangladesh in 2009.In four hospitals in Bangladesh, respiratory samples were collected twice a month throughout 2009 from inpatients aged < 5 years with severe pneumonia and from older inpatients with severe acute respiratory infection. The samples were tested for influenza virus ribonucleic acid (RNA) using polymerase chain reaction. The deaths in 2009 in five randomly selected unions (the smallest administrative units in Bangladesh) in each hospital's catchment area were then investigated using formal records and informal group discussions. The deaths of those who had reportedly died within 14 days of suddenly developing fever with cough and/or a sore throat were assumed to be influenza-associated. The rate of such deaths in 2009 in each of the catchment areas was then estimated from the number of apparently influenza-associated deaths in the sampled unions, the proportion of the sampled inpatients in the local hospital who tested positive for influenza virus RNA, and the estimated number of residents of the sampled unions.Of the 2500 people known to have died in 2009 in all 20 study unions, 346 (14%) reportedly had fever with cough and/or sore throat within 14 days of their deaths. The estimated mean annual influenza-associated mortality in these unions was 11 per 100,000 population: 1.5, 4.0 and 125 deaths per 100,000 among those aged < 5, 5-59 and > 59 years, respectively.The highest burden of influenza-associated mortality in Bangladesh in 2009 was among the elderly.

    View details for DOI 10.2471/BLT.11.095653

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303273100017

    View details for PubMedID 22511823

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3324868

  • Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009-2010 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Chakraborty, A., Khan, S. U., Hasnat, M. A., Parveen, S., Islam, M. S., Mikolon, A., Chakraborty, R. K., Ahmed, B., Ara, K., Haider, N., Zaki, S. R., Hoffmaster, A. R., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Hossain, M. J. 2012; 86 (4): 703-710


    During August 2009-October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0234

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302519700024

    View details for PubMedID 22492157

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3403762

  • Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh VETERINARIA ITALIANA Nahar, N., Uddin, M., Gurley, E. S., Khan, M. S., Hossain, M. J., Sultana, R., Luby, S. P. 2012; 48 (2): 157-165


    Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers' perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n=34) and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n=18). Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305769100004

    View details for PubMedID 22718332

  • Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-2 Childhood Meningitis in Bangladesh: A Newly Recognized Pneumococcal Infection Threat PLOS ONE Saha, S. K., Al Emran, H. M., Hossain, B., Darmstadt, G. L., Saha, S., Islam, M., Chowdhury, A. I., Foster, D., Naheed, A., El Arifeen, S., Baqui, A. H., Qazi, S. A., Luby, S. P., Breiman, R. F., Santosham, M., Black, R. E., Crook, D. W. 2012; 7 (3)


    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of meningitis in countries where pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) targeting commonly occurring serotypes are not routinely used. However, effectiveness of PCV would be jeopardized by emergence of invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) caused by serotypes which are not included in PCV. Systematic hospital based surveillance in Bangladesh was established and progressively improved to determine the pathogens causing childhood sepsis and meningitis. This also provided the foundation for determining the spectrum of serotypes causing IPD. This article reports an unprecedented upsurge of serotype 2, an uncommon pneumococcal serotype, without any known intervention.Cases with suspected IPD had blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from the beginning of 2001 till 2009. Pneumococcal serotypes were determined by capsular swelling of isolates or PCR of culture-negative CSF specimens. Multicenter national surveillance, expanded from 2004, identified 45,437 patients with suspected bacteremia who were blood cultured and 10,618 suspected meningitis cases who had a lumber puncture. Pneumococcus accounted for 230 culture positive cases of meningitis in children <5 years. Serotype-2 was the leading cause of pneumococcal meningitis, accounting for 20.4% (45/221; 95% CI 15%-26%) of cases. Ninety eight percent (45/46) of these serotype-2 strains were isolated from meningitis cases, yielding the highest serotype-specific odds ratio for meningitis (29.6; 95% CI 3.4-256.3). The serotype-2 strains had three closely related pulsed field gel electrophoresis types.S. pneumoniae serotype-2 was found to possess an unusually high potential for causing meningitis and was the leading serotype-specific cause of childhood meningitis in Bangladesh over the past decade. Persisting disease occurrence or progressive spread would represent a major potential infection threat since serotype-2 is not included in PCVs currently licensed or under development.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0032134

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305339100005

    View details for PubMedID 22479314

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3316528

  • Incidence of Respiratory Virus-Associated Pneumonia in Urban Poor Young Children of Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2009-2011 PLOS ONE Homaira, N., Luby, S. P., Petri, W. A., Vainionpaa, R., Rahman, M., Hossain, K., Snider, C. B., Rahman, M., Alamgir, A. S., Zesmin, F., Alam, M., Gurley, E. S., Zaman, R. U., Azim, T., Erdman, D. D., Fry, A. M., Bresee, J., Widdowson, M., Haque, R., Azziz-Baumgartner, E. 2012; 7 (2)


    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood death in Bangladesh. We conducted a longitudinal study to estimate the incidence of virus-associated pneumonia in children aged <2 years in a low-income urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh.We followed a cohort of children for two years. We collected nasal washes when children presented with respiratory symptoms. Study physicians diagnosed children with cough and age-specific tachypnea and positive lung findings as pneumonia case-patients. We tested respiratory samples for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinoviruses, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), influenza viruses, human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV 1, 2, 3), and adenoviruses using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays.Between April 2009-March 2011, we followed 515 children for 730 child-years. We identified a total of 378 pneumonia episodes, 77% of the episodes were associated with a respiratory viral pathogen. The overall incidence of pneumonia associated with a respiratory virus infection was 40/100 child-years. The annual incidence of pneumonia/100 child-years associated with a specific respiratory virus in children aged < 2 years was 12.5 for RSV, 6 for rhinoviruses, 6 for HMPV, 4 for influenza viruses, 3 for HPIV and 2 for adenoviruses.Young children in Dhaka are at high risk of childhood pneumonia and the majority of these episodes are associated with viral pathogens. Developing effective low-cost strategies for prevention are a high priority.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0032056

    View details for Web of Science ID 000302875500068

    View details for PubMedID 22384139

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3285198

  • Characterization of Nipah Virus from Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2008-2010 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Lo, M. K., Lowe, L., Hummel, K. B., Sazzad, H. M., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P., Miller, D. M., Comer, J. A., Rollin, P. E., Bellini, W. J., Rota, P. A. 2012; 18 (2): 248-255


    Nipah virus (NiV) is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus that causes fatal encephalitis in humans. The initial outbreak of NiV infection occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999; relatively small, sporadic outbreaks among humans have occurred in Bangladesh since 2001. We characterized the complete genomic sequences of identical NiV isolates from 2 patients in 2008 and partial genomic sequences of throat swab samples from 3 patients in 2010, all from Bangladesh. All sequences from patients in Bangladesh comprised a distinct genetic group. However, the detection of 3 genetically distinct sequences from patients in the districts of Faridpur and Gopalganj indicated multiple co-circulating lineages in a localized region over a short time (January-March 2010). Sequence comparisons between the open reading frames of all available NiV genes led us to propose a standardized protocol for genotyping NiV; this protcol provides a simple and accurate way to classify current and future NiV sequences.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1802.111492

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300078600007

    View details for PubMedID 22304936

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3310473

  • Bangladeshi backyard poultry raisers' perceptions and practices related to zoonotic transmission of avian influenza JOURNAL OF INFECTION IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Sultana, R., Rimi, N. A., Azad, S., Islam, M. S., Khan, M. S., Gurley, E. S., Nahar, N., Luby, S. P. 2012; 6 (2): 156-165


    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N1) virus (known as "bird flu") is an important public health concern due to its potential to infect humans and cause a human pandemic. Bangladesh is a high-risk country for an influenza pandemic because of its dense human population, widespread backyard poultry raising, and endemic H5N1 infection in poultry. Understanding poultry raisers' perceived risks and identifying their risk exposures can help to develop interventions to reduce the risk of avian influenza transmission. This paper explores the perception of Bangladeshi backyard poultry raisers regarding poultry sickness and zoonotic disease transmission and relevant practices.We conducted a qualitative study using social mapping (n=2), in-depth interviews (n=40), household mapping (n=40) and observation (n=16), in two backyard poultry-raising communities.The poultry raisers recognized various signs of poultry illness but they did not distinguish among diseases using biomedical classifications. They perceived disease transmission from poultry to poultry, but not from poultry to humans. They usually kept sick poultry under the bed. If the poultry did not recover, they were slaughtered and consumed or sold. The poultry raisers had close contact with sick birds while handling and slaughtering poultry.The poultry raisers are unlikely to follow instructions from health authorities to prevent "bird flu" transmission because many of the instructions ask low-income producers to change their existing practices and require time, money, and financial loss. Villagers are more likely to comply with interventions that help to protect their flocks and address their financial interest.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000305908300009

    View details for PubMedID 22337845

  • Maternal and neonatal deaths associated with jaundice during pregnancy in Bangladesh: Using verbal autopsy data to estimate of the burden of endemic hepatitis E infection. Am J Public Health Gurley ES, Halder AK, Streatfield PK, Sazzad HMS, Huda MT, Hossain MJ, Luby SP 2012; 102 (12): 2248-54
  • Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Diarrheal Disease due to Aeromonas hydrophila and Plesiomonas shigelloides Infections Compared with Those due to Vibrio cholerae Non-O1 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Bangladesh. ISRN microbiology Klontz, E. H., Faruque, A. S., Das, S. K., Malek, M. A., Islam, Z., Luby, S. P., Klontz, K. C. 2012; 2012: 654819-?


    Using data from the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) from 1996 to 2001, we compared the clinical features of diarrhea in patients with stool specimens yielding only A. hydrophila (189 patients; 1.4% of 13,970 patients screened) or P. shigelloides (253 patients) compared to patients with sole V. cholerae non-O1 infection (99 patients) or V. parahaemolyticus infection (126 patients). Patients exhibited similar frequencies of fever (temperature >37.8°C), stools characterized as watery, and stools containing visible mucus. Dehydration was observed more often among patients with V. parahaemolyticus or V. cholerae non-O1 infection. Compared to patients infected with V. parahaemolyticus, those with A. hydrophila, P. shigelloides, or V. cholerae non-O1 infection were less likely to report visible blood in the stool and, on microscopic examination, less likely to exhibit stool red blood cell and white blood cell counts exceeding 20 cells per high power field. The proportion of patients reporting subjective cure at the time of discharge was significantly smaller for those infected with V. parahaemolyticus. These findings suggest that A. hydrophila and P. shigelloides produce diarrheal disease that is less severe than that resulting from infection with V. cholerae non-O1 or V. parahaemolyticus.

    View details for DOI 10.5402/2012/654819

    View details for PubMedID 23762755

  • Epidemiology of Henipavirus Disease in Humans HENIPAVIRUS: ECOLOGY, MOLECULAR VIROLOGY, AND PATHOGENESIS Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2012; 359: 25-40
  • Date Palm Sap Linked to Nipah Virus Outbreak in Bangladesh, 2008 VECTOR-BORNE AND ZOONOTIC DISEASES Rahman, M. A., Hossain, M. J., Sultana, S., Homaira, N., Khan, S. U., Rahman, M., Gurley, E. S., Rollin, P. E., Lo, M. K., Comer, J. A., Lowe, L., Rota, P. A., Ksiazek, T. G., Kenah, E., Sharker, Y., Luby, S. P. 2012; 12 (1): 65-72


    We investigated a cluster of patients with encephalitis in the Manikgonj and Rajbari Districts of Bangladesh in February 2008 to determine the etiology and risk factors for disease.We classified persons as confirmed Nipah cases by the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies against Nipah virus (NiV), or by the presence of NiV RNA or by isolation of NiV from cerebrospinal fluid or throat swabs who had onset of symptoms between February 6 and March 10, 2008. We classified persons as probable cases if they reported fever with convulsions or altered mental status, who resided in the outbreak areas during that period, and who died before serum samples were collected. For the case-control study, we compared both confirmed and probable Nipah case-patients to controls, who were free from illness during the reference period. We used motion-sensor-infrared cameras to observe bat's contact of date palm sap.We identified four confirmed and six probable case-patients, nine (90%) of whom died. The median age of the cases was 10 years; eight were males. The outbreak occurred simultaneously in two communities that were 44 km apart and separated by a river. Drinking raw date palm sap 2-12 days before illness onset was the only risk factor most strongly associated with the illness (adjusted odds ratio 25, 95% confidence intervals 3.3-∞, p<0.001). Case-patients reported no history of physical contact with bats, though community members often reported seeing bats. Infrared camera photographs showed that Pteropus bats frequently visited date palm trees in those communities where sap was collected for human consumption.This is the second Nipah outbreak in Bangladesh where date palm sap has been implicated as the vehicle of transmission. Fresh date palm sap should not be drunk, unless effective steps have been taken to prevent bat access to the sap during collection.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/vbz.2011.0656

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299112800011

    View details for PubMedID 21923274

  • Incidence of influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection during three influenza seasons in Bangladesh, 2008-2010 BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Alamgir, A. S., Rahman, M., Homaira, N., Sohel, B. M., Sharker, M. A., Zaman, R. U., Dee, J., Gurley, E. S., Al Mamun, A., Mah-e-Muneer, S., Fry, A. M., Widdowson, M., Bresee, J., Lindstrom, S., Azim, T., Brooks, A., Podder, G., Hossain, M. J., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2012; 90 (1): 12-19


    To determine how much influenza contributes to severe acute respiratory illness (SARI), a leading cause of death in children, among people of all ages in Bangladesh.Physicians obtained nasal and throat swabs to test for influenza virus from patients who were hospitalized within 7 days of the onset of severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) or who consulted as outpatients for influenza-like illness (ILI). A community health care utilization survey was conducted to determine the proportion of hospital catchment area residents who sought care at study hospitals and calculate the incidence of influenza using this denominator.The estimated incidence of SARI associated with influenza in children < 5 years old was 6.7 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0-18.3); 4.4 (95% CI: 0-13.4) and 6.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 0-8.3/1000) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively. The incidence of SARI in people aged ≥ 5 years was 1.1 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) and 1.3 (95% CI: 0.5-2.2) per 10,000 person-years during 2009 and 2010, respectively. The incidence of medically attended, laboratory-confirmed seasonal influenza in outpatients with ILI was 10 (95% CI: 8-14), 6.6 (95% CI: 5-9) and 17 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 13-22) during the 2008, 2009 and 2010 influenza seasons, respectively.Influenza-like illness is a frequent cause of consultation in the outpatient setting in Bangladesh. Children aged less than  5 years are hospitalized for influenza in greater proportions than children in other age groups.

    View details for DOI 10.2471/BLT.11.090209

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299913600018

    View details for PubMedID 22271960

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3260571

  • Early Detection of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Rahman, M., Al Mamun, A., Haider, M. S., Zaman, R. U., Karmakar, P. C., Nasreen, S., Mah-e-Muneer, S., Homaira, N., Goswami, D. R., Ahmed, B., Husain, M. M., Jamil, K. M., Khatun, S., Ahmed, M., Chakraborty, A., Fry, A., Widdowson, M., Bresee, J., Azim, T., Alamgir, A. S., Brooks, A., Hossain, M. J., Klimov, A., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2012; 18 (1): 146-149


    To explore Bangladesh's ability to detect novel influenza, we examined a series of laboratory-confirmed pandemic (H1N1) 2009 cases. During June-July 2009, event-based surveillance identified 30 case-patients (57% travelers); starting July 29, sentinel sites identified 252 case-patients (1% travelers). Surveillance facilitated response weeks before the spread of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 infection to the general population.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1801.101996

    View details for Web of Science ID 000298973000029

    View details for PubMedID 22257637

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3310083

  • Hospital-Based Prevalence of Malaria and Dengue in Febrile Patients in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Faruque, L. I., Zaman, R. U., Alamgir, A. S., Gurley, E. S., Haque, R., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2012; 86 (1): 58-64


    We conducted a nationwide study at six tertiary hospitals from December 2008 through November 2009 to investigate etiologies of febrile illnesses in Bangladesh. Febrile patients meeting a clinical case definition were enrolled from inpatient and outpatient medicine and pediatric units. We assessed 720 febrile patients over 12 months; 69 (9.6%) were positive for IgM antibodies against dengue virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and four malaria patients (0.56%) were confirmed with immuno-chromatography and microscopic slide tests. We identified dengue cases throughout the year from rural (49%) and urban areas (51%). We followed-up 55 accessible dengue-infected patients two months after their initial enrollment: 45 (82%) patients had fully recovered, 9 (16%) reported ongoing jaundice, fever and/or joint pain, and one died. Dengue infection is widespread across Bangladesh, but malaria is sufficiently uncommon that it should not be assumed as the cause of fever without laboratory confirmation.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0190

    View details for Web of Science ID 000299065200016

    View details for PubMedID 22232452

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3247110

  • Epidemiology of henipavirus disease in humans. Current topics in microbiology and immunology Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S. 2012; 359: 25-40


    All seven recognized human cases of Hendra virus (HeV) infection have occurred in Queensland, Australia. Recognized human infections have all resulted from a HeV infected horse that was unusually efficient in transmitting the virus and a person with a high exposure to infectious secretions. In the large outbreak in Malaysia where Nipah virus (NiV) was first identified, most human infections resulted from close contact with NiV infected pigs. Outbreak investigations in Bangladesh have identified drinking raw date palm sap as the most common pathway of NiV transmission from Pteropus bats to people, but person-to-person transmission of NiV has been repeatedly identified in Bangladesh and India. Although henipaviruses are not easily transmitted to people, these newly recognized, high mortality agents warrant continued scientific attention.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/82_2012_207

    View details for PubMedID 22752412

  • Understanding community perceptions, social norms and current practice related to respiratory infection in Bangladesh during 2009: a qualitative formative study BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Nizame, F. A., Nasreen, S., Unicomb, L., Southern, D., Gurley, E. S., Arman, S., Kadir, M. A., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Luby, S. P., Winch, P. J. 2011; 11


    Respiratory infections are the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh. Promoting respiratory hygiene may reduce infection transmission. This formative research explored community perceptions about respiratory infections.We conducted 34 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions with community members and school children to explore respiratory hygiene related perceptions, practices, and social norms in an urban and a rural setting. We conducted unstructured observations on respiratory hygiene practices in public markets.Informants were not familiar with the term "respiratory infection"; most named diseases that had no relation to respiratory dysfunction. Informants reported that their community identified a number of 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene, but they also noted, and we observed, that very few people practiced these. All informants cited hot/cold weather changes or using cold water as causes for catching cold. They associated transmission of respiratory infections with close contact with a sick person's breath, cough droplets, or spit; sharing a sick person's utensils and food. Informants suggested that avoiding such contact was the most effective method to prevent respiratory infection. Although informants perceived that handwashing after coughing or sneezing might prevent illness, they felt this was not typically feasible or practical.Community perceptions of respiratory infections include both concerns with imbalances between hot and cold, and with person-to-person transmission. Many people were aware of measures that could prevent respiratory infection, but did not practice them. Interventions that leverage community understanding of person-to-person transmission and that encourage the practice of their identified 'good behaviors' related to respiratory hygiene may reduce respiratory disease transmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-11-901

    View details for Web of Science ID 000300283500001

    View details for PubMedID 22136080

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3276487

  • Epidemiological methods in diarrhoea studies-an update INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Schmidt, W., Arnold, B. F., Boisson, S., Genser, B., Luby, S. P., Barreto, M. L., Clasen, T., Cairncross, S. 2011; 40 (6): 1678-1692


    Diarrhoea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality but is difficult to measure in epidemiological studies. Challenges include the diagnosis based on self-reported symptoms, the logistical burden of intensive surveillance and the variability of diarrhoea in space, time and person.We review current practices in sampling procedures to measure diarrhoea, and provide guidance for diarrhoea measurement across a range of study goals. Using 14 available data sets, we estimated typical design effects for clustering at household and village/ neighbourhood level, and measured the impact of adjusting for baseline variables on the precision of intervention effect estimates.Incidence is the preferred outcome measure in aetiological studies, health services research and vaccine trials. Repeated prevalence measurements (longitudinal prevalence) are appropriate in high-mortality settings where malnutrition is common, although many repeat measures are rarely useful. Period prevalence is an inadequate outcome if an intervention affects illness duration. Adjusting point estimates for age or diarrhoea at baseline in randomized trials has little effect on the precision of estimates. Design effects in trials randomized at household level are usually <2 (range 1.0–3.2). Design effects for larger clusters (e.g. villages or neighbourhoods) vary greatly among different settings and study designs (range 0.1–25.8).Using appropriate sampling strategies and outcome measures can improve the efficiency, validity and comparability of diarrhoea studies. Allocating large clusters in cluster randomized trials is compromized by unpredictable design effects and should be carried out only if the research question requires it.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/ije/dyr152

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297868500029

    View details for PubMedID 22268237

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3235024

  • Using Child Health Outcomes to Identify Effective Measures of Handwashing AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Huda, T. M., Unicomb, L., Johnston, R. B. 2011; 85 (5): 882-892


    We assessed which practical handwashing indicators were independently associated with reduced child diarrhea or respiratory disease. Fieldworkers collected 33 indicators of handwashing at baseline in 498 households in 50 villages in rural Bangladesh. Community monitors visited households monthly and asked standard questions about diarrhea and symptoms of respiratory illness among children under 5 years of age. In multivariate analysis, three handwashing indicators were independently associated with less child diarrhea-mothers reporting usually washing hands with soap before feeding a child, mothers using soap when asked to show how they usually washed their hands after defecation, and children having visibly clean finger pads. Two indicators were independently associated with fewer respiratory infections-mothers allowing their hands to air dry after the handwashing demonstration and the presence of water where the respondents usually wash hands after defecation. These rapid handwashing indicators should be considered for inclusion in handwashing assessments.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.11-0142

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296661900017

    View details for PubMedID 22049043

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3205635

  • Lethal Factor Toxemia and Anti-Protective Antigen Antibody Activity in Naturally Acquired Cutaneous Anthrax JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Boyer, A. E., Quinn, C. P., Beesley, C. A., Gallegos-Candela, M., Marston, C. K., Cronin, L. X., Lins, R. C., Stoddard, R. A., Li, H., Schiffer, J., Hossain, M. J., Chakraborty, A., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Shieh, W., Zaki, S., Barr, J. R., Hoffmaster, A. R. 2011; 204 (9): 1321-1327


    Cutaneous anthrax outbreaks occurred in Bangladesh from August to October 2009. As part of the epidemiological response and to confirm anthrax diagnoses, serum samples were collected from suspected case patients with observed cutaneous lesions. Anthrax lethal factor (LF), anti-protective antigen (anti-PA) immunoglobulin G (IgG), and anthrax lethal toxin neutralization activity (TNA) levels were determined in acute and convalescent serum of 26 case patients with suspected cutaneous anthrax from the first and largest of these outbreaks. LF (0.005-1.264 ng/mL) was detected in acute serum from 18 of 26 individuals. Anti-PA IgG and TNA were detected in sera from the same 18 individuals and ranged from 10.0 to 679.5 μg/mL and 27 to 593 units, respectively. Seroconversion to serum anti-PA and TNA was found only in case patients with measurable toxemia. This is the first report of quantitative analysis of serum LF in cutaneous anthrax and the first to associate acute stage toxemia with subsequent antitoxin antibody responses.

    View details for DOI 10.1093/infdis/jir543

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295509300005

    View details for PubMedID 21908727

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3182309

  • What Point-of-Use Water Treatment Products Do Consumers Use? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial among the Urban Poor in Bangladesh PLOS ONE Luoto, J., Najnin, N., Mahmud, M., Albert, J., Islam, M. S., Luby, S., Unicomb, L., Levine, D. I. 2011; 6 (10)


    There is evidence that household point-of-use (POU) water treatment products can reduce the enormous burden of water-borne illness. Nevertheless, adoption among the global poor is very low, and little evidence exists on why.We gave 600 households in poor communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh randomly-ordered two-month free trials of four water treatment products: dilute liquid chlorine (sodium hypochlorite solution, marketed locally as Water Guard), sodium dichloroisocyanurate tablets (branded as Aquatabs), a combined flocculant-disinfectant powdered mixture (the PUR Purifier of Water), and a silver-coated ceramic siphon filter. Consumers also received education on the dangers of untreated drinking water. We measured which products consumers used with self-reports, observation (for the filter), and chlorine tests (for the other products). We also measured drinking water's contamination with E. coli (compared to 200 control households).Households reported highest usage of the filter, although no product had even 30% usage. E. coli concentrations in stored drinking water were generally lowest when households had Water Guard. Households that self-reported product usage had large reductions in E. coli concentrations with any product as compared to controls.Traditional arguments for the low adoption of POU products focus on affordability, consumers' lack of information about germs and the dangers of unsafe water, and specific products not meshing with a household's preferences. In this study we provided free trials, repeated informational messages explaining the dangers of untreated water, and a variety of product designs. The low usage of all products despite such efforts makes clear that important barriers exist beyond cost, information, and variation among these four product designs. Without a better understanding of the choices and aspirations of the target end-users, household-based water treatment is unlikely to reduce morbidity and mortality substantially in urban Bangladesh and similar populations.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0026132

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296510800020

    View details for PubMedID 22028817

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3197608

  • Inequalities in Care-seeking for Febrile Illness of Under-five Children in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh JOURNAL OF HEALTH POPULATION AND NUTRITION Najnin, N., Bennett, C. M., Luby, S. P. 2011; 29 (5): 523-531


    Fever is an easily-recognizable primary sign for many serious childhood infections. In Bangladesh, 31% of children aged less than five years (under-five children) die from serious infections, excluding confirmed acute respiratory infections or diarrhoea. Understanding healthcare-seeking behaviour for children with fever could provide insights on how to reduce this high rate of mortality. Data from a cross-sectional survey in the catchment areas of two tertiary-level paediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh, were analyzed to identify the factors associated with the uptake of services from trained healthcare providers for under-five children with reported febrile illness. Health and demographic data were collected in a larger study of 7,865 children using structured questionnaires. Data were selected from 1,290 of these under-five children who were taken to any healthcare provider for febrile illness within two months preceding the date of visit by the study team. Certified doctors were categorized as 'trained', and other healthcare providers were categorized as 'untrained'. Healthcare-seeking behaviours were analyzed in relation to these groups. A wealth index was constructed using principal component analysis to classify the households into socioeconomic groups. The odds ratios for factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviours were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for clustering. Forty-one percent of caregivers (n=529) did not seek healthcare from trained healthcare providers. Children from the highest wealth quintile were significantly more likely [odds ratio (OR)=5.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-9.2] to be taken to trained healthcare providers compared to the poorest group. Young infants were more likely to be taken to trained healthcare providers compared to the age-group of 4-<5 years (OR=1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4). Male children were also more likely to be taken to trained healthcare providers (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.9) as were children with decreased level of consciousness (OR=5.3, 95% CI 2.0-14.2). Disparities across socioeconomic groups and gender persisted in seeking quality healthcare for under-five children with febrile illness in urban Dhaka. Girls from poor families were less likely to access qualified medical care. To reduce child mortality in the short term, health education and behaviour-change communication interventions should target low-income caregivers to improve their recognition of danger-signs; reducing societal inequalities remains an important long-term goal.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000296910300013

    View details for PubMedID 22106759

  • Economic Consequences of Post Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in a Rural Bangladeshi Community AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Ozaki, M., Islam, S., Rahman, K. M., Rahman, A., Luby, S. P., Bern, C. 2011; 85 (3): 528-534


    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a complication of visceral leishmaniasis. Bangladesh national treatment guidelines during the study period called for 120 intramuscular injections of sodium antimony gluconate (SAG). We assessed care-seeking behavior, diagnosis and treatment costs, and coping strategies among 134 PKDL patients; 56 (42%) patients had been treated with SAG, and 78 (58%) remained untreated. The median direct cost per patient treated was US$367 (interquartile range [IQR] = 90-284), more than two times the estimated per capita annual income for the study population. The most common coping strategy was to take a loan; the median amount borrowed was US$98 (IQR = 71-150), with a median interest of US$32 (IQR = 16-95). Households lost a median of 123 work-days per patient treated. The current regimen for PKDL imposes a significant financial burden, reinforcing the link between poverty and visceral leishmaniasis. More practical shorter-course regimens for PKDL are urgently needed to achieve national and regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination goals.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0683

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294581400026

    View details for PubMedID 21896817

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3163879

  • Social Ecological Analysis of an Outbreak of Pufferfish Egg Poisoning in a Coastal Area of Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Islam, M. S., Luby, S. P., Rahman, M., Parveen, S., Homaira, N., Begum, N. H., Khan, A. K., Sultana, R., Akhter, S., Gurley, E. S. 2011; 85 (3): 498-503


    Recurrent outbreaks of marine pufferfish poisoning in Bangladesh highlight the need to understand the context in which the outbreaks occurred. In a recent outbreak investigation, a multidisciplinary team conducted a mixed-method study to identify the demography and clinical manifestation of the victims and to explore different uses of pufferfish, and local buying, selling, and processing practices. The outbreak primarily affected a low income household where an elderly woman collected and cooked pufferfish egg curry. Nine persons consumed the curry, and symptoms developed in 6 (67%) of these persons. Symptoms included vomiting, diarrhea, paresis, and tingling sensation; 2 (22%) persons died. The unstable income of the affected family, food crisis, and the public disposal of unsafe pufferfish byproducts all contributed to the outbreak. A multi-level intervention should be developed and disseminated with the participation of target communities to discourage unsafe discarding of pufferfish scraps and to improve the community knowledge about the risk of consuming pufferfish.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0629

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294581400020

    View details for PubMedID 21896811

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3163873

  • A Novel Low-Cost Approach to Estimate the Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis in the Catchment Area of Three Hospitals in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Paul, R. C., Rahman, M., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Diorditsa, S., Hasan, A. S., Banu, S. S., Alamgir, A. S., Rahman, M. A., Sandhu, H., Fischer, M., Luby, S. P. 2011; 85 (2): 379-385


    Acute meningoencephalitis syndrome surveillance was initiated in three medical college hospitals in Bangladesh in October 2007 to identify Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases. We estimated the population-based incidence of JE in the three hospitals' catchment areas by adjusting the hospital-based crude incidence of JE by the proportion of catchment area meningoencephalitis cases who were admitted to surveillance hospitals. Instead of a traditional house-to-house survey, which is expensive for a disease with low frequency, we attempted a novel approach to identify meningoencephalitis cases in the hospital catchment area through social networks among the community residents. The estimated JE incidence was 2.7/100,000 population in Rajshahi (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-4.9), 1.4 in Khulna (95% CI = 0.9-4.1), and 0.6 in Chittagong (95% CI = 0.4-0.9). Bangladesh should consider a pilot project to introduce JE vaccine in high-incidence areas.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0706

    View details for Web of Science ID 000293613000031

    View details for PubMedID 21813862

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3144840

  • Estimating the Effect of Recurrent Infectious Diseases on Nutritional Status: Sampling Frequency, Sample-size, and Bias JOURNAL OF HEALTH POPULATION AND NUTRITION Schmidt, W., Genser, B., Luby, S. P., Chalabi, Z. 2011; 29 (4): 317-326


    There is an ongoing interest in studying the effect of common recurrent infections and conditions, such as diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and fever, on the nutritional status of children at risk of malnutrition. Epidemiological studies exploring this association need to measure infections with sufficient accuracy to minimize bias in the effect estimates. A versatile model of common recurrent infections was used for exploring how many repeated measurements of disease are required to maximize the power and logistical efficiency of studies investigating the effect of infectious diseases on malnutrition without compromising the validity of the estimates. Depending on the prevalence and distribution of disease within a population, 15-30 repeat measurements per child over one year should be sufficient to provide unbiased estimates of the association between infections and nutritional status. Less-frequent measurements lead to a bias in the effect size towards zero, especially if disease is rare. In contrast, recall error can lead to exaggerated effect sizes. Recall periods of three days or shorter may be preferable compared to longer recall periods. The results showed that accurate estimation of the association between recurrent infections and nutritional status required closer follow-up of study participants than studies using recurrent infections as an outcome measure. The findings of the study provide guidance for choosing an appropriate sampling strategy to explore this association.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294666200004

    View details for PubMedID 21957670

  • Family and community concerns about post-mortem needle biopsies in a Muslim society BMC MEDICAL ETHICS Gurley, E. S., Parveen, S., Islam, M. S., Hossain, M. J., Nahar, N., Homaira, N., Sultana, R., Sejvar, J. J., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2011; 12


    Post-mortem needle biopsies have been used in resource-poor settings to determine cause of death and there is interest in using them in Bangladesh. However, we did not know how families and communities would perceive this procedure or how they would decide whether or not to consent to a post-mortem needle biopsy. The goal of this study was to better understand family and community concerns and decision-making about post-mortem needle biopsies in this low-income, predominantly Muslim country in order to design an informed consent process.We conducted 16 group discussions with family members of persons who died during an outbreak of Nipah virus illness during 2004-2008 and 11 key informant interviews with their community and religious leaders. Qualitative researchers first described the post-mortem needle biopsy procedure and asked participants whether they would have agreed to this procedure during the outbreak. Researchers probed participants about the circumstances under which the procedure would be acceptable, if any, their concerns about the procedure, and how they would decide whether or not to consent to the procedure.Overall, most participants agreed that post-mortem needle biopsies would be acceptable in some situations, particularly if they benefitted society. This procedure was deemed more acceptable than full autopsy because it would not require major delays in burial or remove organs, and did not require cutting or stitching of the body. It could be performed before the ritual bathing of the body in either the community or hospital setting. However, before consent would be granted for such a procedure, the research team must gain the trust of the family and community which could be difficult. Although consent may only be provided by the guardians of the body, decisions about consent for the procedure would involve extended family and community and religious leaders.The possible acceptability of this procedure during outbreaks represents an important opportunity to better characterize cause of death in Bangladesh which could lead to improved public health interventions to prevent these deaths. Obstacles for research teams will include engaging all major stakeholders in decision-making and quickly building a trusting relationship with the family and community, which will be difficult given the short window of time prior to the ritual bathing of the body.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1472-6939-12-10

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292831500001

    View details for PubMedID 21668979

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3141792

  • The Effect of Handwashing at Recommended Times with Water Alone and With Soap on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: An Observational Study PLOS MEDICINE Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Huda, T., Unicomb, L., Johnston, R. B. 2011; 8 (6)


    Standard public health interventions to improve hand hygiene in communities with high levels of child mortality encourage community residents to wash their hands with soap at five separate key times, a recommendation that would require mothers living in impoverished households to typically wash hands with soap more than ten times per day. We analyzed data from households that received no intervention in a large prospective project evaluation to assess the relationship between observed handwashing behavior and subsequent diarrhea.Fieldworkers conducted a 5-hour structured observation and a cross-sectional survey in 347 households from 50 villages across rural Bangladesh in 2007. For the subsequent 2 years, a trained community resident visited each of the enrolled households every month and collected information on the occurrence of diarrhea in the preceding 48 hours among household residents under the age of 5 years. Compared with children living in households where persons prepared food without washing their hands, children living in households where the food preparer washed at least one hand with water only (odds ratio [OR]=0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.57-1.05), washed both hands with water only (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.51-0.89), or washed at least one hand with soap (OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.19-0.47) had less diarrhea. In households where residents washed at least one hand with soap after defecation, children had less diarrhea (OR=0.45; 95% CI=0.26-0.77). There was no significant association between handwashing with or without soap before feeding a child, before eating, or after cleaning a child's anus who defecated and subsequent child diarrhea.These observations suggest that handwashing before preparing food is a particularly important opportunity to prevent childhood diarrhea, and that handwashing with water alone can significantly reduce childhood diarrhea.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001052

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292136800015

    View details for PubMedID 21738452

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3125291

  • The Variability of Childhood Diarrhea in Karachi, Pakistan, 2002-2006 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Hoekstra, R. M. 2011; 84 (6): 870-877


    Diarrhea burden is often estimated using cross-sectional surveys. We measured variability in diarrhea prevalence among children < 5 years of age living in squatter settlements in central Karachi, Pakistan. We pooled data from non-intervention control households from studies conducted from 2002 through 2006. The prevalence of diarrhea varied on average by 29% from one week to the next, by 37% from one month to the next, and during peak diarrhea season by 32% from one year to the next. During 24 months when the same nine neighborhoods were under surveillance, each month the prevalence of diarrhea varied by at least an order of magnitude from the lowest to the highest prevalence neighborhood, and each neighborhood recorded the highest diarrhea prevalence during at least one month. Cross-sectional surveys are unreliable measures of diarrhea prevalence.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0364

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291333200007

    View details for PubMedID 21633021

  • Variability in Hand Contamination Based on Serial Measurements: Implications for Assessment of Hand-Cleansing Behavior and Disease Risk AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Ram, P. K., Jahid, I., Halder, A. K., Nygren, B., Islam, M. S., Granger, S. P., Molyneaux, J. W., Luby, S. P. 2011; 84 (4): 510-516


    Measuring hand contamination at critical times, such as eating, can be challenging. We examined whether hand contamination measured at random, such as on arrival (initial), predicts contamination at critical times. Mothers of young children in Bangladesh rinsed both hands in 200 mL of Ringer's solution. We compared results of serial samples with respect to fecal coliform counts. Among 39 mothers, the geometric mean of fecal coliforms was 307 colony-forming units (cfu)/100 mL at initial collection and 3,001 cfu/100 mL during critical times (P = 0.0006). There was no correlation between initial and critical time fecal coliform counts (R = 0.13, P = 0.43). The mean difference between initial and critical time counts was 3.5 (standard deviation = 1.4) on the log base-10 scale. Contamination of the same subjects' hands varied substantially within a few hours. Because hand contamination measured at random cannot reliably predict hand contamination at times of potential pathogen transmission, single random hand rinses are not valid proxy measures for handwashing behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0299

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289023600002

    View details for PubMedID 21460002

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3062441

  • Hygiene: new hopes, new horizons LANCET INFECTIOUS DISEASES Curtis, V., Schmidt, W., Luby, S., Florez, R., Toure, O., Biran, A. 2011; 11 (4): 312-321


    Although promotion of safe hygiene is the single most cost-effective means of preventing infectious disease, investment in hygiene is low both in the health and in the water and sanitation sectors. Evidence shows the benefit of improved hygiene, especially for improved handwashing and safe stool disposal. A growing understanding of what drives hygiene behaviour and creative partnerships are providing fresh approaches to change behaviour. However, some important gaps in our knowledge exist. For example, almost no trials of the effectiveness of interventions to improve food hygiene in developing countries are available. We also need to figure out how best to make safe hygiene practices matters of daily routine that are sustained by social norms on a mass scale. Full and active involvement of the health sector in getting safe hygiene to all homes, schools, and institutions will bring major gains to public health.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000289275600019

    View details for PubMedID 21453872

  • Community perceptions of bloody diarrhoea in an urban slum in South Asia: implications for introduction of a Shigella vaccine. Epidemiology and infection Arvelo, W., Blum, L. S., Nahar, N., von Seidlein, L., Nahar, L., Pack, R. P., Brooks, A. W., Pach, A., Breiman, R. F., Luby, S. P., Ram, P. K. 2011; 139 (4): 599-605


    Understanding local perceptions of disease causation could help public health officials improve strategies to prevent bloody diarrhoea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh to elicit community beliefs about the causes of and prevention strategies for bloody diarrhoea. Between March and June 2003, we interviewed 541 randomly selected respondents. Overall, 507 (93%) respondents perceived that a vaccine could prevent bloody diarrhoea. If a vaccine provided lifetime protection, 445 (83%) respondents stated that they would opt to get the vaccine and would pay a median of $0·05 (range U.S.$0·01-0·15) for it, equivalent to <1% of their median weekly income. There was almost universal perception that an effective vaccine to prevent bloody diarrhoea was highly beneficial and acceptable. While respondents valued a vaccine for prevention of bloody diarrhoea, they were only willing to pay minimally for it. Therefore, achieving a high rate of Shigella vaccine coverage may require subsidy of vaccine purchase.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268810001391

    View details for PubMedID 20546637

  • Changing species distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella over a 29-year period (1980-2008) EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Khatun, F., Faruque, A. S., Koeck, J. L., Olliaro, P., Millet, P., Paris, N., Malek, M. A., Salam, M. A., Luby, S. 2011; 139 (3): 446-452


    We studied changes in species distribution and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Shigella during 1980-2008, using the Diarrhoeal Diseases Surveillance system of Dhaka Hospital of ICDDR,B. In hospitalized patients Shigella prevalence decreased steadily from 8-12% in the 1980s to 3% in 2008. Endemic S. flexneri was the most commonly isolated species (54%). Epidemic S. dysenteriae type 1 had two peaks in 1984 and 1993, but was not found after 2000, except for one case in 2004. The therapeutic options are now limited: in 2008 a total of 33% of S. flexneri were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 57% to mecillinam. In the <5 years age group, severely underweight, wasted and stunted children were more at risk of shigellosis compared to well-nourished children (P<0·001). Although hospitalization for Shigella diarrhoea is decreasing, the high levels of antimicrobial resistance and increased susceptibility of malnourished children continue to pose an ongoing risk.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268810001093

    View details for Web of Science ID 000287612600015

    View details for PubMedID 20478088

  • The effect of handwashing at recommended times with water alone and with soap on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: An observational study. PLoS Med Luby SP, Halder AK, Huda T, Tronchet C, Unicomb L, Johnston RB. 2011; 8 (6): e1001052
  • Use of Infrared Camera to Understand Bats' Access to Date Palm Sap: Implications for Preventing Nipah Virus Transmission ECOHEALTH Khan, M. S., Hossain, J., Gurley, E. S., Nahar, N., Sultana, R., Luby, S. P. 2010; 7 (4): 517-525


    Pteropus bats are commonly infected with Nipah virus, but show no signs of illness. Human Nipah outbreaks in Bangladesh coincide with the date palm sap harvesting season. In epidemiologic studies, drinking raw date palm sap is a risk factor for human Nipah infection. We conducted a study to evaluate bats' access to date palm sap. We mounted infrared cameras that silently captured images upon detection of motion on date palm trees from 5:00 pm to 6:00 am. Additionally, we placed two locally used preventative techniques, bamboo skirts and lime (CaCO₃) smeared on date palm trees to assess their effectiveness in preventing bats access to sap. Out of 20 camera-nights of observations, 14 identified 132 visits of bats around the tree, 91 to the shaved surface of the tree where the sap flow originates, 4 at the stream of sap moving toward the collection pot, and no bats at the tap or on the collection pots; the remaining 6 camera-nights recorded no visits. Of the preventative techniques, the bamboo skirt placed for four camera-nights prevented bats access to sap. This study confirmed that bats commonly visited date palm trees and physically contacted the sap collected for human consumption. This is further evidence that date palm sap is an important link between Nipah virus in bats and Nipah virus in humans. Efforts that prevent bat access to the shaved surface and the sap stream of the tree could reduce Nipah spillovers to the human population.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-010-0366-2

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294563300010

    View details for PubMedID 21207105

  • A community-randomised controlled trial promoting waterless hand sanitizer and handwashing with soap, Dhaka, Bangladesh TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Luby, S. P., Kadir, M. A., Sharker, M. A., Yeasmin, F., Unicomb, L., Islam, M. S. 2010; 15 (12): 1508-1516


    To pilot two intensive hand hygiene promotion interventions, one using soap and one using a waterless hand sanitizer, in low-income housing compounds in Dhaka, Bangladesh and assess subsequent changes in handwashing behaviour and hand microbiology.Fieldworkers randomized 30 housing compounds: 10 received handwashing promotion with free soap, 10 received handwashing promotion with free waterless hand sanitizer and 10 were non-intervention controls. Fieldworkers assessed handwashing behaviour by structured observation and collected hand rinse specimens.At baseline, compound residents washed their hands with soap 26% of the time after defecation and 30% after cleaning a child's anus but <1% at other times. Compared with baseline, residents of soap intervention compounds were much more likely to wash their hands with soap after faecal contact (85-91%), before preparing food (26%) and before eating (26%). Compounds that received waterless hand sanitizer cleansed their hands more commonly than control compounds that used soap (10.4%vs. 2.3%), but less commonly than soap intervention compounds used soap (25%). Post-intervention hand rinse samples from soap and sanitizer compounds had lower concentrations of faecal indicator bacteria compared with baseline and control compounds.Waterless hand sanitizer was readily adopted by this low-income community and reduced hand contamination but did not improve the frequency of handwashing compared with soap. Future deployments of waterless hand sanitizers may improve hand hygiene more effectively by targeting settings where soap and water is unavailable.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02648.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284374600014

    View details for PubMedID 20958896

  • Nipah virus outbreak with person-to-person transmission in a district of Bangladesh, 2007 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Homaira, N., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Epstein, J. H., Sultana, R., Khan, M. S., Podder, G., Nahar, K., Ahmed, B., Gurley, E. S., Daszak, P., Lipkin, W. I., ROLLIN, P. E., Comer, J. A., Ksiazek, T. G., Luby, S. P. 2010; 138 (11): 1630-1636


    In February 2007 an outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) encephalitis in Thakurgaon District of northwest Bangladesh affected seven people, three of whom died. All subsequent cases developed illness 7-14 days after close physical contact with the index case while he was ill. Cases were more likely than controls to have been in the same room (100% vs. 9.5%, OR undefined, P<0.001) and to have touched him (83% vs. 0%, OR undefined, P<0.001). Although the source of infection for the index case was not identified, 50% of Pteropus bats sampled from near the outbreak area 1 month after the outbreak had antibodies to NiV confirming the presence of the virus in the area. The outbreak was spread by person-to-person transmission. Risk of NiV infection in family caregivers highlights the need for infection control practices to limit transmission of potentially infectious body secretions.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268810000695

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282196000013

    View details for PubMedID 20380769

  • Is Structured Observation a Valid Technique to Measure Handwashing Behavior? Use of Acceleration Sensors Embedded in Soap to Assess Reactivity to Structured Observation AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Ram, P. K., Halder, A. K., Granger, S. P., Jones, T., Hall, P., Hitchcock, D., Wright, R., Nygren, B., Islam, M. S., Molyneaux, J. W., Luby, S. P. 2010; 83 (5): 1070-1076


    Structured observation is often used to evaluate handwashing behavior. We assessed reactivity to structured observation in rural Bangladesh by distributing soap containing acceleration sensors and performing structured observation 4 days later. Sensors recorded the number of times soap was moved. In 45 participating households, the median number of sensor soap movements during the 5-hour time block on pre-observation days was 3.7 (range 0.3-10.6). During the structured observation, the median number of sensor soap movements was 5.0 (range 0-18.0), a 35% increase, P = 0.0004. Compared with the same 5-hour time block on pre-observation days, the number of sensor soap movements increased during structured observation by ≥ 20% in 62% of households, and by ≥ 100% in 22% of households. The increase in sensor soap movements during structured observation, compared with pre-observation days, indicates substantial reactivity to the presence of the observer. These findings call into question the validity of structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09.0763

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284184600022

    View details for PubMedID 21036840

  • Cluster of Nipah Virus Infection, Kushtia District, Bangladesh, 2007 PLOS ONE Homaira, N., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Nahar, N., Khan, R., Rahman, M., Podder, G., Nahar, K., Khan, D., Gurley, E. S., Rollin, P. E., Comer, J. A., Ksiazek, T. G., Luby, S. P. 2010; 5 (10)


    In March 2007, we investigated a cluster of Nipah encephalitis to identify risk factors for Nipah infection in Bangladesh.We defined confirmed Nipah cases by the presence of IgM and IgG antibodies against Nipah virus in serum. Case-patients, who resided in the same village during the outbreak period but died before serum could be collected, were classified as probable cases.We identified three confirmed and five probable Nipah cases. There was a single index case. Five of the secondary cases came in close physical contact to the index case when she was ill. Case-patients were more likely to have physical contact with the index case (71% cases versus 0% controls, p = <0.001). The index case, on her third day of illness, and all the subsequent cases attended the same religious gathering. For three probable cases including the index case, we could not identify any known risk factors for Nipah infection such as physical contact with Nipah case-patients, consumption of raw date palm juice, or contact with sick animals or fruit bats.Though person-to-person transmission remains an important mode of transmission for Nipah infection, we could not confirm the source of infection for three of the probable Nipah case-patients. Continued surveillance and outbreak investigations will help better understand the transmission of Nipah virus and develop preventive strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0013570

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283293800027

    View details for PubMedID 21042407

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2958840

  • Coping strategies for financial burdens in families with childhood pneumonia in Bangladesh BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Alamgir, N. I., Naheed, A., Luby, S. P. 2010; 10


    This study aimed to determine the out-of pocket expenditure and coping strategies adopted by families of children admitted in a hospital in Bangladesh with pneumonia.Trained interviewers surveyed parents of 90 children and conducted in-depth interviews with six families below the age of 5 years who were admitted to the largest pediatric hospital in Bangladesh with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We estimated the total cost of illness associated with hospitalization and explored the coping strategies of the families.The mean expenditure of the families for the illness episode was US$ 94 (±SD 52.5) with 75% having spent more than half of their total monthly expenditure on this hospitalization. Three fourths (68/90, 76%) of the families managed the expenditure by borrowing, mortgaging or selling assets; 64% had to borrow the full cost of hospitalization and 10% borrowed from the formal sector with a monthly interest rate of 5 to 30%. The burden was highest for the people from poor income strata. Families earning ≤US$ 59 per month were 10 times more likely than families earning ≥US$ 59 per month to borrow money (OR = 10.0, 95% CI: 2.8-38.8). To repay their debts, 22% of families reported that they would work extra hours and 50% planned to reduce spending on food and education for their children.Coping strategies adopted by the families to manage the out-of-pocket expenditure for children requiring hospitalization were catastrophic for the majority of the families. Efforts to prevent childhood pneumonia for example, by vaccination against the most common pathogens, by improving air quality and by improving childhood nutrition can provide a double advantage. They can prevent both disease and poverty.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-10-622

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284067700001

    View details for PubMedID 20955627

  • Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003-2005 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH DuBois, A. E., Crump, J. A., Keswick, B. H., Slutsker, L., Quick, R. E., Vulule, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2010; 7 (10): 3842-3852


    Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003-February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007), but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.

    View details for DOI 10.3390/ijerph7103842

    View details for Web of Science ID 000283576600016

    View details for PubMedID 21139864

  • Observed hand cleanliness and other measures of handwashing behavior in rural Bangladesh BMC PUBLIC HEALTH Halder, A. K., Tronchet, C., Akhter, S., Bhuiya, A., Johnston, R., Luby, S. P. 2010; 10


    We analyzed data from the baseline assessment of a large intervention project to describe typical handwashing practices in rural Bangladesh, and compare measures of hand cleanliness with household characteristics.We randomly selected 100 villages from 36 districts in rural Bangladesh. Field workers identified 17 eligible households per village using systematic sampling. Field workers conducted 5-hour structured observations in 1000 households, and a cross-sectional assessment in 1692 households that included spot checks, an evaluation of hand cleanliness and a request that residents demonstrate their usual handwashing practices after defecation.Although 47% of caregivers reported and 51% demonstrated washing both hands with soap after defecation, in structured observation, only 33% of caregivers and 14% of all persons observed washed both hands with soap after defecation. Less than 1% used soap and water for handwashing before eating and/or feeding a child. More commonly people washed their hands only with water, 23% after defecation and 5% before eating. Spot checks during the cross sectional survey classified 930 caregivers (55%) and 453 children (28%) as having clean appearing hands. In multivariate analysis economic status and water available at handwashing locations were significantly associated with hand cleanliness among both caregivers and children.A minority of rural Bangladeshi residents washed both hands with soap at key handwashing times, though rinsing hands with only water was more common. To realize the health benefits of handwashing, efforts to improve handwashing in these communities should target adding soap to current hand rinsing practices.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1471-2458-10-545

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282239900003

    View details for PubMedID 20828412

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2944374

  • Burden of typhoid and paratyphoid fever in a densely populated urban community, Dhaka, Bangladesh INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Naheed, A., Ram, P. K., Brooks, W. A., Hossain, M. A., Parsons, M. B., Talukder, K. A., Mintz, E., Luby, S., Breiman, R. F. 2010; 14: E93-E99


    We conducted blood culture surveillance to estimate the incidence of typhoid and paratyphoid fever among urban slum residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh.Between January 7, 2003 and January 6, 2004, participants were visited weekly to detect febrile illnesses. Blood cultures were obtained at the clinic from patients with fever (≥38°C). Salmonella isolates were assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility.Forty Salmonella Typhi and eight Salmonella Paratyphi A were isolated from 961 blood cultures. The incidence of typhoid fever was 2.0 episodes/1000 person-years, with a higher incidence in children aged<5 years (10.5/1000 person-years) than in older persons (0.9/1000 person-years) (relative risk=12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.3-22.6). The incidence of paratyphoid fever was 0.4/1000 person-years without variation by age group. Sixteen S. Typhi isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). All S. Paratyphi isolates were pan-susceptible. The duration of fever among patients with an MDR S. Typhi infection was longer than among patients with non-MDR S. Typhi (16±8 vs. 11±4 days, p=0.02) and S. Paratyphi (10±2 days, p=0.04) infections.Typhoid fever is more common than paratyphoid fever in the urban Bangladeshi slum; children<5 years old have the highest incidence. Multidrug resistance is common in S. Typhi isolates and is associated with prolonged illness. Strategies for typhoid fever prevention in children aged<5 years in Bangladesh, including immunization, are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2009.11.023

    View details for Web of Science ID 000282643000020

    View details for PubMedID 20236850

  • Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in Asia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Zaman, K., Dang, D. A., Victor, J. C., Shin, S., Yunus, M., Dallas, M. J., Podder, G., Vu, D. T., Le, T. P., Luby, S. P., Le, H. T., Coia, M. L., Lewis, K., Rivers, S. B., Sack, D. A., Schödel, F., Steele, A. D., Neuzil, K. M., Ciarlet, M. 2010; 376 (9741): 615-623


    Rotavirus vaccine has proved effective for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developed countries, but no efficacy studies have been done in developing countries in Asia. We assessed the clinical efficacy of live oral pentavalent rotavirus vaccine for prevention of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in Bangladesh and Vietnam.In this multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, undertaken in rural Matlab, Bangladesh, and urban and periurban Nha Trang, Vietnam, infants aged 4-12 weeks without symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive three oral doses of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine 2 mL or placebo at around 6 weeks, 10 weeks, and 14 weeks of age, in conjunction with routine infant vaccines including oral poliovirus vaccine. Randomisation was done by computer-generated randomisation sequence in blocks of six. Episodes of gastroenteritis in infants who presented to study medical facilities were reported by clinical staff and from parent recollection. The primary endpoint was severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (Vesikari score >or=11) arising 14 days or more after the third dose of placebo or vaccine to end of study (March 31, 2009; around 21 months of age). Analysis was per protocol; infants who received scheduled doses of vaccine or placebo without intervening laboratory-confirmed naturally occurring rotavirus disease earlier than 14 days after the third dose and had complete clinical and laboratory results were included in the analysis. This study is registered with, number NCT00362648.2036 infants were randomly assigned to receive pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (n=1018) or placebo (n=1018). 991 infants assigned to pentavalent rotavirus vaccine and 978 assigned to placebo were included in the per-protocol analysis. Median follow up from 14 days after the third dose of placebo or vaccine until final disposition was 498 days (IQR 480-575). 38 cases of severe rotavirus gastroenteritis (Vesikari score >or=11) were reported during more than 1197 person-years of follow up in the vaccine group, compared with 71 cases in more than 1156 person years in the placebo group, resulting in a vaccine efficacy of 48.3% (95% CI 22.3-66.1) against severe disease (p=0.0005 for efficacy >0%) during nearly 2 years of follow-up. 25 (2.5%) of 1017 infants assigned to receive vaccine and 20 (2.0%) of 1018 assigned to receive placebo had a serious adverse event within 14 days of any dose. The most frequent serious adverse event was pneumonia (vaccine 12 [1.2%]; placebo 15 [1.5%]).In infants in developing countries in Asia, pentavalent rotavirus vaccine is safe and efficacious against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis, and our results support expanded WHO recommendations to promote its global use.PATH (GAVI Alliance grant) and Merck.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60755-6

    View details for PubMedID 20692031

  • Efficacy of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants in developing countries in Asia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial LANCET Zaman, K., Anh, D. D., Victor, J. C., Shin, S., Yunus, M., Dallas, M. J., Podder, G., Thiem, V. D., Mai, L. T., Luby, S. P., Tho, L. H., Coia, M. L., Lewis, K., Rivers, S. B., Sack, D. A., Schoedel, F., Steele, A. D., Neuzil, K. M., Ciarlet, M. 2010; 376 (9741): 615-623
  • Sampling strategies to measure the prevalence of common recurrent infections in longitudinal studies. Emerging themes in epidemiology Schmidt, W., Genser, B., Barreto, M. L., Clasen, T., Luby, S. P., Cairncross, S., Chalabi, Z. 2010; 7 (1): 5-?


    Measuring recurrent infections such as diarrhoea or respiratory infections in epidemiological studies is a methodological challenge. Problems in measuring the incidence of recurrent infections include the episode definition, recall error, and the logistics of close follow up. Longitudinal prevalence (LP), the proportion-of-time-ill estimated by repeated prevalence measurements, is an alternative measure to incidence of recurrent infections. In contrast to incidence which usually requires continuous sampling, LP can be measured at intervals. This study explored how many more participants are needed for infrequent sampling to achieve the same study power as frequent sampling.We developed a set of four empirical simulation models representing low and high risk settings with short or long episode durations. The model was used to evaluate different sampling strategies with different assumptions on recall period and recall error.The model identified three major factors that influence sampling strategies: (1) the clustering of episodes in individuals; (2) the duration of episodes; (3) the positive correlation between an individual's disease incidence and episode duration. Intermittent sampling (e.g. 12 times per year) often requires only a slightly larger sample size compared to continuous sampling, especially in cluster-randomized trials. The collection of period prevalence data can lead to highly biased effect estimates if the exposure variable is associated with episode duration. To maximize study power, recall periods of 3 to 7 days may be preferable over shorter periods, even if this leads to inaccuracy in the prevalence estimates.Choosing the optimal approach to measure recurrent infections in epidemiological studies depends on the setting, the study objectives, study design and budget constraints. Sampling at intervals can contribute to making epidemiological studies and trials more efficient, valid and cost-effective.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/1742-7622-7-5

    View details for PubMedID 20678239

  • Multiple Outbreaks of Puffer Fish Intoxication in Bangladesh, 2008 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Homaira, N., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P., Rahman, M., Haider, M. S., Faruque, L. I., Khan, D., Parveen, S., Gurley, E. S. 2010; 83 (2): 440-444


    During April and June 2008, we investigated three outbreaks of marine puffer fish intoxication in three districts of Bangladesh (Narshingdi, Natore, and Dhaka). We also explored trade of marine puffer fish in Cox's Bazaar, a coastal area of the country. We identified 95 people who had consumed puffer fish; 63 (66%) developed toxicity characterized by tingling sensation in the body, perioral numbness, dizziness, and weakness, 14 of them died. All three outbreaks were caused by consumption of large (0.2-1.5 kg) marine puffer fish, sold in communities where people were unfamiliar with the marine variety of the fish and its toxicity. Coastal fishermen reported that some local businessmen distributed the fresh fish to non-coastal parts of the country, where people were unfamiliar with the larger variety, to make a quick profit. Lack of knowledge about marine puffer toxicity contributed to the outbreaks. Health communication campaigns will enhance people's knowledge and may prevent future outbreaks.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0168

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280694300040

    View details for PubMedID 20682896

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2911199

  • A low-cost approach to measure the burden of vaccine preventable diseases in urban areas VACCINE Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Saha, S. K., Naheed, A., Sazzad, H. M., Akhter, S., Gurley, E. S., Brooks, W. A., El-Arifeen, S., Najnin, N., Nazneen, A., Breiman, R. F. 2010; 28 (31): 4903-4912


    We piloted a low-cost approach to measure the disease burden of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hib and Salmonella Typhi by leveraging the existing infrastructure of high performing microbiology laboratories at two large paediatric hospitals in Dhaka Bangladesh, and assessing the hospital utilization of the catchment population of these hospitals for different syndromes. S. Typhi was the most common bacterium identified in culture and accounted for an estimated 211 hospitalizations per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. Meningitis due to S. pneumoniae was the most common cause of mortality accounting for 8.0 deaths per 100,000 children <5 years of age per year. This low-cost approach can provide data to support vaccine introduction and the health impact of newly introduced vaccines.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2010.05.040

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280659600009

    View details for PubMedID 20653079

  • Identification of GBV-D, a Novel GB-like Flavivirus from Old World Frugivorous Bats (Pteropus giganteus) in Bangladesh PLOS PATHOGENS Epstein, J. H., Quan, P., Briese, T., Street, C., Jabado, O., Conlan, S., Khan, S. A., Verdugo, D., Hossain, M. J., Hutchison, S. K., Egholm, M., Luby, S. P., Daszak, P., Lipkin, W. I. 2010; 6 (7)


    Bats are reservoirs for a wide range of zoonotic agents including lyssa-, henipah-, SARS-like corona-, Marburg-, Ebola-, and astroviruses. In an effort to survey for the presence of other infectious agents, known and unknown, we screened sera from 16 Pteropus giganteus bats from Faridpur, Bangladesh, using high-throughput pyrosequencing. Sequence analyses indicated the presence of a previously undescribed virus that has approximately 50% identity at the amino acid level to GB virus A and C (GBV-A and -C). Viral nucleic acid was present in 5 of 98 sera (5%) from a single colony of free-ranging bats. Infection was not associated with evidence of hepatitis or hepatic dysfunction. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that this first GBV-like flavivirus reported in bats constitutes a distinct species within the Flaviviridae family and is ancestral to the GBV-A and -C virus clades.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000972

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280527000007

    View details for PubMedID 20617167

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2895649

  • Short Report: Leptospirosis as a Cause of Fever in Urban Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Kendall, E. A., LaRocque, R. C., Bui, D. M., Galloway, R., Ari, M. D., Goswami, D., Breiman, R. F., Luby, S., Brooks, W. A. 2010; 82 (6): 1127-1130
  • Leptospirosis as a cause of fever in urban Bangladesh. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene Kendall, E. A., Larocque, R. C., Bui, D. M., Galloway, R., Ari, M. D., Goswami, D., Breiman, R. F., Luby, S., Brooks, W. A. 2010; 82 (6): 1127-1130


    We tested paired sera from 584 febrile persons in an low-income urban community in Bangladesh for evidence of Leptospira infection. A total of 8.4% of the persons met criteria for definite or probable infection. Persons with leptospirosis were older than those with undifferentiated fever in this population. The dominant infecting serogroups in Bangladesh differed from serogroups commonly reported in nearby regions.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0574

    View details for PubMedID 20519612

  • Prevalent high-risk respiratory hygiene practices in urban and rural Bangladesh TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Nasreen, S., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Gurley, E. S., Winch, P. J., Unicomb, L., Sharker, M. A., Southern, D., Luby, S. P. 2010; 15 (6): 762-771


    To identify existing respiratory hygiene risk practices, and guide the development of interventions for improving respiratory hygiene.We selected a convenience sample of 80 households and 20 schools in two densely populated communities in Bangladesh, one urban and one rural. We observed and recorded respiratory hygiene events with potential to spread viruses such as coughing, sneezing, spitting and nasal cleaning using a standardized assessment tool.In 907 (81%) of 1122 observed events, households' participants coughed or sneezed into the air (i.e. uncovered), 119 (11%) into their hands and 83 (7%) into their clothing. Twenty-two per cent of women covered their coughs and sneezes compared to 13% of men (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6-4.3). Twenty-seven per cent of persons living in households with a reported monthly income of >72.6 US$ covered their coughs or sneezes compared to 13% of persons living in households with lower income (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.2). In 956 (85%) of 1126 events, school participants coughed or sneezed into the air and 142 (13%) into their hands. Twenty-seven per cent of coughs/sneezes in rural schools were covered compared to 10% of coughs/sneezes in urban schools (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.6). Hand washing was never observed after participants coughed or sneezed into their hands.There is an urgent need to develop culturally appropriate, cost-effective and scalable interventions to improve respiratory hygiene practices and to assess their effectiveness in reducing respiratory pathogen transmission.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02531.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277529100014

    View details for PubMedID 20374564

  • Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Drug Resistance in Dhaka Central Jail, the Largest Prison in Bangladesh PLOS ONE Banu, S., Hossain, A., Uddin, M. K., Uddin, M. R., Ahmed, T., Khatun, R., Mahmud, A. M., Hyder, K. A., Lutfor, A. B., Karim, M. S., Zaman, K., Khan, M. A., Barua, P. C., Luby, S. P. 2010; 5 (5)


    There are limited data on TB among prison inmates in Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), its drug resistance and risk factors in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest prison in Bangladesh.Cross sectional survey with, active screening of a total number of 11,001 inmates over a period of 2 years. Sputum samples from TB suspects were taken for acid- fast bacilli (AFB) microscopy, culture and drug susceptibility testing.Among 1,781 TB suspects 245 (13.8%) were positive for AFB on microscopy and/or culture. The prevalence rate of sputum- positive pulmonary TB was 2,227/100,000. Fifty three cases (21.6% of 245 cases) were AFB- negative on microscopy but were found positive on culture. Resistance to isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol was 11.4%, 0.8%, 22.4% and 6.5% respectively. No multidrug resistance was observed. The main risk factors of TB in prison were exposure to TB patients (adjusted odds ratio 3.16, 95% CI 2.36-4.21), previous imprisonment (1.86, 1.38-2.50), longer duration of stay in prison (17.5 months for TB cases; 1.004, 1.001-1.006) and low body mass index which is less than 18.5 kg/m(2) (5.37, 4.02-7.16).The study results revealed a very high prevalence of TB in the prison population in Dhaka Central Jail. Entry examinations and active symptom screening among inmates are important to control TB transmission inside the prison. Identifying undiagnosed smear-negative TB cases remains a challenge to combat this deadly disease in this difficult setting.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0010759

    View details for Web of Science ID 000278017400015

    View details for PubMedID 20505826

  • Rates of Hospital-Acquired Respiratory Illness in Bangladeshi Tertiary Care Hospitals: Results from a Low-Cost Pilot Surveillance Strategy CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Gurley, E. S., Zaman, R. U., Sultana, R., Bell, M., Fry, A. M., Srinivasan, A., Rahman, M., Rahman, M. W., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P. 2010; 50 (8): 1084-1090


    Patients hospitalized in resource-poor health care settings are at increased risk for hospital-acquired respiratory infections due to inadequate infrastructure.From 1 April 2007 through 31 March 2008, we used a low-cost surveillance strategy to identify new onset of respiratory symptoms in patients hospitalized for >72 h and in health care workers in medicine and pediatric wards at 3 public tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh.During 46,273 patient-days of observation, we recorded 136 episodes of hospital-acquired respiratory disease, representing 1.7% of all patient hospital admissions; rates by ward ranged from 0.8 to 15.8 cases per 1000 patient-days at risk. We identified 22 clusters of respiratory disease, 3 of which included both patients and health care workers. Of 226 of heath care workers who worked on our surveillance wards, 61 (27%) experienced a respiratory illness during the study period. The cost of surveillance was US$43 per month per ward plus 30 min per day in data collection.Patients on these study wards frequently experienced hospital-acquired respiratory infections, including 1 in every 20 patients hospitalized for >72 h on 1 ward. The surveillance method was useful in calculating rates of hospital-acquired respiratory illness and could be used to enhance capacity to quickly detect outbreaks of respiratory disease in health care facilities where systems for outbreak detection are currently limited and to test interventions to reduce transmission of respiratory pathogens in resource-poor settings.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/651265

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275645900002

    View details for PubMedID 20210642

  • Simple Sari Cloth Filtration of Water Is Sustainable and Continues To Protect Villagers from Cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh MBIO Huq, A., Yunus, M., Sohel, S. S., Bhuiya, A., Emch, M., Luby, S. P., Russek-Cohen, E., Nair, G. B., Sack, R. B., Colwell, R. R. 2010; 1 (1)


    A simple method for filtering water to reduce the incidence of cholera was tested in a field trial in Matlab, Bangladesh, and proved effective. A follow-up study was conducted 5 years later to determine whether the filtration method continued to be employed by villagers and its impact on the incidence of cholera. A total of 7,233 village women collecting water daily for their households in Bangladesh were selected from the same study population of the original field trial for interviewing. Analysis of the data showed that 31% of the women used a filter of which 60% used sari filters for household water. Results showed that sari filtration not only was accepted and sustained by the villagers and benefited them, including their neighbors not filtering water, in reducing the incidence of cholera, the latter being an unexpected benefit.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/mBio.00034-10

    View details for Web of Science ID 000284716600004

    View details for PubMedID 20689750

  • Fatal Outbreak from Consuming Xanthium strumarium Seedlings during Time of Food Scarcity in Northeastern Bangladesh PLOS ONE Gurley, E. S., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Nahar, N., Faiz, M. A., Islam, N., Sultana, R., Khatun, S., Uddin, M. Z., Haider, M. S., Islam, M. S., Ahmed, B., Rahman, M. W., Mondal, U. K., Luby, S. P. 2010; 5 (3)


    An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007.We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76) died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94%) had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000) than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur.The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0009756

    View details for Web of Science ID 000276456300007

    View details for PubMedID 20305785

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2841199

  • Influenza is a Major Contributor to Childhood Pneumonia in a Tropical Developing Country PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Brooks, W. A., Goswami, D., Rahman, M., Nahar, K., Fry, A. M., Balish, A., Iftekharuddin, N., Azim, T., Xu, X., Klimov, A., Bresee, J., Bridges, C., Luby, S. 2010; 29 (3): 216-221


    Pneumonia is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. The role of influenza in childhood pneumonia in tropical developing countries is poorly understood. We undertook population-based surveillance among low-income urban preschool children to determine its role in childhood pneumonia.Longitudinal prospective active surveillance was conducted among randomly selected households in a poor urban area of Dhaka. Nasopharyngeal washes were collected from 1 in 5 children for influenza culture isolation. Clinical data were collected at clinical presentation and through the illness course.From April 1, 2004 through December 31, 2007, 12,062 children presented in clinic with eligible febrile and respiratory illnesses, from whom 321 influenza isolates were obtained from 2370 nasopharyngeal washes (13.5%), representing 16,043 child-years of observation (adjusted influenza incidence 102 episodes/1000 child-years). There were 8198 pneumonia episodes during the period (pneumonia incidence 511 episodes/1000 child-years). Ninety influenza-positive children (28%) developed pneumonia during their illness. Among influenza culture-positive children, those with pneumonia were younger than those without (23.4 vs. 29.7 months, ANOVA: P < 0.001). Pneumonia was more commonly associated with Influenza A (H3N2) than either A (H1N1) or B infections (age-adjusted relative odds (RO) 2.98, [95% CI: 1.56, 5.71] and 2.75, [95% CI: 1.52, 4.98], respectively). Influenza was associated with 10% all childhood pneumonia.Influenza is a major contributor to childhood pneumonia both through high influenza infection incidence and high pneumonia prevalence among infected children. Its contribution to early childhood pneumonia appears under-appreciated in high pneumonia-endemic tropical settings. Influenza vaccine trials against childhood pneumonia are warranted.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181bc23fd

    View details for Web of Science ID 000275136000005

    View details for PubMedID 20190613

  • Axonal variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Campylobacter infection in Bangladesh NEUROLOGY Islam, Z., Jacobs, B. C., van Belkum, A., MOHAMMAD, Q. D., Islam, M. B., Herbrink, P., Diorditsa, S., Luby, S. P., Talukder, K. A., Endtz, H. P. 2010; 74 (7): 581-587


    Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the predominant bacterial infection preceding Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute postinfectious immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy. The purpose of this study was to define the clinical phenotype of GBS and the relation with preceding C jejuni infections in Bangladesh.We performed a prospective matched case-control hospital surveillance including 100 patients fulfilling the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke criteria for GBS from 2006 to 2007 in the Dhaka area of Bangladesh. Detailed clinical, electrophysiologic, serologic, and microbiologic data were obtained with a follow-up of 6 months.GBS affected predominantly young adult males living in rural areas. Sixty-nine percent of the patients had clinical evidence of a preceding infection. The most frequent symptom was diarrhea (36%). The majority of patients had a pure motor variant of GBS (92%) with relatively infrequent cranial nerve involvement (30%). Twenty-five percent of patients required respiratory support. Electrophysiologic studies showed that 67% of patients had an axonal variant of GBS. Eleven patients (14%) died, and 23 (29%) remained severely disabled during the follow-up. Positive C jejuni serology was found in an unprecedented high frequency of 57% as compared with 8% in family controls and 3% in control patients with other neurologic diseases (p < 0.001). C jejuni infection was significantly associated with serum antibodies to the gangliosides GM1 and GD1a, axonal neuropathy, and greater disability.We report an unusually high frequency of the axonal variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome in Bangladesh, associated with preceding Campylobacter jejuni infection, severe residual disability, and high mortality.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274517100010

    View details for PubMedID 20157160

  • Hospital-Based Surveillance for Japanese Encephalitis at Four Sites in Bangladesh, 2003-2005 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E. S., Montgomery, S., Petersen, L., Sejvar, J., Fischer, M., Panella, A., Powers, A. M., Nahar, N., Uddin, A. K., Rahman, M. E., Ekram, A. R., Luby, S. P., Breiman, R. F. 2010; 82 (2): 344-349


    We investigated the epidemiology and etiology of encephalitis at four tertiary hospitals in Bangladesh during 2003-2005. Patients who met a clinical case definition for acute encephalitis and had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis were eligible for enrollment; a standardized sampling pattern was used to enroll eligible patients. Recent Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection was defined by presence of IgM antibodies against JEV in CSF or serum. Twenty (4%) of 492 cases had laboratory evidence of recent JEV infection; two died. All JE cases occurred during May-December, and cases were identified among all age groups. All cases resided in rural areas. Fifteen patients were re-assessed 4-6 weeks after hospitalization; 5 (33%) patients had physical disabilities and 7 (47%) reported cognitive difficulties. Infection with JEV is clearly an etiology of encephalitis in Bangladesh. Population-based studies to quantify burden of disease could assess options for targeted immunization programs.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2010.09-0125

    View details for Web of Science ID 000274263300028

    View details for PubMedID 20134015

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2813179

  • Recall errors in a weekly survey of diarrhoea in Guatemala: determining the optimal length of recall EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Zafar, S. N., Luby, S. P., Mendoza, C. 2010; 138 (2): 264-269


    We measured the recall error, optimal recall length and factors associated with diarrhoea in a weekly survey. Data was taken from a year-long randomized controlled trial in which characteristics of diarrhoeal episodes were recorded weekly. We labelled the recall period as days 1-6; day 1 being the day before the visit. Recall error was the percentage difference between the number of episodes reported to begin on a particular day and the mean for days 1 and 2. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine associations. Recall error was 37% on day 3 and 51% on day 5. The error was less in younger children (by 10%), severe episodes (by 29%) and when blood was present in the stool (by 18%). Diarrhoea was underreported when the recall period extended beyond 2 days. Surveys that use longer recall periods risk underestimating diarrhoea incidence and selectively capturing more severe episodes.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268809990422

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273842600013

    View details for PubMedID 19653923

  • Increasing Incidence of Post-Kala-Azar Dermal Leishmaniasis in a Population-Based Study in Bangladesh CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Rahman, K. M., Islam, S., Rahman, M. W., Kenah, E., Galive, C. M., Zahid, M. M., Maguire, J., Rahman, M., Haque, R., Luby, S. P., Bern, C. 2010; 50 (1): 73-76


    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) occurs after kala-azar treatment and acts as a durable infection reservoir. On the basis of active case finding among 22,699 respondents, 813 (3.6%) had had kala-azar since 2002, of whom 79 (9.7%) developed PKDL. Eight additional patients with PKDL had no history of kala-azar. Annual kala-azar incidence peaked at 85 cases per 10,000 person-years in 2004 and fell to 46 cases per 10,000 person-years in 2007, but PKDL incidence rose from 1 case per 10,000 person-years in 2002-2004 to 21 cases per 10,000 person-years in 2007. The rising PKDL incidence threatens the regional visceral leishmaniasis elimination initiative and underscores the urgent need for more effective PKDL diagnosis and treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/648727

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273296500012

    View details for PubMedID 19951168

  • Date Palm Sap Collection: Exploring Opportunities to Prevent Nipah Transmission ECOHEALTH Nahar, N., Sultana, R., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Luby, S. P. 2010; 7 (2): 196-203


    Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a seasonal disease in Bangladesh that coincides with the date palm sap collection season. Raw date palm sap is a delicacy to drink in Bengali culture. If fruit bats that are infected with NiV gain access to the sap for drinking, they might occasionally contaminate the sap through saliva and urine. In February 2007, we conducted a qualitative study in six villages, interviewing 27 date palm sap collectors (gachhis) within the geographical area where NiV outbreaks have occurred since 2001. Gachhis reported that bats pose a challenge to successful collection of quality sap, because bats drink and defecate into the sap which markedly reduces its value. They know some methods to prevent access by bats and other pests but do not use them consistently, because of lack of time and resources. Further studies to explore the effectiveness of these methods and to motivate gachhis to invest their time and money to use them could reduce the risk of human Nipah infection in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1007/s10393-010-0320-3

    View details for Web of Science ID 000285911700005

    View details for PubMedID 20617362

  • Influenza in Outpatient ILI Case-Patients in National Hospital-Based Surveillance, Bangladesh, 2007-2008 PLOS ONE Zaman, R. U., Alamgir, A. S., Rahman, M., Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Gurley, E. S., Sharker, M. A., Brooks, W. A., Azim, T., Fry, A. M., Lindstrom, S., Gubareva, L. V., Xu, X., Garten, R. J., Hossain, M. J., Khan, S. U., Faruque, L. I., Ameer, S. S., Klimov, A. I., Rahman, M., Luby, S. P. 2009; 4 (12)


    Recent population-based estimates in a Dhaka low-income community suggest that influenza was prevalent among children. To explore the epidemiology and seasonality of influenza throughout the country and among all age groups, we established nationally representative hospital-based surveillance necessary to guide influenza prevention and control efforts.We conducted influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory illness sentinel surveillance in 12 hospitals across Bangladesh during May 2007-December 2008. We collected specimens from 3,699 patients, 385 (10%) which were influenza positive by real time RT-PCR. Among the sample-positive patients, 192 (51%) were type A and 188 (49%) were type B. Hemagglutinin subtyping of type A viruses detected 137 (71%) A/H1 and 55 (29%) A/H3, but no A/H5 or other novel influenza strains. The frequency of influenza cases was highest among children aged under 5 years (44%), while the proportions of laboratory confirmed cases was highest among participants aged 11-15 (18%). We applied kriging, a geo-statistical technique, to explore the spatial and temporal spread of influenza and found that, during 2008, influenza was first identified in large port cities and then gradually spread to other parts of the country. We identified a distinct influenza peak during the rainy season (May-September).Our surveillance data confirms that influenza is prevalent throughout Bangladesh, affecting a wide range of ages and causing considerable morbidity and hospital care. A unimodal influenza seasonality may allow Bangladesh to time annual influenza prevention messages and vaccination campaigns to reduce the national influenza burden. To scale-up such national interventions, we need to quantify the national rates of influenza and the economic burden associated with this disease through further studies.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0008452

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273105200003

    View details for PubMedID 20041114

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2795194

  • Causes of Early Childhood Deaths in Urban Dhaka, Bangladesh PLOS ONE Halder, A. K., Gurley, E. S., Naheed, A., Saha, S. K., Brooks, W. A., El Arifeen, S., Sazzad, H. M., Kenah, E., Luby, S. P. 2009; 4 (12)


    Data on causes of early childhood death from low-income urban areas are limited. The nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2007 estimates 65 children died per 1,000 live births. We investigated rates and causes of under-five deaths in an urban community near two large pediatric hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh and evaluated the impact of different recall periods. We conducted a survey in 2006 for 6971 households and a follow up survey in 2007 among eligible remaining households or replacement households. The initial survey collected information for all children under five years old who died in the previous year; the follow up survey on child deaths in the preceding five years. We compared mortality rates based on 1-year recall to the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year. The initial survey identified 58 deaths among children <5 years in the preceding year. The follow up survey identified a mean 53 deaths per year in the preceding five years (SD+/-7.3). Under-five mortality rate was 34 and neonatal mortality was 15 per thousand live births during 2006-2007. The leading cause of under-five death was respiratory infections (22%). The mortality rates among children under 4 years old for the two time periods (most recent 1-year recall and the 4 years preceding the most recent 1 year) were similar (36 versus 32). The child mortality in urban Dhaka was substantially lower than the national rate. Mortality rates were not affected by recall periods between 1 and 5 years.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0008145

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272829000006

    View details for PubMedID 19997507

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2779865

  • Transmission of Human Infection with Nipah Virus CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Luby, S. P., Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J. 2009; 49 (11): 1743-1748


    Nipah virus (NiV) is a paramyxovirus whose reservoir host is fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Occasionally the virus is introduced into human populations and causes severe illness characterized by encephalitis or respiratory disease. The first outbreak of NiV was recognized in Malaysia, but 8 outbreaks have been reported from Bangladesh since 2001. The primary pathways of transmission from bats to people in Bangladesh are through contamination of raw date palm sap by bats with subsequent consumption by humans and through infection of domestic animals (cattle, pigs, and goats), presumably from consumption of food contaminated with bat saliva or urine with subsequent transmission to people. Approximately one-half of recognized Nipah case patients in Bangladesh developed their disease following person-to-person transmission of the virus. Efforts to prevent transmission should focus on decreasing bat access to date palm sap and reducing family members' and friends' exposure to infected patients' saliva.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/647951

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271505200021

    View details for PubMedID 19886791

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2784122

  • Surveillance of rotavirus in a rural diarrhoea treatment centre in Bangladesh, 2000-2006 VACCINE Zaman, K., Yunus, M., Faruque, A. S., El Arifeen, S., Hossain, I., Azim, T., Rahman, M., Podder, G., Roy, E., Luby, S., Sack, D. A. 2009; 27: F31-F34


    Rotavirus was detected in 33% of 4519 children less than 5 years of age admitted with diarrhoea to treatment centres at Matlab in rural Bangladesh from 2000 to 2006. Highest rotavirus detection rates were in children aged 6-11 months with 56% being less than 1 year old. The peak seasonal detection was in July-September and December-February. The population-based incidence rates of rotavirus ranged from 10.8 to 19.6/1000 children less than 5 years of age. G1 serotype predominated between June 2002-May 2005 and June 2005-May 2006 the predominant type was G2 (41%) followed by G1 (22%) and G9 (22%). Rotavirus is an important cause of childhood diarrhoea in rural Bangladesh and this burden may be reduced with a rotavirus vaccination programme.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.08.063

    View details for Web of Science ID 000273415000007

    View details for PubMedID 19931715

  • Household Characteristics Associated with Handwashing with Soap in Rural Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K., Tronchet, C., Akhter, S., Bhuiya, A., Johnston, R. B. 2009; 81 (5): 882-887


    Handwashing with soap prevents diarrhea and respiratory disease, but it is rarely practiced in high-need settings. Among 100 randomly selected villages in rural Bangladesh, field workers enrolled 10 households per village and observed and recorded household activities for 5 hours. Field workers observed 761 handwashing opportunities among household members in 527 households who had just defecated or who cleaned a child's anus who had defecated. In the final multivariate analysis, having water available at the place to wash hands after toileting (odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.3, 4.0) and having soap available at the place to wash hands after toileting (odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.3, 3.4) were associated with washing both hands with soap after fecal contact. Interventions that improve the presence of water and soap at the designated place to wash hands would be expected to improve handwashing behavior and health.

    View details for DOI 10.4269/ajtmh.2009.09-0031

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271956500026

    View details for PubMedID 19861626

  • Effects of local climate variability on transmission dynamics of cholera in Matlab, Bangladesh TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Islam, M. S., Sharker, M. A., Rheman, S., Hossain, S., Mahmud, Z. H., Islam, M. S., Uddin, A. M., Yunus, M., Osman, M. S., Ernst, R., RECTOR, I., Larson, C. P., Luby, S. P., Endtz, H. P., Cravioto, A. 2009; 103 (11): 1165-1170


    Cholera is considered as a model for climate-related infectious diseases. In Bangladesh, cholera epidemics occur during summer and winter seasons, but it is not known how climate variability influences the seasonality of cholera. Therefore, the variability pattern of cholera events was studied in relation to the variation in local climate variables in Matlab, Bangladesh. Classification and regression tree (CART) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the dependency and variability pattern of monthly total cholera cases. An average temperature <23.25 degrees C corresponded to the lowest average cholera occurrence (23 cases/month). At a temperature of >or=23.25 degrees C and sunshine <4.13h/day, the cholera occurrence was 39 cases/month. With increased sunshine (>or=4.13h/day) and temperature (23.25-28.66 degrees C), the second highest cholera occurrence (44 cases/month) was observed. When the sunshine was >or=4.13h/day and the temperature was >28.66 degrees C, the highest cholera occurrence (54 cases/month) was observed. These results demonstrate that in summer and winter seasons in Bangladesh, temperature and sunshine hours compensate each other for higher cholera incidence. The synergistic effect of temperature and sunshine hours provided the highest number of cholera cases.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.trstmh.2009.04.016

    View details for Web of Science ID 000271776800014

    View details for PubMedID 19477477

  • Intussusception Surveillance in a Rural Demographic Surveillance Area in Bangladesh JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Zaman, K., Breiman, R. F., Yunus, M., Arifeen, S. E., Mahmud, A., Chowdhury, H. R., Luby, S. P. 2009; 200: S271-S276


    Rotavirus is the leading cause of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality in developing countries, including Bangladesh. The licensed vaccine Rotashield was withdrawn from the market because of an increased risk of intussusception. This study was undertaken to estimate the background incidence rates of intussusception among children aged <2 years, using retrospective and prospective studies in a rural demographic surveillance area in Bangladesh.All hospital charts of children aged <2 years who presented to the Matlab Hospital and 2 other treatment centers of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), during January 2001-August 2004 were reviewed retrospectively. A prospective surveillance was performed from August 2004 through December 2006 at the 3 treatment centers of ICDDR,B serving Matlab, 4 district and subdistrict government hospitals, and 3 district-based private clinics, to determine population-based rates of intussusception with use of Brighton Collaboration case definitions. All suspected cases of intussusception were referred to the Matlab Hospital by community health research workers for further assessment by a trained medical officer, including performance of an ultrasound examination.In total, 2856 charts of children aged <2 years were reviewed retrospectively, and 4 probable cases and 19 possible cases of intussusception were identified. In the prospective surveillance, of 1508 potential cases, including 41 referred by community health research workers, only 2 cases met the case definition of probable intussusception, and 1 case met the definition of possible intussusception. A total of 123 patients had ultrasound examinations performed. The population-based rates of probable and possible cases of intussusception among children aged <2 years were 0-17.8 and 17.7-81.7 cases per 100,000 children per year, respectively. In the retrospective and prospective surveillance, the rates were 0-18.7 and 0-97 cases per 100,000 children per year, respectively.The incidence of intussusception was low among children in Bangladesh. A surveillance system for intussusception has been fully established in the Matlab surveillance area to diagnose, treat, and refer potential cases. This study provides useful information for detection of intussusception during future studies of new-generation rotavirus vaccines and also provides background incidence rates for comparison when rotavirus vaccines are introduced.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/605047

    View details for Web of Science ID 000270655100031

    View details for PubMedID 19817608

  • Etiologies of Bacterial Meningitis in Bangladesh: Results from a Hospital-Based Study AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Gurley, E. S., Hossain, M. J., Montgomery, S. P., Petersen, L. R., Sejvar, J. J., Mayer, L. W., Whitney, A., Dull, P., Nahar, N., Uddin, A. K., Rahman, M. E., Ekram, A. R., Luby, S. R., Breiman, R. F. 2009; 81 (3): 475-483


    We conducted a study at four hospitals from June 2003 to July 2005 to investigate the etiologies of bacterial meningitis in Bangladesh. A total of 2,609 patients met the clinical case definition, and 766 had cerebrospinal fluid tested by at least one of the following methods: latex agglutination, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, or real-time polymerase chain reaction for Neisseria meningitidis A and C, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); culture results were noted from patient records. In total, 189 patients (24%) of those tested, representing all age groups, were diagnosed with bacterial meningitis; 136 (18%) had meningococcal, 23 (3%) had pneumococcal, and 25 (3%) had Hib infection. Twenty percent of patients with Hib meningitis (5/25) were > 15 years old. Case-fatality ratios were 10% for N. meningitidis, 22% for S. pneumoniae, and 24% for Hib. Bacterial meningitis from vaccine-preventable pathogens causes significant morbidity and mortality in Bangladesh in adults and children.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000269290900022

    View details for PubMedID 19706918

  • Recurrent Zoonotic Transmission of Nipah Virus into Humans, Bangladesh, 2001-2007 EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Luby, S. P., Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E. S., Ahmed, B., Banu, S., Khan, S. U., Homaira, N., Rota, P. A., Rollin, P. E., Comer, J. A., Kenah, E., Ksiazek, T. G., Rahman, M. 2009; 15 (8): 1229-1235


    Human Nipah outbreaks recur in a specific region and time of year in Bangladesh. Fruit bats are the reservoir host for Nipah virus. We identified 23 introductions of Nipah virus into human populations in central and northwestern Bangladesh from 2001 through 2007. Ten introductions affected multiple persons (median 10). Illness onset occurred from December through May but not every year. We identified 122 cases of human Nipah infection. The mean age of case-patients was 27 years; 87 (71%) died. In 62 (51%) Nipah virus-infected patients, illness developed 5-15 days after close contact with another Nipah case-patient. Nine (7%) Nipah case-patients transmitted virus to others. Nipah case-patients who had difficulty breathing were more likely than those without respiratory difficulty to transmit Nipah (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.03). Although a small minority of infected patients transmit Nipah virus, more than half of identified cases result from person-to-person transmission. Interventions to prevent virus transmission from bats to humans and from person to person are needed.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1508.081237

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268819100011

    View details for PubMedID 19751584

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2815955

  • Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N1), Detected through Routine Surveillance, in Child, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Brooks, W. A., Alamgir, A. S., Sultana, R., Islam, M. S., Rahman, M., Fry, A., Shu, B., Lindstrom, S., Nahar, K., Goswami, D., Haider, M. S., Nahar, S., Butler, E., Hancock, K., Donis, R. O., Davis, C. T., Zaman, R. U., Luby, S. P., Uyeki, T. M., Rahman, M. 2009; 15 (8): 1311-1313


    We identified avian influenza virus A (H5N1) infection in a child in Bangladesh in 2008 by routine influenza surveillance. The virus was of the same clade and phylogenetic subgroup as that circulating among poultry during the period. This case illustrates the value of routine surveillance for detection of novel influenza virus.

    View details for DOI 10.3201/eid1508.090283

    View details for Web of Science ID 000268819100028

    View details for PubMedID 19751601

  • Difficulties in Maintaining Improved Handwashing Behavior, Karachi, Pakistan AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Bowen, A., Kenah, E., Sharker, Y., Hoekstra, R. M. 2009; 81 (1): 140-145


    In an earlier study in Karachi, Pakistan, households that received free soap and handwashing promotion for 9 months reported 53% less diarrhea than controls. Eighteen months after the intervention ended, these households were enrolled in a follow-up study to assess sustainability of handwashing behavior. Upon re-enrollment, mothers in households originally assigned to the intervention were 1.5 times more likely to have a place with soap and water to wash hands (79% versus 53%, P = 0.001) and when asked to wash hands were 2.2 times more likely to rub their hands together at least three times (50% versus 23%, P = 0.002) compared with controls. In the ensuing 14 months, former intervention households reported a similar proportion of person-days with diarrhea (1.59% versus 1.88%, P = 0.66) as controls. Although intervention households showed better handwashing technique after 2 years without intervention, their soap purchases and diarrhea experience was not significantly different from controls.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000267526500024

    View details for PubMedID 19556579

  • Detection of Antibodies Secreted from Circulating Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Specific Plasma Cells in the Diagnosis of Pediatric Tuberculosis CLINICAL AND VACCINE IMMUNOLOGY Raqib, R., Mondal, D., Karim, M. A., Chowdhury, F., Ahmed, S., Luby, S., Cravioto, A., Andersson, J., Sack, D. 2009; 16 (4): 521-527


    Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in children is difficult because symptoms are often nonspecific or absent in infected children, diagnostic specimens are difficult to obtain from younger children, and >50% have negative TB cultures. Thus, there is an urgent need for improved diagnosis of pediatric TB. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of a new serological method, the ALS (antibodies in lymphocyte supernatant) assay, for the diagnosis of active TB in children with clinically identified TB. The ALS test is based on the concept that antigen-specific plasma cells are present in the circulation only at times of acute infection and not in latency. A cross-sectional study of pediatric patients (age range, 11 to 167 months) who were clinically identified as TB (n = 58) or non-TB (n = 16) patients was conducted, and they were monitored for 6 months. Healthy children (n = 58) were enrolled as controls. Spontaneous release of TB antigen-specific antibodies by in vitro-cultured, unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) as the detecting antigen. Of the patients clinically diagnosed with TB, 15% had culture-confirmed TB, 64% were positive for TB by clinically established scoring charts (K. Edwards, P. N. G. Med. J. 30: 169-178, 1987; G. Stegen, K. Jones, and P. Kaplan, Pediatrics 43: 260-263, 1969; and stop TB Partnership, Childhood TB subgroup, World Health Organization, Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 10: 1091-1097, 2006), and 91% were TB positive by the ALS method. All TB patients had significantly higher BCG-specific ALS titers at enrollment (optical density [OD], 1.06 +/- 0.32) than healthy-control children (OD, 0.18 +/- 0.06) and non-TB children (OD, 0.21 +/- 0.10) (P = 0.001). The ALS titers declined in children with active disease from enrollment through 6 months following anti-TB therapy (P = 0.001). The ALS assay is a novel diagnostic method with potential applications in the diagnosis of pediatric TB and in subsequent monitoring of treatment effectiveness.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/CVI.00391-08

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264938400013

    View details for PubMedID 19193833

  • Invasive Pneumococcal Disease among Children in Rural Bangladesh: Results from a Population-Based Surveillance CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Arifeen, S. E., Saha, S. K., Rahman, S., Rahman, K. M., Rahman, S. M., Bari, S., Naheed, A., Mannan, I., Seraji, M. H., Ahmed, N. U., Hassan, M. S., Huda, N., Siddik, A. U., Quasem, I., Islam, M., Fatima, K., Al-Emran, H., Brooks, W. A., Baqui, A. H., Breiman, R. F., Sack, D., Luby, S. P. 2009; 48: S103-S113


    Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is recognized as a global priority public health problem, and conjugate vaccines have been shown to prevent vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children. However, better estimates of the disease burden and reliable population-based data on serotype composition are needed for vaccine development and implementation in developing countries.We initiated a population-based surveillance in the rural Bangladesh community of Mirzapur, covering a population of approximately 144,000. Village health care workers made weekly visits to approximately 12,000 children 1-59 months of age in the study area. Children with reported fever, cough, or difficulty breathing were assessed by the village health care workers using a clinical algorithm and were referred to the hospital if required. Children from the study area who were seen in the hospital underwent clinical examination and laboratory testing if they met standardized case definitions. IPD was confirmed by blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid culture results. Isolates were identified, tested for susceptibility to antibiotics, and serotyped in accordance with standard laboratory methods. We present here the results from the first 3 years of the surveillance (July 2004-June 2007).Village health care workers identified 5020 cases of possible severe pneumonia and/or very severe disease (165 cases per 1000 child-years)and 9411 cases of possible pneumonia (310 cases per 1000 child-years) as well as 2029 cases of suspected meningitis and/or very severe disease (67 cases per 1000 child-years) and 8967 cases of high fever and/or possible bacteremia (295 cases per 1000 child-years). Pneumonia was the single most common form of illness observed among 2596 hospitalizations (found in 977 [38%] of cases). We recovered 26 S. pneumoniae isolates (25 isolates from 6925 blood cultures and 1 isolate from 41 cerebrospinal fluid cultures), which gave an overall IPD incidence of 86 cases per 100,000 child-years. Invasive pneumococcal infection was common during infancy (with infants accounting for 23 of the 26 cases), and 50% of the total isolates were obtained from nonhospitalized patients who received a diagnosis of upper respiratory tract infection and fever. The most prevalent pneumococcal serotypes were serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19A, and 38. Ten of the 26 isolates were completely resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and another 10 isolates had intermediate resistance.IPD contributes substantially to childhood morbidity in rural Bangladesh. S. pneumoniae can cause invasive but nonsevere disease in children, and IPD incidence can be seriously under reported if such cases are overlooked. The emerging high resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole should be addressed. Data on serotype distribution would help to guide appropriate pneumococcal conjugate vaccine formulation.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/596543

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263061800010

    View details for PubMedID 19191605

  • Surveillance for Invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae Disease among Hospitalized Children in Bangladesh: Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Serotype Distribution CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Saha, S. K., Naheed, A., El Arifeen, S., Islam, M., Al-Emran, H., Amin, R., Fatima, K., Brooks, W. A., Breiman, R. F., Sack, D. A., Luby, S. P. 2009; 48: S75-S81


    Vaccines offer the prospect of primary disease prevention of pneumococcal disease in childhood. For introduction of such vaccines in developing countries, information about disease epidemiology is necessary.We evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility and serotype distribution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease in children aged <5 years in a network of 7 hospitals in Bangladesh from May 2004 through May 2007.Of 17,969 blood cultures and 3765 cerebrospinal fluid cultures, 139 yielded S. pneumoniae isolates; 94 were from meningitis cases, 13 were from pneumonia cases, and 32 were from sepsis cases. Among the children with positive culture results, 73% were aged <12 months and 90% were aged <24 months. Complete resistance against penicillin, chloramphenicol, and cotrimoxazole was found in 0%, 6%, and 32% of isolates, respectively. Of the 37 serotypes observed, the predominant serotypes were 2 (17%), 1 (12%), 14 (7%), 5 (6%), 7F (6%), 45 (7%), and 12A (4%). Serotypes differed between meningitis cases and nonmeningitis cases, especially for serotype 2 (25% of meningitis cases vs. 0% of pneumonia cases; P < .001). The 7-, 10-, and 13-valent vaccines would cover 20% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13%-27%), 43% (95% CI, 35%-51%), and 50% (95% CI, 42%-58%) of these cases of invasive pneumococcal disease overall, with higher coverage of nonmeningitis cases, compared with meningitis cases (7-valent coverage, 23% vs. 18%; 10-valent coverage, 55% vs. 38%; 13-valent coverage, 66% vs. 42%).High levels of nonsusceptibility to cotrimoxazole and susceptibility to penicillin suggest that penicillin may be a drug of choice for treatment of invasive pneumococcal disease. Although serotype distribution is diverse, with changes over time and differences between syndromes observed, implementation of use of the currently available 10- or 13-valent vaccines would have a substantial impact on pneumococcal disease in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/596544

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263061800006

    View details for PubMedID 19191622

  • Multihospital Surveillance of Pneumonia Burden among Children Aged < 5 Years Hospitalized for Pneumonia in Bangladesh CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Naheed, A., Saha, S. K., Breiman, R. F., Khatun, F., Brooks, W. A., El Arifeen, S., Sack, D., Luby, S. P. 2009; 48: S82-S89


    Pneumonia contributes substantially to childhood mortality in Bangladesh. We conducted a study to characterize the disease severity and risk factors for mortality among children hospitalized for pneumonia in Bangladesh.We analyzed data on hospitalization, patient characteristics, and mortality collected by a multicenter hospital-based surveillance of pneumonia in Bangladesh.From May 2004 through April 2007, 4155 children aged 2-59 months who met a pneumonia case definition adopted by GAVI's Pneumococcal Vaccines Accelerated Development and Introduction Plan-sponsored surveillance networks were enrolled after blood culture specimens were obtained. The mean duration (+/-SD) from illness onset to hospital admission was 6+/- days; 1842 children (44%) received antimicrobial treatment before hospitalization, and an additional 924 (22%) received antimicrobial treatment after admission to the hospital. Bacteria were isolated from 161 (4%) of the 4155 specimens, including 10 (6%) Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates and 5 (3%) Haemophilus influenzae type b isolates. The case-fatality rate for pneumonia in the hospital was 4% (150 deaths), and the children who died did so after a median of 2 days of hospitalization (range, 0-24 days). Infancy was highly associated with death due to pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-3.2), as were very severe pneumonia (OR, 7.9; 95% CI, 5.6-11.2), a blood culture positive for bacteria (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 2.0-5.8), severe malnutrition (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.9-7.4), and delayed admission (mean [+/-SD] duration from illness onset to admission, 6+/-6 days, compared with 5+/-4 days for survivors; P< .04).The prevalence of pneumonia among children aged <5 years in hospitals in Bangladesh is high. However, the isolation rate of bacteria is low, possibly because of the high (68%) background use of antibiotics. Multiple risk factors associated with pneumonia case fatality suggest multiple strategies, including vaccines, to reduce pneumonia-related and overall child mortality in Bangladesh.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/596485

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263061800007

    View details for PubMedID 19191623

  • Use of Multiple Surveillance Modalities to Assess the Epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae Infection in Bangladesh CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Luby, S. P., Brooks, W. A., Saha, S. K., El-Arifeen, S., Naheed, A., Sack, D., Breiman, R. F. 2009; 48: S97-S102


    Measuring the broad impact of pneumococcal disease requires multiple surveillance modalities. Four major data sources elucidate the burden of pneumococcal disease in Bangladesh. The Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey has identified pneumonia as the leading cause of childhood death. By extrapolation of mortality rates in the survey to the Bangladesh population, it has been estimated that approximately 90,000 children >1 month and <5 years of age die of pneumonia every year in Bangladesh. Through hospital-based surveillance, a wide range of pneumococcal serotypes leading to hospitalization and pneumonia have been identified as a leading cause of pediatric hospitalization. Urban community-based surveillance has demonstrated that invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is common in the community. Rural community-based surveillance has demonstrated that serious IPD is common in rural areas. Together, these data provide a strong scientific case for the importance of pneumococcal disease prevention to child health in Bangladesh and, therefore, the potential benefit of an effective vaccine.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/596487

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263061800009

    View details for PubMedID 19191625

  • Successful co-administration of a human rotavirus and oral poliovirus vaccines in Bangladeshi infants in a 2-dose schedule at 12 and 16 weeks of age VACCINE Zaman, K., Sack, D. A., Yunus, M., Arifeen, S. E., Podder, G., Azim, T., Luby, S., Breiman, R. F., Neuzil, K., Datta, S. K., DELEM, A., Suryakiran, P. V., Bock, H. L. 2009; 27 (9): 1333-1339


    Co-administration of oral live-attenuated human rotavirus vaccine RIX4414 (Rotarix) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) was assessed. Healthy infants were randomised to receive 2-doses of either: RIX4414 or placebo co-administered with OPV (12 and 16 weeks of age); or RIX4414 or placebo given 15 days after OPV. After vaccination, 56.5-66.7% of RIX4414 and 18.6% of placebo recipients had seroconverted for rotavirus IgA. No significant differences between RIX4414 groups with or without OPV co-administration were observed. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups for polio seroprotection rates. RIX4414 vaccine was immunogenic when co-administered with OPV and did not interfere with OPV seroprotection rates.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.12.059

    View details for Web of Science ID 000264430400008

    View details for PubMedID 19162114

  • Flocculant-disinfectant point-of-use water treatment for reducing arsenic exposure in rural Bangladesh INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCH Norton, D. M., Rahman, M., Shane, A. L., Hossain, Z., Kulick, R. M., Bhuiyan, M. I., Wahed, M. A., Yunus, M., Islam, M. S., Breiman, R. F., Henderson, A., Keswick, B. H., Luby, S. P. 2009; 19 (1): 17-29


    We introduced flocculant-disinfectant water treatment for 12 weeks in 103 households in Bangladesh to assess if drinking water would be chemically and microbiologically improved and the body burden of arsenic reduced. The median concentration of arsenic in tubewell water decreased by 88% after introduction of the flocculant-disinfectant from 136 microg/l at baseline to 16 (p < 0.001). The median concentration of total urinary arsenic decreased 42% from 385 microg/g creatinine at baseline to 225 microg/g creatinine after intervention (p < 0.001). Among 206 post-intervention drinking water samples that were reportedly treated on the date the sample was collected, 99 (48%) lacked residual free chlorine and 100 (49%) were contaminated with thermotolerant coliforms. The flocculant-disinfectant markedly reduced arsenic in drinking water, but treated drinking water was frequently contaminated with fecal organisms. The lesser reduction in urinary arsenic compared to water arsenic and the health consequences of this reduction require further research.

    View details for DOI 10.1080/09603120802272219

    View details for Web of Science ID 000263715700002

    View details for PubMedID 19241244

  • Identification of Serotype in Culture Negative Pneumococcal Meningitis Using Sequential Multiplex PCR: Implication for Surveillance and Vaccine Design PLOS ONE Saha, S. K., Darmstadt, G. L., Baqui, A. H., Hossain, B., Islam, M., Foster, D., Al-Emran, H., Naheed, A., El Arifeen, S., Luby, S. P., Santosham, M., Crook, D. 2008; 3 (10)


    PCR-based serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae has been proposed as a simpler approach than conventional methods, but has not been applied to strains in Asia where serotypes are diverse and different from other part of the world. Furthermore, PCR has not been used to determine serotype distribution in culture-negative meningitis cases.Thirty six serotype-specific primers, 7 newly designed and 29 previously published, were arranged in 7 multiplex PCR sets, each in new hierarchies designed for overall serotype distribution in Bangladesh, and specifically for meningitis and non-meningitis isolates. Culture-negative CSF specimens were then tested directly for serotype-specific sequences using the meningitis-specific set of primers. PCR-based serotyping of 367 strains of 56 known serotypes showed 100% concordance with quellung reaction test. The first 7 multiplex reactions revealed the serotype of 40% of all, and 31% and 48% non-meningitis and meningitis isolates, respectively. By redesigning the multiplex scheme specifically for non-meningitis or meningitis, the quellung reaction of 43% and 48% of respective isolates could be identified. Direct examination of 127 culture-negative CSF specimens, using the meningitis-specific set of primers, yielded serotype for 51 additional cases.This PCR approach, could improve ascertainment of pneumococcal serotype distributions, especially for meningitis in settings with high prior use of antibiotics.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0003576

    View details for Web of Science ID 000265131700003

    View details for PubMedID 18974887

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2571985

  • Tubewell water quality and predictors of contamination in three flood-prone areas in Bangladesh JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Luby, S. P., Gupta, S. K., Sheikh, M. A., Johnston, R. B., Ram, P. K., Islam, M. S. 2008; 105 (4): 1002-1008


    To measure enteric bacterial contamination of tubewells in three flood prone areas in Bangladesh and the relationship of bacteriological contamination with tubewell sanitary inspection scores.Microbiologists selected 207 tubewells in three flood prone districts, assessed physical characteristics of the tubewells and collected a single water sample from each tubewell. Tubewell water samples were contaminated with total coliforms (41%, n = 85), thermotolerant coliforms (29%, n = 60) and Escherichia coli (13%, n = 27). Among contaminated wells, the median CFU of contamination per 100 ml was 8 (interquartile range, 2-30) total coliforms, 5 (interquartile range, 2-23) thermotolerant coliforms and 6 (interquartile range, 1-30) E. coli. There was no significant association between tubewell contamination with E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms or total coliforms and a poor sanitary inspection score, though a history of inundation was associated with contamination with both E. coli and thermotolerant coliforms.Tubewells in flood-prone regions of Bangladesh were commonly contaminated with low levels of faecal organisms, contamination that could not be predicted by examining the tubewell's external characteristics.The forms currently used for sanitary inspection do not identify the most important causes of drinking water contamination in these communities.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2008.03826.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259270500008

    View details for PubMedID 18422953

  • Infectious diseases and vaccine sciences: Strategic directions JOURNAL OF HEALTH POPULATION AND NUTRITION Luby, S. P., Brooks, W. A., Zaman, K., Hossain, S., Ahmed, T. 2008; 26 (3): 295-310


    Despite substantial progress, infectious diseases remain important causes of ill-health and premature deaths in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has experienced a > 90% reduction in the incidence of deaths due to childhood diarrhoea over the last 25 years. Further reductions can be achieved through the introduction of effective vaccines against rotavirus and improvements in home hygiene, quality of drinking-water, and clinical case management, including appropriate use of oral rehydration solution and zinc. Pneumonia is now the leading cause of childhood deaths in Bangladesh, and the pneumonia-specific child mortality is largely unchanged over the last 25 years. Reductions in mortality due to pneumonia can be achieved through the introduction of protein conjugate vaccines against Haemophilus influenza type b and Streptococcus pneumoniae, improvements in case management, including efforts to prevent delays in providing appropriate treatment, and the wider use of zinc. Tuberculosis is responsible for an estimated 70,000 deaths each year in Bangladesh. Although services for directly-observed therapy have expanded markedly, improved case finding and involvement of private practitioners will be important to reduce the burden of disease.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259552300006

    View details for PubMedID 18831226

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2740710

  • Clinical value of Tubex (TM) and Typhidot (R) rapid diagnostic tests for typhoid fever in an urban community clinic in Bangladesh DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE Naheed, A., Ram, P. K., Brooks, W. A., Mintz, E. D., Hossain, M. A., Parsons, M. M., Luby, S. P., Breiman, R. F. 2008; 61 (4): 381-386


    Tubex and Typhidot, rapid tests for typhoid fever, performed well in evaluations conducted in hospital settings among patients with culture-confirmed typhoid fever. We evaluated these tests in a community clinic in Bangladesh. Blood samples were obtained from 867 febrile patients for culture, Typhidot and Tubex tests. Considering the 43 blood culture-confirmed cases of typhoid fever as typhoid positive and the 24 other confirmed bacteremia cases as typhoid negative, Tubex was 60% sensitive and 58% specific, with 90% positive and 58% negative predictive values (NPVs); Typhidot was 67% sensitive and 54% specific, with 85% positive and 81% NPVs. When blood culture-negative patients and other bacteremia cases together were considered typhoid negative, positive predictive values were only 14% for Tubex and 13% for Typhidot, increasing to only 38% and 20% when restricted to patients with > or = 7 days of fever. We conclude that the value of Tubex and Typhidot tests for typhoid fever diagnosis in a community clinic in urban Bangladesh is low.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2008.03.018

    View details for Web of Science ID 000258219100003

    View details for PubMedID 18501549

  • The chulli water purifier: Acceptability and effectiveness of an innovative strategy for household water treatment in Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Gupta, S. K., Islam, M. S., Johnston, R., Ram, P. K., Luby, S. P. 2008; 78 (6): 979-984


    To evaluate the effectiveness of the chulli water purifier, a new household water treatment strategy in Bangladesh that relies on passing water through a stove, we interviewed persons who had this water purifier. From households using it regularly, we tested untreated water, sand-filtered water without heat pasteurization, sand-filtered and heat pasteurized water, and household stored, treated water. Reasons for discontinuing use among 80 of 101 persons included mechanical problems (49%), inconvenience (35%), and high cost (10%). Only four households were regularly using the purifier. Three (19%) of 16 heat-treated samples were positive for Escherichia coli. The median log reduction from source water was > 5. Nine (56%) stored water samples were positive for E. coli, indicating recontamination. Poor durability, inconvenience, high cost, and post-treatment contamination limit the usefulness of the purifier. These issues, which are relevant for other household water treatment strategies, should be resolved before further implementation.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000256504500025

    View details for PubMedID 18541780

  • Associations among handwashing indicators, wealth, and symptoms of childhood respiratory illness in urban Bangladesh TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Luby, S. P., Halder, A. K. 2008; 13 (6): 835-844


    To explore the relationship of easy to collect handwashing indicators with socioeconomic status and reported respiratory disease among children <5 years of age.We added several handwashing indicators to a population-based, cross-sectional study of respiratory illness in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We constructed a wealth index using 12 household characteristics analysed with principal component analysis to assess socioeconomic status.Of 6970 households, 92% had a bar of body soap, 41% had a place with water to wash hands inside the house, and 40% had soap present at the most convenient place to wash hands. Handwashing indicators were more common among households with higher socioeconomic status. Within each wealth quintile a place to wash hands within the household was strongly associated with the presence of soap at the handwashing location (odds ratios 13-70). In general estimated equation models that controlled for socioeconomic status, the presence of a place inside the house with water to wash hands was the only handwashing indicator significantly associated with a child in the household who reported cough or difficulty breathing in the preceding 7 days (adjusted odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.93-0.98, P < 0.001).Handwashing indicators were strongly influenced by socio-economic status and so would not be an independent measure of handwashing behaviour. Handwashing promotion efforts in urban Dhaka that include specific efforts to provide handwashing facilities inside the house are more likely to improve handwashing behaviour than interventions that ignore this component.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02074.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000255836600012

    View details for PubMedID 18363587

  • Clinical presentation of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Hossain, M. J., Gurley, E. S., Montgomery, J. M., Bell, M., Carroll, D. S., Hsu, V. P., Formenty, P., Croisier, A., Bertherat, E., Faiz, M. A., Azad, A. K., Islam, R., Molla, M. A., Ksiazek, T. G., Rota, P. A., Comer, J. A., Rollin, P. E., Luby, S. P., Breiman, R. F. 2008; 46 (7): 977-984


    In Bangladesh, 4 outbreaks of Nipah virus infection were identified during the period 2001-2004.We characterized the clinical features of Nipah virus-infected individuals affected by these outbreaks. We classified patients as having confirmed cases of Nipah virus infection if they had antibodies reactive with Nipah virus antigen. Patients were considered to have probable cases of Nipah virus infection if they had symptoms consistent with Nipah virus infection during the same time and in the same community as patients with confirmed cases.We identified 92 patients with Nipah virus infection, 67 (73%) of whom died. Although all age groups were affected, 2 outbreaks principally affected young persons (median age, 12 years); 62% of the affected persons were male. Fever, altered mental status, headache, cough, respiratory difficulty, vomiting, and convulsions were the most common signs and symptoms; clinical and radiographic features of acute respiratory distress syndrome of Nipah illness were identified during the fourth outbreak. Among those who died, death occurred a median of 6 days (range, 2-36 days) after the onset of illness. Patients who died were more likely than survivors to have a temperature >37.8 degrees C, altered mental status, difficulty breathing, and abnormal plantar reflexes. Among patients with Nipah virus infection who had well-defined exposure to another patient infected with Nipah virus, the median incubation period was 9 days (range, 6-11 days).Nipah virus infection produced rapidly progressive severe illness affecting the central nervous and respiratory systems. Clinical characteristics of Nipah virus infection in Bangladesh, including a severe respiratory component, appear distinct from clinical characteristics reported during earlier outbreaks in other countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1086/529147

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253817800003

    View details for PubMedID 18444812

  • Difficulties in bringing point-of-use water treatment to scale in rural Guatemala AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Mendoza, C., Keswick, B. H., Chiller, T. M., Hoekstra, R. M. 2008; 78 (3): 382-387


    In an earlier study in rural Guatemala, 257 households that received flocculant-disinfectant to treat their drinking water had 39% less diarrhea than 257 control households. Three weeks after completion of the study, national marketing of the flocculant-disinfectant was extended into the study communities. Six months later, we assessed frequency of and characteristics associated with purchase and use of the flocculant-disinfectant by revisiting the original study households and administering a questionnaire. Four hundred sixty-two households (90%) completed the follow-up survey; 22 households (5%) purchased the flocculant-disinfectant within the preceding 2 weeks and used it within the last week. Neither being randomized to the intervention group during the efficacy study nor combined spending on laundry soap, toothpaste, and hand soap in the preceding week was associated with active repeat use. Even after efficacy was demonstrated within their community and an aggressive sophisticated marketing approach, few households purchased flocculant-disinfectant for point-of-use water treatment.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000253928100007

    View details for PubMedID 18337330

  • Usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide test for assessment of water quality in Bangladesh JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Gupta, S. K., Sheikh, M. A., Islam, M. S., Rahman, K. S., Jahan, N., Rahman, M. M., Hoekstra, R. M., Johnston, R., Ram, P. K., Luby, S. 2008; 104 (2): 388-395


    To evaluate the usefulness of the hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) test for assessing water quality in Bangladesh.We tested 382 water samples from a variety of sources using locally produced H(2)S test kits and laboratory-based membrane filtration for the detection of Escherichia coli. Compared with membrane filtration, H(2)S tests, when incubated for 24 h, had both a sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of <40% when analysis was restricted to water samples with E. coli levels below 100 colony forming units (CFU) per 100 ml. In contrast, for E. coli levels from 1000 to 9999 CFU per 100 ml, sensitivity was 94% and PPV 88%; specificity was 97% and negative predictive value was 99%.The hydrogen sulfide test, when incubated at 24 h, is a promising alternative for assessing water quality where E. coli levels may be high. An improved understanding of the incremental impact of contamination level on health is needed to better determine its usefulness.The hydrogen sulfide test is inexpensive, easy to use and portable. Its use may allow rapid assessment of water quality in situations where cost or logistics prevent use of other testing methods, such as in remote areas or during flood and other natural disasters.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2007.03562.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000252496100007

    View details for PubMedID 17922823

  • Deaths from rotavirus disease in Bangladeshi children - Estimates from hospital-based surveillance PEDIATRIC INFECTIOUS DISEASE JOURNAL Tanaka, G., Faruque, A. S., Luby, S. P., Malek, M. A., Glass, R. I., Parashar, U. D. 2007; 26 (11): 1014-1018


    To assess the potential health benefits of introducing new rotavirus (RV) vaccines, we estimated mortality from RV gastroenteritis in Bangladeshi children <5 years of age.We examined data from ongoing diarrhea surveillance in a systematic 2% sample (4% until 1995) of patients visiting the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka Hospital during 1993-2004 and all patients visiting the rural Matlab Hospital during 2000-2004. To estimate deaths from RV, we multiplied the proportion of diarrhea visits attributable to RV with 2004 estimates of diarrhea deaths in Bangladeshi children.At Dhaka Hospital, RV was detected in 33% of 18,300 children with diarrhea. The proportion of diarrhea attributable to RV nearly doubled during 2002-2004 compared with 1993-1995 (42% versus 22%, P < 0.001). At Matlab Hospital, RV was detected in 35% of 4597 children with diarrhea. At both sites, most RV cases were among children age 3-24 months and the number of cases peaked during the cool and dry months from December through February. Of the 325,600 deaths among children <5 years that occur each year, we estimated 5600 to 9400 (2-3%) were attributable to RV. Thus, between 1 in 390 and 1 in 660 children born in Bangladesh each year die of RV infection by age 5.These data clearly demonstrate the tremendous health burden of RV gastroenteritis. The increasing proportion of severe diarrhea cases underscores the need for specific interventions against RV, such as vaccines, to further reduce diarrhea mortality and morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/INF.0b013e318125721c

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250818300007

    View details for PubMedID 17984808

  • Invasive pneumococcal disease burden and implications for vaccine policy in urban Bangladesh AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Brooks, W. A., Breiman, R. F., Goswami, D., Hossain, A., Alam, K., Saha, S. K., Nahar, K., Nasrin, D., Ahmed, N., El Arifeen, S., Naheed, A., Sack, D. A., Luby, S. 2007; 77 (5): 795-801


    We undertook active population-based surveillance in 5,000 urban households among children < 5 years old to determine invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence, serotype distribution, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial resistance, which have not been previously described in population-based studies from the region. IPD was documented by blood culture isolation. From 01 April 2004 to 31 March 2006, 5,903 blood cultures were collected from 6,167 eligible children. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 34 pneumococcal patients; IPD was clinically associated with pneumonia (24%), upper respiratory infection (62%), and febrile syndromes (14%). Overall, IPD and 13-valent serotype-related IPD incidences were 447 and 276 episodes/100,000 child-years, respectively. Peak IPD incidence occurred during the cool dry seasons. Penicillin, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin resistances were 2.9%, 82.4%, 14.7%, and 24.1%, respectively. Current conjugate vaccines should substantially reduce IPD, childhood pneumonia, and antimicrobial resistance in Bangladesh.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000250735000002

    View details for PubMedID 17984328

  • Human metapneumovirus infection among children, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Brooks, W. A., Erdman, D., Terebuh, P., Klimov, A., Goswami, D., Sharmeen, A. T., Azim, T., Luby, S., Bridges, C., Breiman, R. 2007; 13 (10): 1611-1613


    We confirmed circulation of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) among children with febrile and respiratory illness in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during active surveillance in 2001. HMPV was the most common single virus identified among febrile children and appears to contribute to the high rates of illness in this population.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249962800038

    View details for PubMedID 18258022

  • Estimating the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea and other episodic diseases - Continuous versus intermittent surveillance EPIDEMIOLOGY Schmidt, W., Luby, S. P., Genser, B., Barreto, M. L., Clasen, T. 2007; 18 (5): 537-543


    Longitudinal prevalence (ie, the proportion of time with the disease) is used to describe morbidity from diarrhea and other episodic conditions. The aim of this analysis was to compare estimates of longitudinal prevalence based on intermittent sampling at regular intervals with 24- or 48-hour recall, with estimates based on continuous surveillance.Based on 2 real datasets from Brazil and Guatemala, we developed a simulated dataset representing the diarrhea morbidity of 10,000 individuals followed over 365 days.Both the model and the real datasets showed that the standard deviation of the longitudinal prevalence increases with decreasing numbers of days sampled, so that a study sampling only a fraction of days would require a larger sample size. However, due to the correlation of diarrhea between consecutive days, sampling at 7- to 14-day intervals results in relatively small loss of precision and power compared with daily morbidity records, especially when the average diarrheal episode is long. A study based on morbidity data for every seventh day may require only a 5%-24% larger sample size than a study with daily records, depending on the average duration of episodes. Using a recall period of 48 hours instead of 24 hours increases power if the average episode is short.The results question the necessity of continuous surveillance to estimate longitudinal prevalence. In addition to savings in cost and staff time, intermittent sampling of morbidity may improve validity by minimizing recall error and reducing the influence of surveillance on participants' behavior.

    View details for DOI 10.1097/EDEA01361809f3ce

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249000500003

    View details for PubMedID 17603390

  • Long-term neurological and functional outcome in Nipah virus infection ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY Sejvar, J. J., Hossain, J., Saba, S. K., Gurley, E. S., Bann, S., Hamadani, J. D., Faiz, M. A., Siddiqui, F. M., Mohammad, Q. D., Mollah, A. H., Uddin, R., Alam, R., Rahman, R., Tan, C. T., Bellini, W., Rota, P., Breiman, R. F., Luby, S. P. 2007; 62 (3): 235-242


    Nipah virus (NiV) is an emerging zoonosis. Central nervous system disease frequently results in high case-fatality. Long-term neurological assessments of survivors are limited. We assessed long-term neurologic and functional outcomes of 22 patients surviving NiV illness in Bangladesh.During August 2005 and May 2006, we administered a questionnaire on persistent symptoms and functional difficulties to 22 previously identified NiV infection survivors. We performed neurologic evaluations and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Twelve (55%) subjects were male; median age was 14.5 years (range 6-50). Seventeen (77%) survived encephalitis, and 5 survived febrile illness. All but 1 subject had disabling fatigue, with a median duration of 5 months (range, 8 days-8 months). Seven encephalitis patients (32% overall), but none with febrile illness had persistent neurologic dysfunction, including static encephalopathy (n = 4), ocular motor palsies (2), cervical dystonia (2), focal weakness (2), and facial paralysis (1). Four cases had delayed-onset neurologic abnormalities months after acute illness. Behavioral abnormalities were reported by caregivers of over 50% of subjects under age 16. MRI abnormalities were present in 15, and included multifocal hyperintensities, cerebral atrophy, and confluent cortical and subcortical signal changes.Although delayed progression to neurologic illness following Nipah fever was not observed, persistent fatigue and functional impairment was frequent. Neurologic sequelae were frequent following Nipah encephalitis. Neurologic dysfunction may persist for years after acute infection, and new neurologic dysfunction may develop after acute illness. Survivors of NiV infection may experience substantial long-term neurologic and functional morbidity.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/ana.21178

    View details for Web of Science ID 000249937000009

    View details for PubMedID 17696217

  • Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in a Bangladeshi community EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Gurley, E. S., Montgomery, J. M., Hossain, M. J., Bell, M., Azad, A. K., Islam, M. R., Molla, M. A., Carroll, D. S., Ksiazek, T. G., Rota, P. A., Lowe, L., Comer, J. A., Rollin, P., Czub, M., Grolla, A., Feldmann, H., Luby, S. P., Woodward, J. L., Breiman, R. F. 2007; 13 (7): 1031-1037


    An encephalitis outbreak was investigated in Faridpur District, Bangladesh, in April-May 2004 to determine the cause of the outbreak and risk factors for disease. Biologic specimens were tested for Nipah virus. Surfaces were evaluated for Nipah virus contamination by using reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Thirty-six cases of Nipah virus illness were identified; 75% of case-patients died. Multiple peaks of illness occurred, and 33 case-patients had close contact with another Nipah virus patient before their illness. Results from a case-control study showed that contact with 1 patient carried the highest risk for infection (odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9-16.8, p < 0.001). RT-PCR testing of environmental samples confirmed Nipah virus contamination of hospital surfaces. This investigation provides evidence for person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus. Capacity for person-to-person transmission increases the potential for wider spread of this highly lethal pathogen and highlights the need for infection control strategies for resource-poor settings.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247758200010

    View details for PubMedID 18214175

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2878219

  • Faecal contamination of drinking water sources of Dhaka city during the 2004 flood in Bangladesh and use of disinfectants for water treatment JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Islam, M. S., Brooks, A., Kabir, M. S., Jahid, I. K., Islam, M. S., Goswami, D., Nair, G. B., Larson, C., Yukiko, W., Luby, S. 2007; 103 (1): 80-87


    To describe the extent of faecal pollution and point of use water treatment strategy during and after the 2004 flood in Dhaka.A total of 300 water samples were collected from 20 different drinking water sources in Kamalapur, Dhaka city from August 2004 to January 2005. The level of faecal contamination was estimated using measurements of faecal indicator bacteria (total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) and isolation of Vibrio cholerae was carried out following standard procedures. Total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, hardness, chloride and pH were also monitored. The efficacy of four disinfectants including Halotab, Zeoline-200, alum potash and bleaching powder were tested as point of use water treatment agents. The unacceptable level of contamination of total coliforms (TC), faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS) ranged from 23.8% to 95.2%, 28.6% to 95.2% and 33.3% to 90.0%, respectively. The isolation rates of V. cholerae O1 and O139 were both 0.33%, and non-O1/non-O139 was 7.0%.Water collected during and after floods was contaminated with TC, FC, FS and V. cholerae. Although alum potash, bleaching powder, Halotab and Zeoline-200 were all effective general disinfectants, Halotab and Zeoline-200 were superior to bleaching powder and alum potash against FC.During and after floods, point of use water treatment could reduce waterborne diseases among flood-affected people.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.03234.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247441000008

    View details for PubMedID 17584454

  • Comparing serologic response against enteric pathogens with reported diarrhea to assess the impact of improved household drinking water quality AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Crump, J. A., Mendoza, C. E., Priest, J. W., Glass, R. I., Monroe, S. S., Dauphin, L. A., Bibb, W. F., Lopez, M. B., Alvarez, M., Mintz, E. D., Luby, S. P. 2007; 77 (1): 136-141


    We evaluated enteric infection serology as an alternative outcome measure to diarrhea prevalence in a randomized controlled trial of household-based drinking water treatment; 492 households were randomly assigned to 5 household-based water treatment interventions or control. Individuals were followed weekly over 52 weeks to measure diarrhea prevalence. Study subjects of age

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247979800024

    View details for PubMedID 17620645

  • Brucellosis as a cause of acute febrile illness in Egypt TRANSACTIONS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Jennings, G. J., Hajjeh, R. A., Girgis, F. Y., Fadeel, M. A., Maksoud, M. A., Wasfy, M. O., El Sayed, N., Srikantiah, P., Luby, S. P., Earhart, K., Mahoney, F. J. 2007; 101 (7): 707-713


    To develop better estimates of brucellosis incidence, we conducted population-based surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) in Fayoum governorate (population 2347249), Egypt during two summer periods (2002 and 2003). All hospitals and a representative sample of community healthcare providers were included. AFI patients without obvious etiology were tested for brucellosis by culture and serology. Incidence estimates were calculated adjusting for sampling methodology and study period. Of 4490 AFI patients enrolled, 321 (7%) met the brucellosis case definition. The estimated annual incidence of brucellosis per 100000 population was 64 and 70 in 2002 and 2003, respectively. The median age of brucellosis patients was 26 years and 70% were male; 53% were initially diagnosed as typhoid fever. Close contact with animals and consumption of unpasteurized milk products were associated with brucellosis. The high incidence of brucellosis in Fayoum highlights its public health importance, and the need to implement prevention strategies in humans and animals.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.02.027

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247665700015

    View details for PubMedID 17442354

  • Epidemiology and risk factors for endemic typhoid fever in Uzbekistan TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Srikantiah, P., Vafokulov, S., Luby, S. P., Ishmail, T., Earhart, K., Khodjaev, N., Jennings, G., Crump, J. A., Mahoney, F. J. 2007; 12 (7): 838-847


    To investigate the risk factors for infection with endemic typhoid fever in the Samarkand region of Uzbekistan.Case-control study of culture-confirmed bloodstream infection with Salmonella Typhi. Patients were compared to age-matched community controls. Salmonella Typhi isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility.We enrolled 97 patients and 192 controls. The median age of patients was 19 years. In a conditional regression model, consumption of unboiled surface water outside the home [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.1-8.2], use of antimicrobials in the 2 weeks preceding onset of symptoms (aOR=12.2, 95% CI 4.0-37.0), and being a student (aOR=4.0, 95% CI 1.4-11.3) were independently associated with typhoid fever. Routinely washing vegetables (aOR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.2) and dining at a tea-house (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-1.0) were associated with protection against illness. Salmonella Typhi resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was identified in 6 (15%) of 41 isolates tested.Endemic typhoid fever in Uzbekistan is transmitted by contaminated water. Recent use of antimicrobials also increased risk of infection. Targeted efforts at improving drinking water quality, especially for students and young adults, are likely to decrease transmission of typhoid fever. Measures to decrease the unnecessary use of antimicrobials would be expected to reduce the risk of typhoid fever and decrease the spread of multiple drug-resistant Salmonella Typhi.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01853.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247562000006

    View details for PubMedID 17596250

  • A cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating the effect of a handwashing-promotion program in Chinese primary schools AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Bowen, A., Ma, H., Ou, J., Billhimer, W., Long, T., Mintz, E., Hoekstra, R. M., Luby, S. 2007; 76 (6): 1166-1173


    Intensive handwashing promotion can reduce diarrheal and respiratory disease incidence. To determine whether less intensive, more scalable interventions can improve health, we evaluated a school-based handwashing program. We randomized 87 Chinese schools to usual practices: standard intervention (handwashing program) or expanded intervention (handwashing program, soap for school sinks, and peer hygiene monitors). We compared student absence rates, adjusting for cluster design. In control schools, children experienced a median 2.0 episodes (median 2.6 days) of absence per 100 student-weeks. In standard intervention schools, there were a median 1.2 episodes (P = 0.08) and 1.9 days (P = 0.14) of absence per 100 student-weeks. Children in expanded intervention schools experienced a median 1.2 episodes (P = 0.03) and 1.2 days (P = 0.03) of absence per 100 student-weeks. Provision of a large-scale handwashing promotion program and soap was associated with significantly reduced absenteeism. Similar programs could improve the health of children worldwide.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247116500032

    View details for PubMedID 17556631

  • Field trial of a low cost method to evaluate hand cleanliness TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Billhimer, W., Hoekstra, R. M. 2007; 12 (6): 765-771


    To evaluate a simple low cost method for measuring hand contamination as an objective assessment of handwashing practices.As part of a larger randomized controlled trial of handwashing promotion with soap conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, a randomly selected subset of 52 mothers in households receiving soap and handwashing promotion and 28 mothers in control households directly pressed three fingers of their right hand onto MacConkey agar plates on weekly unannounced visits from April to September 2002, and monthly from October 2002 to March 2003. The MacConkey plates were incubated at 44 degrees C for 24 h, and evaluated for growth of thermotolerant coliform bacteria.The proportion of samples that had detectable thermotolerant coliforms (50%) was similar in households that received soap and control households (52%, P = 0.40). In the week after evaluation of the mothers' hands, the proportion of households that reported diarrhoea was similar regardless of whether or not the mother had thermotolerant coliforms detected by direct finger imprint (18.6%vs. 19.1%, Relative Risk 0.99, 95% CI 0.96, 1.03).A three finger direct imprint test using MacConkey agar for thermotolerant coliforms was not a useful method to assess regular handwashing practices with soap in Karachi. Developing better measures of handwashing behaviour remains an important research priority.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2007.01847.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000247175000009

    View details for PubMedID 17550474

  • Risk factors for typhoid fever in a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Ram, P. K., Naheed, A., Brooks, W. A., Hossain, M. A., Mintz, E. D., Breiman, R. F., Luby, S. P. 2007; 135 (3): 458-465


    We systematically investigated risk factors for typhoid fever in Kamalapur, a poor urban area of Bangladesh, to inform targeted public health measures for its control. We interviewed patients with typhoid fever and two age-matched controls per case about exposures during the 14 days before the onset of illness. The municipal water supply was used by all 41 cases and 81of 82 controls. In multivariate analysis, drinking unboiled water at home was a significant risk factor [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 12.1, 95% CI 2.2-65.6]. Twenty-three (56%) cases and 21 (26%) controls reported that water from the primary source was foul-smelling (aOR 7.4, 95% CI 2.1-25.4). Eating papaya was associated with illness (aOR 5.2, 95% CI 1.2-22.2). Using a latrine for defecation was significantly protective (aOR 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.9). Improved chlorination of the municipal water supply or disinfecting drinking water at the household level may dramatically reduce the risk of typhoid fever in Kamalapur. The protective effect of using latrines, particularly among young children, should be investigated further.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268806007114

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246221000012

    View details for PubMedID 16893490

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC2870597

  • Foodborne transmission of Nipah virus, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Luby, S. P., Rahman, M., Hossain, M. J., Blum, L. S., Husain, M. M., Gurley, E., Khan, R., Ahmed, B., Rahman, S., Nahar, N., Kenah, E., Comer, J. A., Ksiazek, T. G. 2006; 12 (12): 1888-1894


    We investigated an outbreak of encephalitis in Tangail District, Bangladesh. We defined case-patients as persons from the outbreak area in whom fever developed with new onset of seizures or altered mental status from December 15, 2004, through January 31, 2005. Twelve persons met the definition; 11 (92%) died. Serum specimens were available from 3; 2 had immunoglobulin M antibodies against Nipah virus by capture enzyme immunoassay. We enrolled 11 case-patients and 33 neighborhood controls in a case-control study. The only exposure significantly associated with illness was drinking raw date palm sap (64% among case-patients vs. 18% among controls, odds ratio [OR] 7.9, p = 0.01). Fruit bats (Pteropus giganteus) are a nuisance to date palm sap collectors because the bats drink from the clay pots used to collect the sap at night. This investigation suggests that Nipah virus was transmitted from P. giganteus to persons through drinking fresh date palm sap.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242301900013

    View details for PubMedID 17326940

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3291367

  • Enteric pathogens associated with diarrhea in children in Fayoum, Egypt DIAGNOSTIC MICROBIOLOGY AND INFECTIOUS DISEASE El-Mohamady, H., Abdel-Messih, I. A., Youssef, F. G., Said, M., Farag, H., Shaheen, H. I., Rockabrand, D. M., Luby, S. B., Hajjeh, R., Sanders, J. W., Monteville, M. R., Klena, J. D., Frenck, R. W. 2006; 56 (1): 1-5


    In a cross-sectional study of children <60 months old from Fayoum, Egypt, presenting with diarrhea, 46% (162/356) had detectable enteric pathogens. Bacterial pathogens were identified in 25% (89/356), whereas rotavirus and Cryptosporidium were detected in 21% (54/253) and 15% (39/253), respectively. Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen in this region.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2006.02.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240568000001

    View details for PubMedID 16675181

  • Background demographics and risk behaviors of injecting drug users in Karachi, Pakistan INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Parviz, S., Fatmi, Z., Altaf, A., McCormick, J. B., Fischer-Hoch, S., Rahbarc, M., Luby, S. 2006; 10 (5): 364-371


    To find the prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Karachi, Pakistan.A cross-sectional study of IDUs conducted in Karachi, Pakistan from February through June 1996.Of the 242 IDUs, 11 (4%) refused HIV testing. One (0.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37-0.48%) was HIV positive. All subjects were male. Over the past 6 months 47% had engaged in receptive needle sharing, 38% had perceived a change in their social network, 22% had had sexual intercourse, of whom only 7% always used condoms, and none had washed their needles with bleach. Younger age (28 vs. 31 years; p = 0.01), younger age at first injection (25 vs. 28 years; p = 0.001), fewer years of schooling (3 vs. 5 years; p = 0.001), lower monthly income (70 dollars vs. 80 dollars; p = 0.03), inhaling fumes of heroin from a foil in the year before injecting (OR = 4.8; CI = 2.2-10.3), injecting first time with heroin (OR = 3.6; CI = 1.2-12.6), having a temporary job (OR = 2.5; CI = 1.2-5.2), and a perceived change in one's social network (OR = 4.4; CI = 2.4-7.9) were all associated with receptive needle sharing. IDUs who knew about HIV spread through contaminated needles were less likely to share (OR = 0.4; CI 0.2-0.8). In the final logistic regression model receptive needle sharing was associated with inhaling of fumes of heroin on a foil in the year prior to injecting (adjusted OR = 5.6; CI = 2.6-12.0), a perceived change in one's social network (adjusted OR = 4.0; CI = 2.2-7.4), and inversely associated with age at first time of injection (beta = -0.07; p = 0.002).Background HIV prevalence was low among IDUs in Karachi despite high-risk behavior in 1996. In order to control HIV transmission among IDUs in Pakistan, continual HIV surveillance with well-coordinated and effective HIV risk reduction, and drug demand reduction programs need to be implemented among drug users.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2005.07.010

    View details for Web of Science ID 000240364600008

    View details for PubMedID 16793307

  • Diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during three consecutive floods: 1988, 1998, and 2004 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Schwartz, B. S., Harris, J. B., Khan, A. I., Larocque, R. C., Sack, D. A., Malek, M. A., Faruque, A. S., Qadri, F., Calderwood, S. B., Luby, S. P., Ryan, E. T. 2006; 74 (6): 1067-1073


    We examined demographic, microbiologic, and clinical data from patients presenting during 1988, 1998, and 2004 flood-associated diarrheal epidemics at a diarrhea treatment hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Compared with non-flood periods, individuals presenting during flood-associated epidemics were older, more severely dehydrated, and of lower socioeconomic status. During flood-associated epidemics, Vibrio cholerae was the most commonly identified cause of diarrhea, and the only diarrheal pathogen whose incidence proportionally increased in each epidemic compared with seasonally matched periods. Rotavirus was the second most frequently identified flood-associated pathogen, although the proportion of cases caused by rotavirus infection decreased during floods compared with matched periods. Other causes of diarrhea did not proportionally change, although more patients per day presented with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Shigella, and Salmonella species-associated diarrhea during floods compared with matched periods. Our findings suggest that cholera is the predominant cause of flood-associated diarrheal epidemics in Dhaka, but that other organisms spread by the fecal-oral route also contribute.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238200900024

    View details for PubMedID 16760521

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC1626162

  • No evidence for prolonged excretion of polioviruses in persons with residual paralytic poliomyelitis in Ethiopia, Pakistan and Guatemala BIOLOGICALS Khan, A. J., Gebreselassie, H., Asturias, E. J., Agboatwalla, M., Teklehaimanot, R., Luby, S. P., Bayene, B., Chezzi, C., Asghar, H., Moatter, T., Torres, O. R., Kew, O., Winkelstein, J., Halsey, N. A. 2006; 34 (2): 113-116


    Persons who have developed acute flaccid paralysis following infection with wild-type polioviruses or vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis usually excrete polioviruses for only a few weeks. However, some patients with paralytic poliomyelitis have had prolonged excretion of polioviruses for periods of up to 10 years after onset of disease. Most prolonged excretors have been identified in industrialized countries. We studied 348 patients 2-28 years old in Ethiopia, Pakistan and Guatemala with residual paralytic poliomyelitis to determine if they had IgA or IgG deficiency or persistent poliomyelitis excretion at least 1 year after onset of disease. None of the 348 affected individuals had IgG deficiency or persistent poliovirus excretion. One child had borderline low serum IgA concentration. Since we did not study children under 2 years of age, persons born with IgG deficiency disorders may have died in developing countries where replacement immunoglobulin therapy is not readily available. Nevertheless, persistent poliovirus excretion among persons 2 years of age and older with residual paralytic poliomyelitis is uncommon in developing countries.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.biologicals.2006.03.004

    View details for Web of Science ID 000238304800008

    View details for PubMedID 16682222

  • Chlorine spot treatment of flooded tube wells, an efficacy trial JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Luby, S., Islam, M. S., Johnston, R. 2006; 100 (5): 1154-1158


    To evaluate the water quality of recently flooded tube wells in Bangladesh and the effect of spot chlorination on improving bacteriological quality.The study team identified and tested water samples from 127 tube wells that were flooded within the preceding 4 weeks. Twenty-six of the tube wells with the highest concentration of thermotolerant coliform bacteria were randomly assigned to spot chlorination vs control. On initial screening, water samples from 56 recently inundated tube wells (44%) were contaminated with thermotolerant coliforms. Among the 13 wells randomized to chlorination, there was no change in the proportion of water samples that had no detectable thermotolerant coliform bacteria immediately before chlorine treatment (n = 4, 23%) and 60 min following chlorine treatment (n = 4, 23%). Similarly, there was no difference in the proportion of water samples that had no detectable thermotolerant coliforms between chlorine spot treated and control tube wells 7-18 days later (31 vs 23%P = 0.66).Spot chlorine treatment of inundated tube wells in Bangladesh three to 6 weeks after the flooding did not improve drinking water quality.Unless modified methods improve effectiveness, resources should not be spent promoting spot chlorination of flooded tube wells.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2006.02940.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237626800027

    View details for PubMedID 16630017

  • Prevalence of hepatitis B among Afghan refugees living in Balochistan, Pakistan INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Quddus, A., Luby, S. P., Jamal, Z., Jafar, T. 2006; 10 (3): 242-247


    Continued civil war and political instability in Afghanistan have lead to a huge influx of refugees into the neighboring provinces in Pakistan. This study was conducted to estimate seroprevalence of hepatitis B and to identify potential risk factors for hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among the refugees living in the camps of Balochistan Province, Pakistan.A cross-sectional survey of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was conducted during October 2003. We obtained the registration list to select families randomly from the refugee camps. A husband, wife and one of their children, selected at random, were enrolled in the study. Study subjects with positive laboratory results for HBsAg were compared with those who were negative for HBsAg.Field workers interviewed 301 families with a total of 903 study subjects. Blood specimens of 75 study subjects (8.3%, 95% CI 6.6-10.3) were positive for HBsAg. There were 37 husbands (12.3%, 95% CI 7.2-14.4) and 21 wives (7.0%, 95% CI 4.5-10.6) positive for HBsAg. Out of 301 children, 17 (5.6%, 95% CI 3.4-9.1) were positive for HBsAg. Receiving more than ten injections during the previous year increased the risk of HBV infection (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.7). A child positive for HBsAg was more likely to have a positive parent compared to an HBsAg negative child (OR 5.7, 95% CI 2.0-16.5).Hepatitis B is highly endemic among Afghan refugees living in these camps. Unsafe injection practices will continue to cause a steady increase in the magnitude of this health problem until appropriate control measures are taken. The possibility of mother-to-child transmission underscores the need to include vaccination against hepatitis B as part of routine immunization in this population.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2005.04.007

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237779200012

    View details for PubMedID 16448838

  • Combining drinking water treatment and hand washing for diarrhoea prevention, a cluster randomised controlled trial TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Painter, J., Altaf, A., Billhimer, W., Keswick, B., Hoekstra, R. M. 2006; 11 (4): 479-489


    To evaluate the effectiveness of point of use water treatment with flocculent-disinfectant on reducing diarrhoea and the additional benefit of promoting hand washing with soap.The study was conducted in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan, where diarrhoea is a leading cause of childhood death. Interventions were randomly assigned to 47 neighbourhoods. Households in 10 neighbourhoods received diluted bleach and a water vessel; nine neighbourhoods received soap and were encouraged to wash hands; nine neighbourhoods received flocculent-disinfectant water treatment and a water vessel; 10 neighbourhoods received disinfectant-disinfectant water treatment and soap and were encouraged to wash hands; and nine neighbourhoods were followed as controls. Field workers visited households at least once a week from April to December 2003 to promote use of the interventions and to collect data on diarrhoea.Study participants in control neighbourhoods had diarrhoea on 5.2% of days. Compared to controls, participants living in intervention neighbourhoods had a lower prevalence of diarrhoea: 55% (95% CI 17%, 80%) lower in bleach and water vessel neighbourhoods, 51% (95% CI 12%, 76%) lower in hand washing promotion with soap neighbourhoods, 64% lower (95% CI 29%, 90%) in disinfectant-disinfectant neighbourhoods, and 55% (95% CI 18%, 80%) lower in disinfectant-disinfectant plus hand washing with soap neighbourhoods.With an intense community-based intervention and supplies provided free of cost, each of the home-based interventions significantly reduced diarrhoea. There was no benefit by combining hand washing promotion with water treatment.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2006.01592.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000236220300011

    View details for PubMedID 16553931

  • Reducing diarrhoea in Guatemalan children: randomized controlled trial of flocculant-disinfectant for drinking-water BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Chiller, T. M., Mendoza, C. E., Lopez, M. B., Alvarez, M., Hoekstra, R. M., Keswick, B. H., Luby, S. P. 2006; 84 (1): 28-35


    To examine the effect of a new point-of-use treatment for drinking-water, a commercially developed flocculant-disinfectant, on the prevalence of diarrhoea in children.We conducted a randomized controlled trial among 514 rural Guatemalan households, divided into 42 neighbourhood clusters, for 13 weeks, from 4 November 2002 through 31 January 2003. Clusters assigned to water treatment with the flocculant-disinfectant were compared with those using their usual water-handling practices. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was calculated as the proportion of total days with diarrhoea divided by the total number of days of observation. The prevalence of diarrhoea was compared using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test.The 1702 people in households receiving the disinfectant had a prevalence of diarrhoea that was 40% lower than that among the 1699 people using standard water-handling practices (0.9% versus 1.5%; P = 0.001). In households using the flocculant-disinfectant, children < 1 year of age had a 39% lower prevalence of diarrhoea than those in households using their standard practices (3.7% versus 6.0%; P = 0.005).In settings where families rarely treat drinking-water, we introduced a novel flocculant-disinfectant that reduced the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, especially among children aged < 1 year, among whom diarrhoea has been strongly associated with mortality. Successful introduction and use of this product could contribute to preventing diarrhoeal disease globally.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234438400009

    View details for PubMedID 16501712

  • Evaluation of blood bank practices in Karachi, Pakistan, and the government's response. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Luby, S., Khanani, R., Zia, M., Vellani, Z., Ali, M., Qureshi, A. H., Khan, A. J., Mujeeb, S. A., Shah, S. A., Fisher-Hoch, S. 2006; 56 (1): S25-30


    National legislation in Pakistan regulating blood banks has been introduced several times, but has never been passed. To support provincial-level efforts to develop legislation we conducted a study to evaluate blood-banking practices in Karachi, Pakistan, to identify areas that could be improved.Thirty-seven blood banks were randomly selected from a list of 87 Karachi blood banks. The research team interviewed blood bank personnel, inspected available facilities and equipment, and observed blood collection using structured questionnaires and observation forms.Of the 37 selected facilities, 25 were operational and 24 agreed to participate. Twelve (50%) of the facilities reported regularly utilizing paid blood donors, while only six (25%) actively recruited volunteer donors. During observation only 8% of facilities asked donors about injecting drug use, and none asked donors any questions about high-risk sexual behaviour. While 95% of blood banks had appropriate equipment and reagents to screen for hepatitis B, only 55% could screen for HIV and 23% for hepatitis C. Twenty-nine percent of the facilities were storing blood products outside the WHO recommended temperature limits.Practives at most Karachi blood banks fell well below WHO standards. Findings from this study were instrumental in developing and passing legislation to regulate blood transfusion throughout Sindh Province, and suggest a method for improving blood transfusion practices in other developing countries (HPP 15 (2):217-22).

    View details for PubMedID 16689480

  • Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections among general practitioners and medical specialists in Karachi, Pakistan. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Khandwalla, H. E., Luby, S., Rehman, S. 2006; 56 (1): S31-3


    To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among specialists that is, dermatologist, gynecologists and urologists and general practitioners (GPs) in Karachi, Pakistan.Interviewers administered structured questionnaires to doctors conducting outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals and/or private clinics in Karachi. All private clinics within a 10 km radius of the Aga Khan University and all tertiary hospitals having more than 100 inpatient beds were included in the study.One hundred doctors (54 specialists and 46 GPs) responded. Eighty doctors reported seeing at least one STI patient/month. The most commonly diagnosed STI the doctors reported was urethritis/cervicitis syndrome. 50% of the doctors knew the recommended antibiotics for gonorrhea though only 46% of these knew the correct dosage. Specialists were three times more likely to recognize the clinical presentation of herpes and twice as likely to treat chlamydia, syphilis and herpes with appropriate antimicrobials than GPs. 85% of the doctors advised their STI patients regarding condom usage; 36% thought that STI patients had loose sexual morals, 43% believed STI patients were drug addicts. Over 90% of the physicians were willing to attend educational sessions and follow a national STI treatment protocol.Doctors in Karachi, especially GPs, are deficient in appropriately managing and counseling STI patients. Among the specialists, urologists and dermatologists were more likely to manage STIs correctly than gynecologists. Karachi doctors should be educated in the correct management and counseling of STIs to prevent further spread of STIs including AIDS (Sex Transm Inf 2000;76:383-85).

    View details for PubMedID 16689481

  • Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with genital ulcer disease among incarcerated males in Sindh. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Akhtar, S., Luby, S. P., Rahbar, M. H. 2006; 56 (1): S34-9


    To evaluate the potential risk behaviors associated with the lifetime risk of self reported genital ulcer disease (GUD) among prison inmates.Prison inmates from 14 prisons of Sindh Province.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3395 prison inmates during July to December 1994. A questionnaire was used to assess the lifetime risk of self-reported GUD (whether or not the subject was ever affected with GUD up to present age) and to investigate demographic markers and risk behaviors for their possible association with lifetime risk of GUD using logistic regression analysis.The reported lifetime risk of GUD in the study sample was 11.4% (386/3395). In final multivariate logistic regression model the sexual behaviors which were independently associated with GUD were having sexual intercourse with female (adjusted OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.3, P=0.0002), sexual intercourse with a prostitute (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0, P=0.0008), sexual intercourse with man (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.7, P=<0.001) and sexual intercourse with man during current incarceration (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9, P=0.0071).Health education needs to re-enforce monogamous relationship for high risk groups such as in our study. Although infrequent condom use was not a risk factor for GUD in this study, yet based on the results of previous studies, promotion of condom use should be the component of health education program (JPMA 50:115;2000).

    View details for PubMedID 16689482

  • Population-based surveillance of typhoid fever in Egypt AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Srikantiah, P., Girgis, F. Y., Luby, S. P., Jennings, G., Wasfy, M. O., Crump, J. A., Hoekstra, R. M., Anwer, M., Mahoney, F. J. 2006; 74 (1): 114-119


    Credible measures of disease incidence are necessary to guide typhoid fever control efforts. In Egypt, incidence estimates have been derived from hospital-based syndromic surveillance, which may not represent the population with typhoid fever. To determine the population-based incidence of typhoid fever in Fayoum Governorate (pop. 2,240,000), we established laboratory-based surveillance at five tiers of health care. Incidence estimates were adjusted for sampling and test sensitivity. Of 1,815 patients evaluated, cultures yielded 90 (5%) Salmonella Typhi isolates. The estimated incidence of typhoid fever was 59/100,000 persons/year. We estimate 71% of typhoid fever patients are managed by primary care providers. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Typhi (resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) was isolated from 26 (29%) patients. Population-based surveillance indicates moderate typhoid fever incidence in Fayoum, and a concerning prevalence of MDR typhoid. The majority of patients are evaluated at the primary care level and would not have been detected by hospital-based surveillance.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000234621800018

    View details for PubMedID 16407354

  • Nipah virus: impact, origins, and causes of emergence. Current infectious disease reports Epstein, J. H., Field, H. E., Luby, S., Pulliam, J. R., Daszak, P. 2006; 8 (1): 59-65


    Nipah virus is an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe febrile encephalitis resulting in death in 40% to 75% of human cases. Nipah virus is considered a biosafety level-4 pathogen and is listed as a select agent with high risk for public health and security due to its high mortality rate in people and the lack of effective vaccines or therapies. The natural reservoir for Nipah virus and related members of the genus Henipavirus are fruit bats of the genus Pteropus. Nipah virus emerged in Malaysia in 1998 as a porcine neurologic and respiratory disease that spread to humans who had contact with live, infected pigs. Research reviewed in this paper suggests that anthropogenic factors, including agricultural expansion and intensification, were the underlying causes of its emergence. Nipah virus has caused five subsequent outbreaks between 2001 and 2005 in Bangladesh. Here, it appears to have spilled over directly from bats to humans, and person-to-person transmission is evident suggesting a heightened public health risk.

    View details for PubMedID 16448602

  • Household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant for preventing diarrhoea in areas with turbid source water in rural western Kenya: cluster randomised controlled trial BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL Crump, J. A., Otieno, P. O., Slutsker, L., Keswick, B. H., Rosen, D. H., Hoekstra, R. M., Vulule, J. M., Luby, S. P. 2005; 331 (7515): 478-481


    To compare the effect on prevalence of diarrhoea and mortality of household based treatment of drinking water with flocculant-disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite, and standard practices in areas with turbid water source in Africa.Cluster randomised controlled trial over 20 weeks.Family compounds, each containing several houses, in rural western Kenya.6650 people in 605 family compounds.Water treatment: flocculant-disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite, and usual practice (control).Prevalence of diarrhoea and all cause mortality. Escherichia coli concentration, free residual chlorine concentration, and turbidity in household drinking water as surrogates for effectiveness of water treatment.In children < 2 years old, compared with those in the control compounds, the absolute difference in prevalence of diarrhoea was -25% in the flocculant-disinfectant arm (95% confidence interval -40 to -5) and -17% in the sodium hypochlorite arm (-34 to 4). In all age groups compared with control, the absolute difference in prevalence was -19% in the flocculant-disinfectant arm (-34 to -2) and -26% in the sodium hypochlorite arm (-39 to -9). There were significantly fewer deaths in the intervention compounds than in the control compounds (relative risk of death 0.58, P = 0.036). Fourteen per cent of water samples from control compounds had E coli concentrations < 1 CFU/100 ml compared with 82% in flocculant-disinfectant and 78% in sodium hypochlorite compounds. The mean turbidity of drinking water was 8 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) in flocculant-disinfectant households, compared with 55 NTU in the two other compounds (P < 0.001).In areas of turbid water, flocculant-disinfectant was associated with a significant reduction in diarrhoea among children < 2 years. This health benefit, combined with a significant reduction in turbidity, suggests that the flocculant-disinfectant is well suited to areas with highly contaminated and turbid water.

    View details for DOI 10.1136/bmj.38512.618681.E0

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231820400013

    View details for PubMedID 16046440

  • Comparison of two methods for evaluating the quality of stored drinking water in Abidjan, Côte d'lvoire, and review of other comparisons in the literature. Journal of water and health Macy, J. T., Dunne, E. F., Angoran-Benie, Y. H., Kamelan-Tano, Y., Kouadio, L., Djai, K. A., Luby, S. P. 2005; 3 (3): 221-228


    Membrane filtration, multiple tube fermentation (the standard methods) and Colilert are techniques available for assessing drinking water quality, but there are no published comparisons of Colilert to standard methods in a developing country laboratory. We reviewed the published literature on Colilert and standard methods and conducted a study to compare Colilert with membrane filtration for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli bacteria) using 35 stored drinking water samples from households in Abidjan, Côte d'lvoire. Our study results are consistent with previous published studies conducted in developed countries. Results from Colilert and membrane filtration correlated for both total coliforms (r2 = 0.81) and E. coli (r2 = 0.93). Colilert is an acceptable method to measure the presence and quantity of coliforms in water samples in a developing country setting.

    View details for PubMedID 16209026

  • Effect of handwashing on child health: a randomised controlled trial LANCET Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Feikin, D. R., Painter, J., Billhimer, W., Altaf, A., Hoekstra, R. M. 2005; 366 (9481): 225-233


    More than 3.5 million children aged less than 5 years die from diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory-tract infection every year. We undertook a randomised controlled trial to assess the effect of handwashing promotion with soap on the incidence of acute respiratory infection, impetigo, and diarrhoea.In adjoining squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan, we randomly assigned 25 neighbourhoods to handwashing promotion; 11 neighbourhoods (306 households) were randomised as controls. In neighbourhoods with handwashing promotion, 300 households each were assigned to antibacterial soap containing 1.2% triclocarban and to plain soap. Fieldworkers visited households weekly for 1 year to encourage handwashing by residents in soap households and to record symptoms in all households. Primary study outcomes were diarrhoea, impetigo, and acute respiratory-tract infections (ie, the number of new episodes of illness per person-weeks at risk). Pneumonia was defined according to the WHO clinical case definition. Analysis was by intention to treat.Children younger than 5 years in households that received plain soap and handwashing promotion had a 50% lower incidence of pneumonia than controls (95% CI (-65% to -34%). Also compared with controls, children younger than 15 years in households with plain soap had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhoea (-65% to -41%) and a 34% lower incidence of impetigo (-52% to -16%). Incidence of disease did not differ significantly between households given plain soap compared with those given antibacterial soap.Handwashing with soap prevents the two clinical syndromes that cause the largest number of childhood deaths globally-namely, diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections. Handwashing with daily bathing also prevents impetigo.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230519200031

    View details for PubMedID 16023513

  • Toxoplasma gondii infection in rural Guatemalan children AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Jones, J. L., Lopez, B., Mury, M. A., Wilson, M., Klein, R., Luby, S., Maguire, J. H. 2005; 72 (3): 295-300


    To determine the prevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in Guatemalan children, in 1999 and 2003 we surveyed caretakers and serologically tested children in the San Juan Sacatepequez area using Platelia Toxo IgG TMB enzyme immunoassay kits. In 1999, of 532 children six months to two years old, 66 (12.4%) were antibody positive. In 2003, in 500 children 3-10 years old antibody prevalence increased from 24% to 43% at age five years then leveled off. By multivariate analysis, drinking well water (relative risk [RR] = 1.78, 95% confidence limit [CL] = 1.00, 3.17, P = 0.05) and not cleaning up cat feces (RR = 2.06, 95% CL = 1.00, 4.28, P = 0.05) increased the risk of T. gondii seropositivity. Most T. gondii infections in children from these villages occurred by age five, but half were still not infected by adolescence. Therefore, it is important to educate girls entering child-bearing age about the risks of acute T. gondii infection and the local risk factors for infection.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227752100014

    View details for PubMedID 15772325

  • Bacteremic typhoid fever in children in an urban slum, Bangladesh EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Brooks, W. A., Hossain, A., Goswami, D., Sharmeen, A. T., Nahar, K., Alam, K., Ahmed, N., Naheed, A., Nair, G. B., Luby, S., Breiman, R. F. 2005; 11 (2): 326-329


    We confirmed a bacteremic typhoid fever incidence of 3.9 episodes/1,000 person-years during fever surveillance in a Dhaka urban slum. The relative risk for preschool children compared with older persons was 8.9. Our regression model showed that these children were clinically ill, which suggests a role for preschool immunization.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000226856900023

    View details for PubMedID 15752457

  • Rabies deaths in Pakistan: results of ineffective post-exposure treatment INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES Parviz, S., Chotani, R., McCormick, J., Fisher-Hoch, S., Luby, S. 2004; 8 (6): 346-352


    To estimate the incidence of rabies and the effectiveness of post-exposure treatment (PET) in Pakistan.Rabies cases admitted from July 1993 to December 1994 to a public rabies isolation hospital were analyzed. Two samples (one sample each from a separate peripheral site) of a single batch of sheep brain vaccine (SBV) were also tested for potency by the National Institute of Health (NIH) test in May 1997.Forty patients were admitted with a history of clinical rabies. The median age was 22 years and 55% were under 15. Thirteen (23%) victims did not receive any vaccine; the remaining 27 (67%) received SBV only, and of these, 16 (40%) received a full course of SBV. No rabies immunoglobulins (RIG) or cell culture vaccines were administered. There were frequent power blackouts and no back-up supply at the public hospital. In-house potency testing of the vaccine batch by the manufacturer was adequate, although it was not tested by the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended NIH test. Samples of SBV of the same batch collected at the peripheral sites showed no potency. Rabies incidence was estimated to range between 7.0 to 9.8 cases per million annually.A multi-sectorial approach is needed to decrease rabies incidence in Pakistan. Public and healthcare practitioner education on prompt and appropriate PET, especially the use of cost-effective cell culture intradermal regimens, is needed urgently. The NIH test should be employed for vaccine potency testing. An independent agency is needed for monitoring vaccine quality and strategies are needed for maintaining cold chain. SBV should be replaced by locally manufactured second-generation cell culture rabies vaccine. Purified equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIG) should be manufactured locally to meet national needs. Furthermore, effective dog control strategies should be implemented to decrease the rabies reservoir.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ijid.2004.02.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000225106900005

    View details for PubMedID 15494256

  • Delayed effectiveness of home-based interventions in reducing childhood diarrhea, Karachi, Pakistan AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Hoekstra, R. M., Rahbar, M. H., Billhimer, W., Keswick, B. H. 2004; 71 (4): 420-427


    We introduced home drinking water disinfection and handwashing with soap in Karachi squatter settlements to evaluate their effect on diarrhea. In April 2000, 150 households received soap, 76 received dilute bleach and a water storage vessel, and 76 were enrolled as controls. In 2000, among households wealthy enough to own a refrigerator, children in households that received bleach and a vessel had a 73% lower incidence of diarrhea than controls; those that received soap had a 56% lower incidence. There was no reduction in diarrhea in intervention households without a refrigerator. In 2001, households that received bleach and a vessel had a 71% lower incidence of diarrhea and children in households that received soap had a 35% lower incidence than controls. In 2001, the interventions were equally effective in households that had a refrigerator and those that did not. Both of these home-based interventions were ultimately effective in preventing diarrhea, but only households of slightly higher socioeconomic status changed their behavior quickly enough to benefit during the first summer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000224821000009

    View details for PubMedID 15516637

  • Effect of intensive handwashing promotion on childhood diarrhea in high-risk communities in Pakistan - A randomized controlled trial JAMA-JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Painter, J., Altaf, A., Billhimer, W. L., Hoekstra, R. M. 2004; 291 (21): 2547-2554


    Washing hands with soap prevents diarrhea, but children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea are younger than 1 year, too young to wash their own hands. Previous studies lacked sufficient power to assess the impact of household handwashing on diarrhea in infants.To evaluate the effect of promoting household handwashing with soap among children at the highest risk of death from diarrhea.A cluster randomized controlled trial of 36 low-income neighborhoods in urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Field workers visited participating households at least weekly from April 15, 2002, to April 5, 2003. Eligible households located in the study area had at least 2 children younger than 15 years, at least 1 of whom was younger than 5 years.Weekly visits in 25 neighborhoods to promote handwashing with soap after defecation and before preparing food, eating, and feeding a child. Within intervention neighborhoods, 300 households (1523 children) received a regular supply of antibacterial soap and 300 households (1640 children) received plain soap. Eleven neighborhoods (306 households and 1528 children) comprised the control group.Incidence density of diarrhea among children, defined as the number of diarrheal episodes per 100 person-weeks of observation.Children younger than 15 years living in households that received handwashing promotion and plain soap had a 53% lower incidence of diarrhea (95% confidence interval [CI], -65% to -41%) compared with children living in control neighborhoods. Infants living in households that received handwashing promotion and plain soap had 39% fewer days with diarrhea (95% CI, -61% to -16%) vs infants living in control neighborhoods. Severely malnourished children (weight for age z score, <-3.0) younger than 5 years living in households that received handwashing promotion and plain soap had 42% fewer days with diarrhea (95% CI, -69% to -16%) vs severely malnourished children in the control group. Similar reductions in diarrhea were observed among children living in households receiving antibacterial soap.In a setting in which diarrhea is a leading cause of child death, improvement in handwashing in the household reduced the incidence of diarrhea among children at high risk of death from diarrhea.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221738800017

    View details for PubMedID 15173145

  • The global burden of typhoid fever BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Crump, J. A., Luby, S. P., Mintz, E. D. 2004; 82 (5): 346-353


    To use new data to make a revised estimate of the global burden of typhoid fever, an accurate understanding of which is necessary to guide public health decisions for disease control and prevention efforts.Population-based studies using confirmation by blood culture of typhoid fever cases were sought by computer search of the multilingual scientific literature. Where there were no eligible studies, data were extrapolated from neighbouring countries and regions. Age-incidence curves were used to model rates measured among narrow age cohorts to the general population. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to explore the sensitivity of the estimate to the assumptions. The burden of paratyphoid fever was derived by a proportional method.A total of 22 eligible studies were identified. Regions with high incidence of typhoid fever (>100/100,000 cases/year) include south-central Asia and south-eastAsia. Regions of medium incidence (10-100/100,000 cases/year) include the rest of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania, except for Australia and New Zealand. Europe, North America, and the rest of the developed world have low incidence of typhoid fever (<10/100,000 cases/year). We estimate that typhoid fever caused 21,650,974 illnesses and 216,510 deaths during 2000 and that paratyphoid fever caused 5,412,744 illnesses.New data and improved understanding of typhoid fever epidemiology enabled us to refine the global typhoid burden estimate, which remains considerable. More detailed incidence studies in selected countries and regions, particularly Africa, are needed to further improve the estimate.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221566200007

    View details for PubMedID 15298225

  • Effect of point-of-use disinfection, flocculation and combined flocculation-disinfection on drinking water quality in western Kenya JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY Crump, J. A., Okoth, G. O., Slutsker, L., Ogaja, D. O., Keswick, B. H., Luby, S. P. 2004; 97 (1): 225-231


    Point-of-use drinking water disinfection with sodium hypochlorite has been shown to improve water quality and reduce diarrhoeal disease. However, the chlorine demand of highly turbid water may render sodium hypochlorite less effective.We evaluated a novel combined flocculant-disinfectant point-of-use water treatment product and compared its effect on drinking water quality with existing technologies in western Kenya. In water from 30 sources, combined flocculant-disinfectant reduced Escherichia coli concentrations to <1 CFU100 ml(-1) for 29 (97%) and reduced turbidity to <5 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for 26 (87%). By contrast, water from 30 sources treated with sodium hypochlorite reduced E. coli concentrations to <1 CFU 100 ml(-1) for 25 (83%) and turbidity to <5 NTU for 5 (17%).For source waters over a range of turbidities in western Kenya, combined flocculant-disinfectant product effectively reduces turbidity to <5 NTU and reduces E. coli concentrations to <1 CFU 100 ml(-1).The novel flocculant-disinfectant product may be acceptable to consumers and may be effective in reducing diarrhoeal disease in settings where source water is highly turbid.

    View details for DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2004.02309.x

    View details for Web of Science ID 000221866700024

    View details for PubMedID 15186460

  • Elevated blood lead levels among children living in a fishing community, Karachi, Pakistan ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH Hozhabri, S., White, F., Rahbar, M. H., Agboatwalla, M., Luby, S. 2004; 59 (1): 37-41


    Lead is a widespread environmental contaminant worldwide and is associated with adverse outcomes in children, including impaired neurobehavioral development and learning difficulties. A cross-sectional survey of 53 young children was conducted in a fishing village on an island adjacent to Karachi, Pakistan. Whole blood from each individual was tested for lead levels. Also tested were samples of cooked food, house dust, and drinking water from 36 households. Laboratory determinations were made by the Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research with quality control by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Fifty-two subjects (98%) had blood lead levels above 10 microg/dl (mean 21.60 microg/dl), an internationally recognized threshold for potential neurotoxicity. The mean concentration was 3.90 microg/g in cooked food, 4.02 microg/l in drinking water, and 91.30 microg/g in house dust. These findings indicate possible major health concerns and suggest significant environmental contamination in this community as well as the need to identify locally relevant early childhood exposures.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000230698900006

    View details for PubMedID 16053208

  • Prevalence of infection with waterborne pathogens: A seroepidemiologic study in children 6-36 months old in San Juan Sacatepequez, Guatemala AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Steinberg, E. B., Mendoza, C. E., Glass, R., Arana, B., Lopez, M. B., Mejia, M., Gold, B. D., Priest, J. W., Bibb, W., Monroe, S. S., Bern, C., Bell, B. P., Hoekstra, R. M., Klein, R., Mintz, E. D., Luby, S. 2004; 70 (1): 83-88


    Water and sanitation interventions in developing countries have historically been difficult to evaluate. We conducted a seroepidemiologic study with the following goals: 1) to determine the feasibility of using antibody markers as indicators of waterborne pathogen infection in the evaluation of water and sanitation intervention projects; 2) to characterize the epidemiology of waterborne diarrheal infections in rural Guatemala, and 3) to measure the age-specific prevalence of antibodies to waterborne pathogens. Between September and December 1999, all children 6-36 months of age in 10 study villages were invited to participate. We collected sufficient serum from 522 of 590 eligible children, and divided them into six-month age groups for analysis (6-12, 13-18, 19-24, 25-30, and 31-36 months). The prevalence of antibodies was lowest in children 6-12 months old compared with the four older age groups for the following pathogens: enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (48%, 81%, 80%, 77%, and 83%), Norwalk virus (27%, 61%, 83%, 94%, and 94%), and Cryptosporidium parvum (27%, 53%, 70%, 67%, and 73%). The prevalence of total antibody to hepatitis A virus increased steadily in the three oldest age groups (40%, 28%, 46%, 60%, and 76%). In contrast, the prevalence of antibody to Helicobacter pylori was relatively constant in all five age groups (20%, 19%, 21%, 25%, and 25%). Serology appears to be an efficient and feasible approach for determining the prevalence of infection with selected waterborne pathogens in very young children. Such an approach may provide a suitable, sensitive, and economical alternative to the cumbersome stool collection methods that have previously been used for evaluation of water and sanitation projects.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000188506600014

    View details for PubMedID 14971703

  • A randomized controlled trial of household-based flocculant-disinfectant drinking water treatment for diarrhea prevention in rural guatemala AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Reller, M. E., Mendoza, C. E., Lopez, M. B., Alvarez, M., Hoekstra, R. M., Olson, C. A., Baier, K. G., Keswick, B. H., Luby, S. P. 2003; 69 (4): 411-419


    We conducted a study to determine if use of a new flocculant-disinfectant home water treatment reduced diarrhea. We randomly assigned 492 rural Guatemalan households to five different water treatment groups: flocculant-disinfectant, flocculant-disinfectant plus a customized vessel, bleach, bleach plus a vessel, and control. During one year of observation, residents of control households had 4.31 episodes of diarrhea per 100 person-weeks, whereas the incidence of diarrhea was 24% lower among residents of households receiving flocculant-disinfectant, 29% lower among those receiving flocculant-disinfectant plus vessel, 25% lower among those receiving bleach, and 12% lower among households receiving bleach plus vessel. In unannounced evaluations of home drinking water, free chlorine was detected in samples from 27% of flocculant-disinfectant households, 35% of flocculant-disinfectant plus vessel households, 35% of bleach households, and 43% of bleach plus vessel households. In a setting where diarrhea was a leading cause of death, intermittent use of home water treatment with flocculant-disinfectant decreased the incidence of diarrhea.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000186469900011

    View details for PubMedID 14640502

  • Estimating the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in developing countries EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES Crump, J. A., Yousseg, F. G., Luby, S. P., Wasfy, M. O., Rangel, J. M., Taalat, M., Oun, S. A., Mahoney, F. J. 2003; 9 (5): 539-544


    To measure the incidence of typhoid fever and other febrile illnesses in Bilbeis District, Egypt, we conducted a household survey to determine patterns of health seeking among persons with fever. Then we established surveillance for 4 months among a representative sample of health providers who saw febrile patients. Health providers collected epidemiologic information and blood (for culture and serologic testing) from eligible patients. After adjusting for the provider sampling scheme, test sensitivity, and seasonality, we estimated that the incidence of typhoid fever was 13/100,000 persons per year, and the incidence of brucellosis was 18/100,000 persons per year in the district. This surveillance tool could have wide applications for surveillance for febrile illness in developing countries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182569700005

    View details for PubMedID 12737736

  • Serological response and poliovirus excretion following different combined oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines immunization schedules. Vaccine Parent du Châtelet, I., Merchant, A. T., Fisher-Hoch, S., Luby, S. P., Plotkin, S. A., Moatter, T., Agboatwalla, M., McCormick, J. B. 2003; 21 (15): 1710-1718


    A controlled study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan to compare humoral and mucosal immune responses against polioviruses in infants who received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) at birth and at 6, 10, and 14 weeks according to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) with infants who received either three doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) at 6, 10, and 14 weeks together with OPV or one additional dose of IPV at 14 weeks together, with the last dose of OPV. A total of 1429 infants were enrolled; 24-week serum specimens were available for 898 infants (63%). They all received a challenge dose of OPV type 3 at 24 weeks of age. The addition of three doses of IPV to three doses of OPV induced a significantly higher percentage of seropositive children at 24 weeks of age for polio 1 (97% versus 89%, P<0.001) and polio 3 (98% versus 92%) compared to the EPI schedule. However, the one supplemental dose of IPV at 14 weeks did not increase the serological response at 24 weeks. Intestinal immunity against the challenge dose was similar in the three groups. Combined schedules of OPV and IPV in the form of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus-IPV vaccine (DPT-IPV) may be useful to accelerate eradication of polio in developing countries.

    View details for PubMedID 12639494

  • Serological response and pollovirus excretion following different combined oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines immunization schedules VACCINE du Chatelet, I. P., Merchant, A. T., Fisher-Hoch, S., Luby, S. P., Plotkin, S. A., Moatter, T., Agboatwalla, M., Mc Cormick, J. B. 2003; 21 (15): 1710-1718
  • Injections in health care settings: a risk factor for acute hepatitis B virus infection in Karachi, Pakistan EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Usman, H. R., Akhtar, S., Rahbar, M. H., Hamid, S., Moattar, T., Luby, S. P. 2003; 130 (2): 293-300


    A case control study was conducted to identify the association of therapeutic injections with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 67 cases of acute HBV infection (IgM anti-HBc positive) and 247 controls (anti-HBc negative) from four hospitals of Karachi during July 2000-June 2001. Exposure to various risk factors during the period relevant to the incubation period of HBV was recorded both from cases and controls using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data showed that cases were more likely to have received one injection (OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 1.4, 11.1), or more than one injection (OR = 6.3; 95 % CI 3.2, 12.4) compared to controls. The estimated population attributable risk (PAR) for therapeutic injections was 53%. Also the cases compared to controls were more likely to have household size of seven or more (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 0.95, 3.9). This study showed that unsafe therapeutic injections appear to be the major risk factor for acute HBV infection and needs immediate focus from public health stand point.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268802008178

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182636400016

    View details for PubMedID 12729198

  • A novel technology to improve drinking water quality: a microbiological evaluation of in-home flocculation and chlorination in rural Guatemala. Journal of water and health Rangel, J. M., Lopez, B., Mejia, M. A., Mendoza, C., Luby, S. 2003; 1 (1): 15-22


    An estimated 1 billion persons in low-income countries do not have access to improved drinking water. Chlorine, a useful water treatment agent, is less effective in turbid water, and lacks a visible effect, limiting its acceptability. A product incorporating precipitation, coagulation, flocculation, and chlorination technology (combined product) to reduce microbial, organic and heavy metal contaminants in water was evaluated. The combined product's microbiological efficacy in Guatemalan villagers' households was evaluated. One hundred randomly selected households from four neighboring Guatemalan villages were enrolled. Three groups received the combined product and either the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) water storage vessel, a covered bucket with spigot, or no vessel. One group received chlorine bleach and the CDC water storage vessel, and one group no intervention. Household water samples were collected for 4 weeks and Escherichia coli, chlorine, and turbidity levels were measured. Potable water was defined as having less than one E. coli per 100 ml. Eight (8%) baseline water samples were potable. Follow-up water samples were more likely to be potable than control samples (combined product and traditional vessel 83%; combined product and CDC vessel 92%; combined product and covered bucket with spigot 93%; chlorine and CDC vessel 92%; versus control 5%). Among combined product users, 98% reported improved water clarity compared with 45% of chlorine bleach users (p < 0.0001). The combined product technology improved water potability as effectively as chlorine bleach; improved water clarity could motivate more persons to effectively treat their water.

    View details for PubMedID 15384269

  • Infection control practices in clinical laboratories in Pakistan INFECTION CONTROL AND HOSPITAL EPIDEMIOLOGY Mujeeb, S. A., Adil, M. M., Altaf, A., Shah, S. A., Luby, S. 2003; 24 (2): 141-142


    Clinical laboratories in Karachi, Pakistan, were evaluated for adherence to standard precautions using an observational checklist. Among 44 laboratories, gloves were used in 2, protective gowns in 12, disinfectant in 7, and an incinerator in 7. Standard worker safety precautions are not followed at major clinical laboratories in Karachi.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000180983700011

    View details for PubMedID 12602699

  • Prevalence and correlates of stunting among children in rural Pakistan PEDIATRICS INTERNATIONAL Shah, S. M., Selwyn, B. J., Luby, S., Merchant, A., Bano, R. 2003; 45 (1): 49-53


    Protein-energy malnutrition remains an important underlying cause of death among preschool children in Pakistan. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of stunting and its correlates and to explore the role of sex bias in remote rural villages of south Pakistan.We selected 1878 children less than 3 years of age through stratified random sampling from 64 villages having the number of children enrolled proportionate to the size of each village, in rural Sindh, Pakistan. Trained investigators completed child physical measurements and a maternal interview. The Z-scores for the distribution of height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-height (wasting) were estimated relative to those of the National Center for Health Statistics/Center for Disease Control (NCHS/CDC) reference population.A total of 483 (26%) of the 1878 children were wasted, 977 (55%) were stunted and 259 (15%) were both wasted and stunted. Mothers who were illiterate were more likely to have children who were stunted (odds ratio (OR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.61). Fathers who earn less than Rs. 1000 (US $20) per month (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.12-1.66) were more likely to have children who were stunted. Children living in an overcrowded house were more likely to be stunted (OR = 1.44, 95% CI 1.18-1.75). Male children compared to females were equally likely to be stunted (57 vs 55%, OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.86-1.25).In this region of lower Sindh, stunting is more common than wasting. Female illiteracy, poor household income and overcrowding are important risk factors for stunting. The prevalent belief that in rural Pakistan, parents pay attention to feeding male children at the cost of female children is not proven by these data.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000181648000010

    View details for PubMedID 12654069

  • Outbreaks of typhoid fever in the United States, 1960-99 EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Olsen, S. J., Bleasdale, S. C., Magnano, A. R., Landrigan, C., Holland, B. H., Tauxe, R. V., Mintz, E. D., Luby, S. 2003; 130 (1): 13-21


    Although the incidence of typhoid fever in the United States has been low since the 1940s, Salmonella Typhi continues to cause outbreaks. We reviewed reported outbreaks of typhoid fever from 1960 to 1999. There were 60 outbreaks; in 54, exposure occurred within the United States. These 54 outbreaks accounted for 957 total cases (median 10) and 4 deaths. In 36 (67%) outbreaks the route of transmission was identified, and in 16 (62%) of the 26 foodborne outbreaks an asymptomatic carrier was identified by culture or serology. The median incubation period was 2 weeks. Isolates from 10 (40%) of 25 outbreaks were phage type E1. The average frequency of outbreaks decreased from 1.85/year during 1960-79 to 0.85/year during 1980-99 (P=0.0001). S. Typhi outbreaks in the United States are generally small in size but can cause significant morbidity, and are often foodborne, warranting thorough investigation.

    View details for DOI 10.1017/S0950268802007598

    View details for Web of Science ID 000182506900002

    View details for PubMedID 12613741

  • Risk behaviours associated with urethritis and genital ulcer disease in prison inmates, Sindh, Pakistan. Eastern Mediterranean health journal = La revue de sante de la Mediterranee orientale = al-Majallah al-sihhiyah li-sharq al-mutawassit Akhtar, S., Luby, S. P. 2002; 8 (6): 776-786


    We evaluated the epidemiological differences with respect to demographics, drug use and sexual behaviours associated with lifetime risk of urethritis, genital ulcer disease (GUD) and urethritis and GUD together among 3395 male prisoners in Sindh. Factors associated with urethritis and GUD alone were sex with multiple females, sex with men, and ethnicity. Additional factors associated with urethritis alone were sex with prostitutes, sex with partners having multiple partners and sex with partners believed to be injecting drugs. Behaviours associated with lifetime risk for urethritis and GUD together were sex with multiple females, sex with prostitutes, sex with men, sex with partners believed to be injecting drugs and ethnicity. These relationships were consistently stronger compared to urethritis or GUD alone.

    View details for PubMedID 15568455

  • Addicted schoolchildren: Prevalence and characteristics of areca nut chewers among primary school children in Karachi, Pakistan JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH Shah, S. M., Merchant, A. T., Luby, S. P., Chotani, R. A. 2002; 38 (5): 507-510


    To evaluate the habits of betel quid use and areca nut chewing among school-aged children in Karachi, Pakistan. Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by itself, in various scented preparations, and in betel quid (containing betel leaf, areca nut, slaked lime, condiments, sweeteners and sometimes tobacco) in various parts of Pakistan and India. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children and oral submucous fibrosis, and may aggravate asthma.We selected a stratified random sample of 160 primary school children between 4 and 16 years of age in Baba Island, Karachi.Seventy-four per cent of the children (118/159) used areca nut and 35% (55/159) used betel quid daily. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (72% vs 30%). The proportion of areca nut users increased by grade (from 48% in first grade to 90% in fifth grade). Most areca users first tried it with a family member (42%) or a friend (26%), and most (68%) consumed three or more packets a day. Children with fathers with three or fewer years of education were more likely to use areca nut (OR 3.2; 95% CI 1.2-8.4), and children whose mothers helped with homework less likely (OR 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.91; P = 0.027) to use it. Boys (OR 6.6; 95% CI 2.3-18.7) and areca nut users (OR 8.8; 95% CI2.8-27.0) were more likely to use betel quid.To reduce the use of areca nut, the Pakistan Government should consider imposing taxes on it, limiting advertising and actively communicating its health risks to the public.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178266600016

    View details for PubMedID 12354270

  • The effect of antibacterial soap on impetigo incidence, Karachi, Pakistan AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Luby, S., Agboatwalla, M., Schnell, B. M., Hoekstra, R. M., Rahbar, M. H., Keswick, B. H. 2002; 67 (4): 430-435


    We conducted a study to determine if soap containing 1.2% triclocarban would be effective in reducing the incidence of impetigo. We randomized 162 households in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi, Pakistan, to receive a regular supply of 1.2% triclocarban-containing soap (n = 81) or an identically appearing placebo (n = 81); 79 households in a nearby neighborhood were enrolled as standard practice controls. After adjustment for household clustering and covariates, the incidence of impetigo among children living in households receiving triclocarban-containing soap (1.10 episodes per 100 person-weeks) was 23% lower than in households receiving placebo soap (P = 0.28) and 43% lower than the standard habit and practice controls (P = 0.02). The routine use of triclocarban-containing soap by children living in a community with a high incidence of impetigo was associated with a reduced incidence of impetigo.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179119400019

    View details for PubMedID 12452499

  • Clinical diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum among children with history of fever, Sindh, Pakistan. International journal of infectious diseases Hozhabri, S., Luby, S. P., Rahbar, M. H., Akhtar, S. 2002; 6 (3): 233-235


    To identify clinical predictors for malaria and develop a clinical algorithm to more accurately identify malaria from non-malaria cases.Four hundred thirty eight children aged 6-120 months attending the rural health center between August 15 and October 5, 1997, in Jhangara town of district Dadu, Sindh were recruited. A standard questionnaire was used to record symptoms and duration of child's illness. Each child was physically examined, had their axillary temperature measured, and blood samples were collected from which Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films were prepared and examined for presence of Plasmodium parasites. The sensitivity and specificity of several candidate algorithms for parasitemia were evaluated using various combinations of identified predictors.Twenty-six of 438 children (6%) were slide positive for malaria. An algorithm comprised of fever 3 days duration and (absence of cough or having rigors) had 100% sensitivity and 63% specificity for detecting P. falciparum.In this low malaria prevalence region, restricting the diagnosis of malaria to persons who had >3 days of fever and absence of cough or rigors, remained highly sensitive but was more specific than current practice. If validated prospectively, this algorithm could reduce misdiagnosis and mis-treatment.

    View details for PubMedID 12718841

  • Neonatal tetanus: mortality rate and risk factors in Loralai District, Pakistan INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Quddus, A., Luby, S., Rahbar, M., Pervaiz, Y. 2002; 31 (3): 648-653


    This study was conducted to estimate the neonatal tetanus (NNT) mortality rate and to identify the risk factors for NNT deaths in Loralai District, Pakistan.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional survey during July-September 1997. We stratified the sample proportionate to population of union councils. The most populous village in a union council was selected first. We interviewed the women, selected randomly, who had a live birth in the 18 months preceding the survey. We conducted a matched case-control study to identify the risk factors for NNT deaths. We used the World Health Organization criteria to enrol cases, identified during the cross-sectional survey or registered at the district hospital. We enrolled three community-based controls per case, matched on the area of residence, immunization status and date of birth.Of the 1547 live births, there were 36 neonatal deaths due to tetanus. The NNT mortality rate in the district was 23 per 1000 live births (95% CI: 16-30). For the case-control study, we enrolled 41 cases and 123 controls. Using conditional logistic regression, the risk of NNT death was increased with the use of soil as delivery surface (O.R = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-10.2), father's illiteracy (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.3-8.1) and possession of sheep at home (OR = 2, 95% CI: 1.0-5.0). The population attributable risk per cent for soil as delivery surface was 64%.Transmission of infection while using soil as the delivery surface can occur through direct or indirect contamination of the fresh umbilical wound. Use of safer delivery practices in general and clean surfaces in particular should be encouraged to reduce the NNT mortality rate in the area.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000176229200027

    View details for PubMedID 12055169

  • Factors associated with elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi, Pakistan BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Rahbar, M. H., White, F., Agboatwalla, M., Hozhabri, S., Luby, S. 2002; 80 (10): 769-775


    To confirm whether blood lead concentrations in Karachi were as high as reported in 1989 and to identify which types of exposure to lead contribute most to elevated blood lead concentrations in children in Karachi.A total of 430 children aged 36-60 months were selected through a geographically stratified design from the city centre, two suburbs, a rural community and an island situated within the harbour at Karachi. Blood samples were collected from children and a pretested questionnaire was administered to assess the effect of various types of exposure. Cooked food, drinking-water and house dust samples were collected from households.About 80% of children had blood lead concentrations 10 g/dl, with an overall mean of 15.6 g/dl. At the 5% level of significance, houses nearer to the main intersection in the city centre, application of surma to children's eyes, father's exposure to lead at workplace, parents' illiteracy and child's habit of hand- to-mouth activity were among variables associated with elevated lead concentrations in blood.These findings are of public health concern, as most children in Karachi are likely to suffer some degree of intellectual impairment as a result of environmental lead exposure. We believe that there is enough evidence of the continuing problem of lead in petrol to prompt the petroleum industry to take action. The evidence also shows the need for appropriate interventions in reducing the burden due to other factors associated with this toxic element.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000178776800003

    View details for PubMedID 12471396

  • Indepth interviews of healthcare providers, patients and carers of infants to identify determinants of therapeutic injections in Sindh, Pakistan XIV INTERNATIONAL AIDS CONFERENCE: PREVENTION SCIENCE Altaf, A., Agboatwalla, M., Luby, S., Hutin, Y., Fatmi, Z., Agha, A. 2002: 201-204
  • Salmonella typhimurium infections transmitted by chlorine-pretreated clover sprout seeds AMERICAN JOURNAL OF EPIDEMIOLOGY Brooks, J. T., Rowe, S. Y., Shillam, P., Heltzel, D. M., Hunter, S. B., Slutsker, L., Hoekstra, R. M., Luby, S. P. 2001; 154 (11): 1020-1028


    Raw seed sprouts have caused numerous outbreaks of enteric infections. Presoaking seeds in a 20,000 mg/liter (ppm) calcium hypochlorite solution before sprouting is recommended to reduce bacterial contamination and infection risk. In 1999, the authors investigated an outbreak of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium infections in Colorado. In a case-control study, they matched 20 cases with 58 controls by age, sex, and telephone prefix; 10 (52%) of 19 cases and no controls recalled eating raw alfalfa-style sprouts in the 5 days before the patient's illness (p < 0.00001). Traceback implicated clover sprouts grown from seeds shared by two sprouters. The time period and region over which these sprouts were sold matched the occurrences of 112 culture-confirmed illnesses. Only one of the sprouters presoaked seeds as recommended, and fewer infections were attributable to this sprouter (0.29 vs. 1.13 culture-confirmed infections/50-pound (110.1-kg) bag of seed). After recall of the implicated sprouts and seed, S. Typhimurium illnesses declined. Contaminated raw clover sprouts can cause outbreaks of enteric illness. Presoaking contaminated seeds in a 20,000 mg/liter calcium hypochlorite solution reduces, but does not eliminate, the risk of infection. Until safer production methods are developed, persons eating raw sprouts continue to risk developing potentially serious gastrointestinal illness.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172578400008

    View details for PubMedID 11724718

  • Restaurant-associated outbreak of Salmonella Typhi in Nauru: an epidemiological and cost analysis EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Olsen, S. J., Kafoa, B., Win, N. S., Jose, M., Bibb, W., Luby, S., Waidubu, G., O'Leary, M., Mintz, E. 2001; 127 (3): 405-412


    Typhoid fever is endemic in the South Pacific. We investigated an outbreak in Nauru. Through interviews and medical records, we identified 50 persons with onset between 1 October 1998 and 10 May 1999, of fever lasting > or = 3 days and one other symptom. Salmonella Typhi was isolated from 19 (38%) cases. Thirty-two (64%) patients were school-aged children, and 17 (34%) were in four households. Case-control studies of (a) culture-confirmed cases and age- and neighbourhood-matched controls; and (b) household index cases and randomly selected age-matched controls implicated two restaurants: Restaurant M (matched OR [MOR] = 11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-96) and Restaurant I (MOR = 5.8, 95% CI = 1.2-29). Food-handlers at both restaurants had elevated anti-Vi antibody titres indicative of carrier state. The annual incidence was 5.0/1000 persons. Outbreak-associated costs were $46,000. Routine or emergency immunization campaigns targeting school-aged children may help prevent or control outbreaks of typhoid fever in endemic disease areas.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000173670600004

    View details for PubMedID 11811872

  • Is drinking water in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire, safe for infant formula? JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Dunne, E. F., Angoran-Benie, H., Kamelan-Tano, A., Sibailly, T. S., Monga, B. B., Kouadio, L., Roels, T. H., Wiktor, S. Z., Lackritz, E. M., Mintz, E. D., Luby, S. 2001; 28 (4): 393-398


    To survey knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding water use and infant feeding in the Koumassi District of Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate the microbiologic quality of source and stored drinking water.Random-cluster household survey.We randomly selected 20 clusters, each comprising six households with at least 1 child aged < or =3 years. In each household, we administered a questionnaire and collected source and stored drinking water samples and tested these for chlorine levels and for total coliform and fecal bacteria count ( Escherichia coli ).Municipal water was used for drinking in 112 (93%) of 120 households, and in 99 (83%), it was stored for later use. By 1 month of age, 97 (90%) of 108 infants given drinking water were given stored water for drinking. In 8 (66%) of 12 households where children were receiving artificial feeding, formula was prepared from municipal water without additional treatment. Stored water had lower levels of free chlorine than source water (median of 0.05 versus 0.2 mg/dl; p <.001), and E. coli was detected in 36 (41%) of 87 stored water samples and 1 (1%) of 108 source water samples ( p <.001).In the Koumassi District of Abidjan, where municipal water is widely available and of good quality, drinking water is stored in most households, is often contaminated with E. coli, and is given to children at a young age. If replacement feeding is to be more widely used to prevent postnatal transmission of HIV-1, communities using stored water need interventions to make stored water safer.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172313100014

    View details for PubMedID 11707678

  • Microbiologic effectiveness of hand washing with soap in an urban squatter settlement, Karachi, Pakistan EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Luby, S. P., Agboatwalla, M., Raza, A., SOBEL, J., Mintz, E. D., Baier, K., Hoekstra, R. M., Rahbar, M. H., Hassan, R., Qureshi, S. M., Gangarosa, E. J. 2001; 127 (2): 237-244


    We conducted a study in a squatter settlement in Karachi, Pakistan where residents report commonly washing their hands to determine if providing soap, encouraging hand washing, and improving wash-water quality would improve hand cleanliness. We allocated interventions to 75 mothers and collected hand-rinse samples on unannounced visits. In the final model compared with mothers who received no hand-washing intervention, mothers who received soap would be expected to have 65% fewer thermotolerant coliform bacteria on their hands (95% CI 40%, 79%) and mothers who received soap, a safe water storage vessel, hypochlorite for water treatment, and instructions to wash their hands with soap and chlorinated water would be expected to have 74% fewer (95% CI 57%, 84%). The difference between those who received soap alone, and those who received soap plus the safe water vessel was not significant (P = 0.26). Providing soap and promoting hand washing measurably improved mothers' hand cleanliness even when used with contaminated water.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172246300008

    View details for PubMedID 11693501

  • Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in male adults in Rawalpindi-Islamabad, Pakistan TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Bari, A., Akhtar, S., Rahbar, M. H., Luby, S. P. 2001; 6 (9): 732-738


    To identify risk factors associated with HCV infection in Islamabad-Rawalpindi.Fifty-seven cases and 180 controls were enrolled from various departments of the nine major hospitals of the Rawalpindi-Islamabad during July-September 1998. Cases were enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) positive for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV), aged 20-70 years, and residents of Islamabad or Rawalpindi division. Controls were anti-HCV ELISA negatives of the same age range and from the same area. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic variables and potential risk factors, which was analysed by logistic regression to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk factors.The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that after adjusting for age, cases were more likely to have received therapeutic injections in the past 10 years (1-10 vs. 0 therapeutic injections; adjusted OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.1; > 10 vs. 0 therapeutic injections; adjusted OR=3.1, 95% CI: 1.2-7.9) and were significantly more likely to have daily face (adjusted OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.5-17.0) and armpit shaves (adjusted OR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.3-6.5) by a barber.HCV control and prevention programs in this region should include safe injection practices and educate men about the risk of HCV infection from contaminated instruments used by barbers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000171126300010

    View details for PubMedID 11555441

  • HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes and beliefs based prediction models for practices in prison inmates, Sindh, Pakistan. Southeast Asian journal of tropical medicine and public health Akhtar, S., Luby, S. P., Rahbar, M. H., Azam, I. 2001; 32 (2): 351-361


    This study was conducted on prison inmates in Sindh to determine whether HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes and beliefs can predict their practices which risk HIV infection. A pre-designed questionnaire was administered in this cross-sectional study to collect the data on HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, practices and demographic variables in a systematic sample of 3,395 prison inmates during July 1994. The data on responses of inmates to HIV/AIDS related knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs were analyzed and a clear interpretable factor structure emerged for each set of questions labeled as knowledge, attitude and beliefs. Similarly based on responses of inmates to practice questions, three factors emerged and were labeled as heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs. The standardized factor scores of inmates for each of these six factors were computed and used in further analyses. Multiple linear regression analyses were carried out separately using heterosexuality, homosexuality and drugs factors score as dependent variables to identify if any of the independent variables (demographic variables, knowledge beliefs and attitude) predict these practice factors. The model for heterosexuality explained 23% of the variance and included HIV/AIDS related knowledge, beliefs, age, ethnicity and marital status and duration of imprisonment (F = 84.33, p < 0.001; R2= 23.0). The predictors in the model for homosexuality together explained 10% of the variance and included significant contribution by belief, martial status, ethnicity, education, age and duration of imprisonment (F = 24.76, p < 0.001; R2= 0.10). The model for drugs had significant contributions from HIV/AIDS related beliefs, marital status and ethnicity (F = 20.10, p < 0.001; R2= 0.03). Implications of prevention program based on these results are considered.

    View details for PubMedID 11556589

  • Hypertension and its determinants among adults in high mountain villages of the Northern Areas of Pakistan JOURNAL OF HUMAN HYPERTENSION Shah, S. M., Luby, S., Rahbar, M., Khan, A. W., MCCORMICK, J. B. 2001; 15 (2): 107-112


    We studied the prevalence and determinants of hypertension among adults in mountainous rural villages in the Ghizar district Northern Areas of Pakistan, an area that recently has undergone substantial economic development. We selected a stratified random sample of 4203 adults (age > 18 years) from 16 villages in Punial Valley of Ghizar district where the number of study subjects from each village was proportionate to the size of the village. We obtained blood pressure (BP) records by taking the mean of the second and third BP measurement, using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer, and assessed risk factors for hypertension in the study subjects. The mean +/- s.d. blood pressures (mm Hg) were 125 +/- 19 systolic and 80 +/- 12 diastolic in men and 125 +/- 22 systolic and 78 +/- 14 diastolic in women. The 125 +/- 22 systolic and 78 +/- 14 diastolic in women. The mm Hg, or systolic BP > or = 140 mm Hg or currently taking antihypertensive medication) was 15%, increasing from 4% in the 18-29 year age group to 36% among persons 60 years of age or older. The age-standardised prevalence of hypertension was 14% (12.5% among men and 14% among women). There was no significant difference in prevalence of hypertension in males, and in females. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, and higher body mass index (overweight and obesity) were independently associated with higher prevalence of hypertension. People with hypertension were more likely to have a first-degree relative with physician-diagnosed hypertension (OR = 1.90, 95% CI 1.49, 2). Hypertension is a significant health problem in rural northern Pakistan. The primary health care programme in the Northern Areas of Pakistan needs to address this problem, especially identifying people at risk.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167349300006

    View details for PubMedID 11317189

  • A low-cost intervention for cleaner drinking water in Karachi, Pakistan. International journal of infectious diseases Luby, S., Agboatwalla, M., Raza, A., SOBEL, J., Mintz, E., Baier, K., Rahbar, M., Qureshi, S., Hassan, R., Ghouri, F., Hoekstra, R. M., GANGAROSA, E. 2001; 5 (3): 144-150


    To pilot test an inexpensive, home-based water decontamination and storage system in a low-income neighborhood of Karachi.Fifty households received a 20-L plastic water storage vessel with a high-quality spout and a regular supply of diluted hypochlorite solution. Twenty-five control households were recruited. Water samples were collected at baseline and during unannounced follow-up visits 1, 3, 6, and 10 weeks later.Baseline drinking water samples among intervention households were contaminated with a mean 9397 colony-forming units (cfu)/100 mL of thermotolerant coliforms compared with a mean 10,990 cfu/100 mL from controls. After intervention the mean concentration of thermotolerant coliforms decreased by 99.8% among the intervention households compared with an 8% reduction among controls. Two years after vessel distribution, 34 (68%) of the families were still using the vessel. Thirteen of the households had stopped using their vessel because it had broken after more than 6 months of use, a pattern most consistent with ultraviolet radiation-induced degradation of the plastic.In a highly contaminated environment, a specifically designed water storage container and in-home water chlorination was acceptable and markedly improved water quality. Where plastic water vessels will be exposed to substantial sunlight, ultraviolet light stabilizers should be incorporated into the plastic.

    View details for PubMedID 11724671

  • Patients' perceptions of blood transfusion risks in Karachi, Pakistan. International journal of infectious diseases Luby, S. P., Niaz, Q., SIDDIQUI, S., Mujeeb, S. A., Fisher-Hoch, S. 2001; 5 (1): 24-26


    To evaluate the understanding of and attitudes toward risks of blood transfusions among transfusion recipients in Karachi.One hundred forty-one transfusion recipients from 13 major Karachi hospitals were interviewed. Indications for transfusion were obtained by reviewing the patients' medical records.The most common indications for transfusion were surgical complications (n = 77, 55%), anemia (n = 34, 24%), and generalized weakness (n = 15, 11%). Most recipients (n = 103, 80%) had never heard of viral hepatitis, and 44 (31%) had never heard of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ninety-four recipients (66%) believed that generalized weakness was a valid indication for blood transfusion. Sixty-nine recipients (49%) were not willing to pay an increased price for blood that was screened for blood-borne pathogens.Blood recipients in Karachi are unaware of the risks of transfusions, and the reasons given by the ordering physician for many of the transfusions were not consistent with international guidelines. Steps to educate the public about the risks of transfusions and practitioners about the indications for transfusion could prevent blood-borne virus transmission in Karachi.

    View details for PubMedID 11285155

  • Therapeutic injections in Pakistan: from the patient's perspective TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Raglow, G. J., Luby, S. P., Nabi, N. 2001; 6 (1): 69-75


    To investigate the behaviour, knowledge of risks, and attitudes towards injections among patients at a clinic in Karachi.In March 1995, trained staff administered a structured questionnaire to 198 consecutive new adult patients attending a university clinic in Karachi, Pakistan.Half (97:49%) of the patients received injections at their last visit to a health care provider. 3.5% had received 10 or more injections in the last year. 64% felt that injections were more powerful and were willing to pay more for them than for pills. 84% preferred pills or advice over injections if told they were equally effective, 83% believed that a used needle could transmit a fatal disease, and 86% believed that it is usually possible to get better without an injection. 91% reported that the doctor always recommends an injection; few patients (9%) ever asked for one. Injections were given without much regard for the chief complaint of the patient. Sonic needles (n = 21) for the injection came from bowls of water: of those from closed packets (n = 116), 68 were 'cleaned' by wiping ot placing them in water. 91% of patients (180) knew at least one risk of reuse of needles. Patients who knew three or more risks of using unclean needles were 0.14 times as likely to have had more than five injections per year in the last 5 years hut only if the patients had s or more years of education.Patients receive injections from doctors in Pakistan frequently, indiscriminately and often without proper safety precautions. They are aware of both positive and negative aspects of injections but are likely to do what the doctor suggests. Interventions to reduce risky overuse of injections should focus on patients' general education and knowledge of the risks of injections to empower them to choose healthier therapies.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000167703800011

    View details for PubMedID 11263465

  • Prevalence of plasmodium slide positivity among the children treated for malaria, Jhangara, Sindh. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Hozhabri, S., Akhtar, S., Rahbar, M. H., Luby, S. P. 2000; 50 (12): 401-405


    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of malaria amongst the children with fever or history of fever.Rural Health Centre (RHC), Jhangara, a town near the Manchhar Lake in Taluka Sehwan, District Dadu, Sindh.Four hundred and thirty eight children of 6 months to 10 years of age, who attended above described RHC during August through October 1997.A Sindhi-translated standard questionnaire was used to record symptoms and duration of child's illness. Each child was physically examined, had their axillary temperature measured; and blood samples were collected from which Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films were examined for presence of Plasmodium parasites.The median age of the studied children was 24 months and 57% (250/438) were boys. Fifty three percent (231) of the study subjects were from Jhangara Town, 40% (177) and 7% (30) came from other villages and villages near to the Manchhar Lake respectively. The prevalence of Plasmodium slide positivity was 5.9% (26/438). Among Plasmodium slide positive children, 65% (17/26) were positive for P. falciparum and 35% (9/26) for P. vivax. Among the P. falciparum positive children, 88% (15/26) had scanty (MP, 1-10/100 fields) and 12% (2/26) had moderate density (MP, 10-100/100 fields) of infection. Seventeen percent (6/30) of the children from villages close to Manchhar Lake were Plasmodium slide positive compared to 7% (17/53) and 3% (5/177) from Jhangara town and other villages respectively. Cough, diarrhea, abdominal distention and vomiting were the commonly reported symptoms among the children of all ages at the time of interview. Guardians reported fever as part of the illness in all children, although during physical examination only 128 (29%) had axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C. Pallor as an indicator for anemia, rash and prickly heat were the major recorded observations.The Prevalence of Plasmodium positivity was higher in children who attended from villages close to Manchhar lake, therefore especial measure needs to be considered for this area. In addition, the health care workers in rural Sindh need to adopt appropriate guidelines to differentiate the clinical malarial patients from patients with other potential infectious diseases, which may need other treatment.

    View details for PubMedID 11191438

  • Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding sexually transmitted infections among general practitioners and medical specialists in Karachi, Pakistan SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Khandwalla, H. E., Luby, S., Rahman, S. 2000; 76 (5): 383-385


    To determine the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among specialists--that is, dermatologists, gynaecologists and urologists, and general practitioners (GPs) in Karachi, Pakistan.Interviewers administered structured questionnaires to doctors conducting outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals and/or private clinics in Karachi. All private clinics within a 10 km radius of the Aga Khan University, and all tertiary hospitals having more than 100 inpatient beds were included in the study.100 doctors (54 specialists and 46 GPs) responded. 80 doctors reported seeing at least one STI patient/month. The most commonly diagnosed STI the doctors reported was urethritis/cervicitis syndrome. 50% of the doctors knew the recommended antibiotics for gonorrhoea though only 46% of these knew the correct dosage. Specialists were three times more likely to recognise the clinical presentation of herpes and twice as likely to treat chlamydia, syphilis, and herpes with appropriate antimicrobials than GPs. 85% of the doctors advised their STI patients regarding condom usage; 36% thought that STI patients had loose sexual morals; 43% believed STI patients were drug addicts. Over 90% of the physicians were willing to attend educational sessions and follow a national STI treatment protocol.Doctors in Karachi, especially GPs, are deficient in appropriately managing and counselling STI patients. Among the specialists, urologists and dermatologists were more likely to manage STIs correctly than gynaecologists. Karachi doctors should be educated in the correct management and counselling of STIs to prevent further spread of STIs including AIDS.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000090103000014

    View details for PubMedID 11141857

  • Adult mortality in slums of Karachi, Pakistan. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Marsh, D. R., Kadir, M. M., HUSEIN, K., Luby, S. P., Siddiqui, R., Khalid, S. B. 2000; 50 (9): 300-306


    Cause-specific death rates are rarely available to guide health interventions for adults in South Asia. We report mortality patterns among Karachi's urban poor.We conducted verbal autopsies for adult deaths under active surveillance during 1990-1993 in five urban slums of Karachi. Two physicians assigned underlying cause of death by consensus. Analysis included cause- and category-specific rates, 45Q15s and comparison with 1991 Japanese national statistics.All 345 adult deaths (15-59 years) in the 5 slums (total population 45,389) were included. Male mortality exceeded female (4.4 vs 3.3/1000, p = .02). Noncommunicable diseases claimed 59% of deaths, communicable and reproductive 27% and injuries, 15%. The leading identified death rates (/100,000) among women were: circulatory disorders (66), maternal causes (33), tuberculosis (30), and burns (23); and among men they were: circulatory disorders (124) tuberculosis (30) and road traffic accidents (30). Overall Karachi adult mortality was 3.7 times Japanese rate. Compared to Japan, adults in Karachi had one to two orders of magnitude excess mortality due to maternal causes, tuberculosis and burns. Circulatory disorders and tuberculosis accounted for 47% of excess male mortality; these plus maternal causes and burns accounted for 55% of excess female mortality.These mortality levels and patterns compel interventions and research for poor urban adults beyond maternal health. Women's health would equally benefit from tuberculosis control or burn prevention. Men need safer travel. Both need improved cardiovascular health.

    View details for PubMedID 11043020

  • Evaluation of blood bank practices in Karachi, Pakistan, and the government's response HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING Luby, S., Khanani, R., Zia, M., Vellani, Z., Ali, M., Qureshi, A. H., Khan, A. J., Mujeeb, S. A., Shah, S. A., Fisher-Hoch, S. 2000; 15 (2): 217-222


    National legislation in Pakistan regulating blood banks has been introduced several times, but has never been passed. To support provincial-level efforts to develop legislation we conducted a study to evaluate blood-banking practices in Karachi, Pakistan, to identify areas that could be improved.Thirty-seven blood banks were randomly selected from a list of 87 Karachi blood banks. The research team interviewed blood bank personnel, inspected available facilities and equipment, and observed blood collection using structured questionnaires and observation forms.Of the 37 selected facilities, 25 were operational and 24 agreed to participate. Twelve (50%) of the facilities reported regularly utilizing paid blood donors, while only six (25%) activity recruited volunteer donors. During observation only 8% of facilities asked donors about injecting drug use, and none asked donors any questions about high-risk sexual behaviour. While 95% of blood banks had appropriate equipment and reagents to screen for hepatitis B, only 55% could screen for HIV and 23% for hepatitis C. Twenty-nine percent of the facilities were storing blood products outside the WHO recommended temperature limits.Practices at most Karachi blood banks fell well below WHO standards. Findings from this study were instrumental in developing and passing legislation to regulate blood transfusion throughout Sindh Province, and suggest a method for improving blood transfusion practices in other developing countries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087799300012

    View details for PubMedID 10837045

  • Multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with genital ulcer disease among incarcerated males in Sindh. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Akhtar, S., Luby, S. P., Rahbar, M. H. 2000; 50 (4): 115-120


    To evaluate the potential risk behaviors associated with the lifetime risk of self reported genital ulcer disease (GUD) among prison inmates.Prison inmates from 14 prisons of Sindh Province.A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3395 prison inmates during July to December, 1994. A questionnaire was used to assess the lifetime risk of self-reported GUD (whether or not the subject was ever affected with GUD up to present age) and to investigate demographic markers and risk behaviors for their possible association with lifetime risk of GUD using logistic regression analysis.The reported lifetime risk of GUD in the study sample was 11.4% (386/3395). In final multivariate logistic regression model the sexual behaviors which were independently associated with GUD were having sexual intercourse with female (adjusted OR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.3, P = 0.0002), sexual intercourse with a prostitute (adjusted OR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.2-2.0, P = 0.0008), sexual intercourse with man (adjusted OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.7, P = < 0.001) and sexual intercourse with man during current incarceration (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2-2.9, P = 0.0071).Health education needs to re-enforce monogamous relationship for high risk groups such as in our study. Although infrequent condom use was not a risk factor for GUD in this study, yet based on the results of previous studies, promotion of condom use should be the component of health education program.

    View details for PubMedID 10851831

  • Unsafe injections and the transmission of hepatitis B and C in a periurban community in Pakistan BULLETIN OF THE WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION Khan, A. J., Luby, S. P., Fikree, F., Karim, A., Obaid, S., Dellawala, S., Mirza, S., Malik, T., Fisher-Hoch, S., MCCORMICK, J. B. 2000; 78 (8): 956-963


    Following reports of frequent deaths associated with jaundice and chronic liver disease among adults in a periurban community of Karachi, Pakistan, an investigation was conducted to evaluate the relationship between injections and viral hepatitis infections, to identify the reasons why patients received frequent injections, and to observe the injection practices employed in clinics. Two hundred and three adult patients were interviewed as they left each of the 18 area clinics. Practitioners were interviewed and three consecutive injections were observed at each clinic. Eighty-one per cent of patients received an injection on the day of the interview. Of the 135 patients who provided a serum sample, 59 (44%) had antibodies against hepatitis C virus and 26 (19%) had antibodies against hepatitis B virus. Patients who received more injections were more likely to be infected with hepatitis C. If oral and injected medications were equally effective, 44% of patients preferred injected medication. None of the practitioners knew that hepatitis C could be transmitted by injections. Non-sterile syringes and needles that had been used earlier in the day on other patients were used for 94% of the observed injections. Interventions to limit injections to those which are safe and clinically indicated are needed to prevent injection-associated infections in Pakistan and other low-income countries.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000088892200003

    View details for PubMedID 10994278

  • Limited effectiveness of home drinking water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan. International journal of infectious diseases Luby, S. P., Syed, A. H., Atiullah, N., Faizan, M. K., Fisher-Hoch, S. 2000; 4 (1): 3-7


    In many developing-country urban areas, municipally supplied water is not microbiologically safe. This study evaluated drinking water quality and effect of home water purification efforts in Karachi, Pakistan.Members of 300 households, including 100 households who used the Aga Khan University Hospital Laboratory and 200 of their neighbors were interviewed. In 293 consenting households, structured observations were performed and drinking water was analyzed for the presence of coliforms, using the multiple tube fermentation technique.Although 193 of the 293 households (66%) reported using some method to purify their drinking water, including 169 (58%) who boiled their water, only 48 (16%) of the drinking water samples were free of coliforms. Although a combination of boiling and filtering was the most effective method of purification, only 38% of samples that had been boiled and filtered were free of coliforms.Further refinements and evaluations of home-based efforts to purify and store water are needed.

    View details for PubMedID 10689207

  • Household members of hepatitis C virus-infected people in Hafizabad, Pakistan: infection by injections from health care providers EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Pasha, O., Luby, S. P., Khan, A. J., Shah, S. A., MCCORMICK, J. B., Fisher-Hoch, S. P. 1999; 123 (3): 515-518


    Household members of people with hepatitis C are at increased risk of HCV infection. The prevalence and routes of transmission of HCV to household members in Hafizabad, Pakistan were investigated. Household members of 24 index cases were given a risk factor questionnaire, tested for HCV infection, and the risk factors between the infected and uninfected were compared. Twelve of 74 household members (16.2%) were seropositive for HCV antibody. This was 2(1/2) times the rate of infection in the general population (OR = 2.8; P = 0.01). None of the routes of transmission studied within the household was associated with an increased risk. Household members who received more than 4 injections per year were 11.9 times more likely to be infected than those who had not (P = 0.016). In Hafizabad, the greatest risk for HCV infection to household members of infected people is injections given by health-care workers rather than household contact with infected persons.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000085406000022

    View details for PubMedID 10694166

  • Risk behaviours associated with urethritis in prison inmates, Sindh. JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association Akhtar, S., Luby, S. P., Rahbar, M. H. 1999; 49 (11): 268-273


    To identify sexual risk behaviours associated with lifetime risk of urethritis in prison inmates.A cross-sectional study using a pre-designed questionnaire.Fourteen prisons throughout the Sindh Province, Pakistan.Three thousand three hundred ninety-five prison inmates incarcerated during July, 1994.Lifetime risk of urethritis occurrence (whether or not the subject was ever affected with urethritis up to his present age)Lifetime risk of urethritis occurrence in the study population was 20.8% (706/3395). The final multivariate logistic regression model indicated that risk behaviours associated with lifetime risk of urethritis in this population were 'sexual intercourse with a female' (adjusted OR = 2.18; 95% CI 1.60, 2.95), 'multiple female sexual partners' (adjusted OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.28, 2.18) and 'sexual intercourse with man' (adjusted OR = 2.75; 95% CI 2.29, 3.31).The prevalence of urethritis in this population was very high. High prevalence of various risky sexual behaviours among inmates indicates, their unawareness as to what precautions they might take to avoid risk of acquiring STDs including HIV. The study subjects meet the characteristics of a core group of STDs transmitters and provides short window of opportunity for STD/HIV control programs to intervene, while they are in detention to reduce the risk not only for this group but also for general population.

    View details for PubMedID 10647238

  • Does use of a government service depend on distance from the health facility? HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING NoorAli, R., Luby, S., Rahbar, M. H. 1999; 14 (2): 191-197


    To reduce mortality from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections, it is important that health services are available and used appropriately. Physical accessibility to a health facility may influence its use, particularly in rural areas. We assessed whether use of government services for treatment of the three most common acute childhood illnesses (fever, diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections) was influenced by the physical accessibility of the government primary health care centres. We analyzed data from a household survey which was collected between November 1992 and January 1993, from 139 randomly selected villages located around 14 government facilities in Thatta, a rural district of Pakistan. There were 691 children under 5 years of age who suffered from the three acute illnesses; 85% of these children used either a government or a private service. Children living at less than 4 km from a government facility made 22% less use of that facility than those living 4 km or more away. After controlling for the effects of distance from a private facility and treatment cost in a multiple logistic regression model, children living less than 4 km from a government facility were no more likely to use the facility than those living 4 km or more away (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 1.01, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.68-1.50). These results suggest that factors other than distance are the primary determinants of use of government services for treating children in the Thatta district. To increase the use of government health services, policymakers should assess carefully the factors determining the use of existing facilities, before they plan the building of more health facilities. Further studies are needed to examine the management of health facilities and the clients' perception of health-care providers.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000081186600010

    View details for PubMedID 10538722

  • Outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Quetta, Pakistan: contact tracing and risk assessment TROPICAL MEDICINE & INTERNATIONAL HEALTH Altaf, A., Luby, S., Ahmed, A. J., Zaidi, N., Khan, A. J., Mirza, S., McCormick, J., Fisher-Hoch, S. 1998; 3 (11): 878-882


    In December 1994 in a private hospital in Quetta, Pakistan, 3 health-workers contracted Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) after surgery on a bleeding patient who later died. We conducted a retrospective study to determine transmission risks among contacts. Fifty contacts gave blood for antibody tests and answered questions about exposure. Two of four people exposed percutaneously and one of five with cutaneous exposure contracted CCHE The person with cutaneous exposure was a surgeon who tore his glove during surgery and noted blood on his hand but no cut. There were no anti-CCHF antibodies or CCHF cases among persons whose skin came into contact with body fluids other than blood (0/4), who had skin-to-skin contact (0/16) with patients or were physically close to them (0/21). Three index case relatives reported that although 10 family members had cutaneous exposure, none developed CCHF. The family refused blood tests. CCHF transmission in resource-constrained settings can be limited by focusing on avoiding health worker contact with blood.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000077571000006

    View details for PubMedID 9855399

  • Postexposure treatment of rabies in Pakistan CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES Parviz, S., Luby, S., Wilde, H. 1998; 27 (4): 751-756


    To evaluate compliance with current World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for postexposure treatment (PET) of rabies, we interviewed all animal bite victims seeking treatment on the same day of each week from 28 December 1994 through 18 January 1995 at the Civil Hospital of Karachi (Pakistan), a major referral center. Of the 143 patients studied, 109 (76%) sustained bleeding transdermal bites (WHO category III). Overall, wounds were not washed with soap or an antiseptic in 69% of victims. All victims received 5% sheep brain-derived vaccine, and only three of the 109 victims with category III bites received rabies immune globulin. PET of rabies in Karachi was deficient by all WHO standards. Although there is a great urgency to improve PET, it will remain a costly and inefficient method of controlling rabies. Reduction of rabies reservoirs is required to decrease human deaths due to rabies in Pakistan and other developing countries in which canine rabies is endemic.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000076493400016

    View details for PubMedID 9798028

  • HIV antibody seroprevalence and associated risk factors in sex workers, drug users, and prisoners in Sindh, Pakistan JOURNAL OF ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES Baqi, S., Nabi, N., Hasan, S. N., Khan, A. J., Pasha, O., Kayani, N., Haque, R. A., Haq, I. U., Khurshid, M., Fisher-Hoch, S., Luby, S. P., MCCORMICK, J. B. 1998; 18 (1): 73-79


    To determine prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors in commercial sex workers (CSWs), drug users, and prisoners in Sindh, Pakistan.A medical clinic was established in a "red-light" district of Karachi. Eighty-one CSWs who registered at the clinic between November 1993 and June 1994 were provided HIV counseling and testing and administered a risk factor questionnaire. Next, 316 male drug users were tested for HIV-1 antibody from April to July 1994. Finally, a voluntary serosurvey of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and risk behaviors of 3525 prisoners in Sindh was conducted between July 1994 and December 1994. Abbott Recombinant HIV third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmatory testing with Western blot analysis were used in all three groups.None of 81 CSWs tested for HIV-1 antibody were positive. None of 316 drug users tested positive for HIV-1 antibody. Of 3441 male prisoners, 1 was HIV-1 infected, and of 84 female prisoners, 1 was HIV-1 infected. No prisoner was positive for HIV-2 antibody.The prevalence of HIV in CSWs, drug users, and prisoners in Sindh is low at present. Intervention programs implemented at this stage can make an impact in HIV prevention.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073522900011

    View details for PubMedID 9593461

  • Expansion of epidemic dengue viral infections to Pakistan. International journal of infectious diseases Paul, R. E., Patel, A. Y., Mirza, S., Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Luby, S. P. 1998; 2 (4): 197-201


    Antibodies to dengue viruses have occasionally been reported in individuals in Pakistan, but the frequency of occurrence of dengue infection in Pakistan is unclear. The first confirmed dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Pakistan occurred in 1994. In October 1995, the authors investigated an outbreak of a febrile illness among employees of a construction contractor at a power generation plant in Baluchistan, Pakistan, to determine the cause of illness and recommend appropriate preventive measures.The work site and living arrangements were inspected, a questionnaire was administered, and serum samples were collected from all consenting contractor employees and their families if they lived at the camp. Sera were analyzed for IgM against dengue virus, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Interviews were conducted with 76 persons (mean age, 42y); 95% were men. Forty-two persons (55%) reported having experienced fever, headache, or myalgia in the preceding 6 weeks. Fifty-seven subjects (75%) had IgM antibodies against at least one dengue serotype; 45 subjects (59%) had IgM antibodies against dengue serotype 2.This was an outbreak of dengue fever due to multiple serotypes of dengue virus. This confirms that epidemic dengue infection was present in southern Pakistan for 2 consecutive years.

    View details for PubMedID 9763501

  • Risk factors for typhoid fever in an endemic setting, Karachi, Pakistan EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Luby, S. P., Faizan, M. K., Fisher-Hoch, S. P., Syed, A., Mintz, E. D., Bhutta, Z. A., MCCORMICK, J. B. 1998; 120 (2): 129-138


    We conducted a study to evaluate risk factors for developing typhoid fever in a setting where the disease is endemic in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 100 cases with blood culture-confirmed Salmonella typhi between July and October 1994 and 200 age-matched neighbourhood controls. Cases had a median age of 5.8 years. In a conditional logistic regression model, eating ice cream (Odds ratio [OR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-4.2, attributable risk [AR] = 36%), eating food from a roadside cabin during the summer months (OR = 4.6, 95% CI 1.6-13.0; AR = 18%), taking antimicrobials in the 2 weeks preceding the onset of symptoms (OR = 5.7, 95% CI 2.3-13.9, AR = 21%), and drinking water at the work-site (OR = 44.0, 95% CI 2.8-680, AR = 8%) were all independently associated with typhoid fever. There was no difference in the microbiological water quality of home drinking water between cases and controls. Typhoid fever in Karachi resulted from high-dose exposures from multiple sources with individual susceptibility increased by young age and prior antimicrobial use. Improving commercial food hygiene and decreasing unnecessary antimicrobial use would be expected to decrease the burden of typhoid fever.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000073447800003

    View details for PubMedID 9593481

  • The relationship between therapeutic injections and high prevalence of hepatitis C infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan EPIDEMIOLOGY AND INFECTION Luby, S. P., Qamruddin, K., Shah, A. A., Omair, A., Pahsa, O., Khan, A. J., MCCORMICK, J. B., Hoodbhouy, F., Fisher-Hoch, S. 1997; 119 (3): 349-356


    To determine the prevalence and routes of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Hafizabad, Pakistan, we collected sera in 1993 from a geographically based random sample of residents, and in 1994 identified 15 HCV-infected individuals (cases) and 67 age and sex matched uninfected individuals (controls). Initially we approached 504 households, and collected serum from a randomly selected household member in 309 (64%). Twenty persons (6.5%) had anti-HCV antibody; 31% percent had hepatitis B core antibodies, and 4.3% had hepatitis B surface antigen. In the case-control study, persons who received more therapeutic injections (categorized as averaging 1, 2-4, 5-9 or > 10 injections per year in the previous 10 years) were more likely to be infected with HCV (odds ratio 0, 1.5, 2.5 and 6.9 respectively, P = 0.008) compared to persons averaging 0 injections per year. Efforts to limit therapeutic injections to only those that are medically indicated and that use sterile equipment are essential in order to prevent transmission of HCV.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000071230300010

    View details for PubMedID 9440439

  • Imported malaria in Montagnard refugees settling in North Carolina: Implications for prevention and control AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TROPICAL MEDICINE AND HYGIENE Paxton, L. A., Slutsker, L., Schultz, L. J., Luby, S. P., Meriwether, R., Matson, P., Sulzer, A. J. 1996; 54 (1): 54-57


    In the winter of 1992, some 402 Southeast Asian refugees were resettled in North Carolina. They received very limited medical screening before immigration and many arrived in the United States with significant health problems, including several tropical infectious diseases. These refugees had lived for many years in remote areas along the Vietnam-Cambodia border, where there is intense transmission of malaria, including Plasmodium falciparum resistant to most antimalarial drugs available in the United States. Of 322 refugees screened after arrival in North Carolina, 187 (58%) were infected: 33% with P. falciparum, 23.5% with P. vivax, 23.5% with P. malariae, and 2.1% with P. ovale. Most infected persons were asymptomatic and infections with multiple species were common. Because of the documented high infection prevalence and the probable presence of many subpatent infections, all nonpregnant refugees were treated with halofantrine; those with P. vivax or P. ovale infections were given primaquine as well. This group accounted for the largest cluster of malaria cases reported in the United States in the last 50 years. Their rapid relocation, with minimal medical screening prior to arrival, resulted in a significant burden to the refugees and to the health-care system. Coordination between immigration agencies, the public health community, and medical workers in communities where the refugees are settled is critical for U.S.-based management of imported tropical diseases.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1996TU82700012

    View details for PubMedID 8651370

  • Verbal autopsy in Karachi slums: Comparing single and multiple cause of child deaths HEALTH POLICY AND PLANNING Marsh, D., HUSEIN, K., Lobo, M., Shah, M. A., Luby, S. 1995; 10 (4): 395-403
  • A NOSOCOMIAL OUTBREAK OF MYCOBACTERIUM-TUBERCULOSIS JOURNAL OF FAMILY PRACTICE Luby, S., Carmichael, S., Shaw, G., Horan, J., Gamble, W., Jones, J. 1994; 39 (1): 21-25


    The national incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is increasing, and hospitals are a site of transmission. We investigated a nosocomial outbreak of TB at a 160-bed community hospital in South Carolina that highlights the central role that primary care physicians must play to control this epidemic.We reviewed medical records to identify potential source cases. We retrospectively evaluated exposures to suspected source patients and the subsequent tuberculin reactivity of the 38 hospital employees who had a previous negative tuberculin skin test and were assigned to the ward where the outbreak began. We also evaluated the out-of-hospital contacts of TB cases.A review of medical records identified one patient who had died of prostate cancer and chronic cavitary pneumonia but was never in isolation nor evaluated for TB. Ward employees who worked while this patient was hospitalized had an increased risk for skin-test conversion (43% [12 of 28] vs 0% [0 of 9]; relative risk undefined; P = .02). Among employees who worked with this patient, skin-test converters worked more shifts with (median, 10.5 vs 7), dispensed more medication to (median 7 doses vs 1), and wrote more notes on (median 18 vs 5) the index patient than did nonconverters. Five of 12 of the patient's close out-of-hospital contacts had newly recognized positive tuberculin skin tests. Among 20 casual contacts, there were no new skin-test conversions.A high index of suspicion, prompt isolation and diagnostic testing of potentially infectious hospitalized patients, and a thorough investigation of contacts of patients with TB are needed to prevent TB transmission.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NX39200018

    View details for PubMedID 8027728



    CD4 lymphocyte counts decrease with the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We used CD4 counts collected for clinical reasons to evaluate the stage of HIV infection and the epidemiology of recent HIV infections among attendees of South Carolina's public health clinics.We measured the CD4 T-lymphocyte counts of persons newly diagnosed with HIV infection April 1989 through June 1990 at South Carolina public health clinics who returned for follow-up.Of 812 newly diagnosed HIV-infected health department patients, 420 (52%) had their CD4 lymphocyte counts measured. Of these 420, 51 (12%) had CD4 counts of < 200, the level below which prophylaxis for pneumocystis pneumonia prolongs survival, and 193 (46%) had CD4 counts of < 500, the level below which zidovudine may prolong disease-free survival. The highest CD4 counts (> or = 900), which are associated with more recent HIV infection, were more common in females.In South Carolina, almost half of newly reported HIV-infected persons who agreed to CD4 testing at the health department might benefit from immediate drug therapy. Within this population, women may be an emerging risk group that requires specifically directed HIV prevention efforts.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1994NM61800007

    View details for PubMedID 7907458



    Recent investigations of outbreaks of Salmonella enteritidis gastroenteritis among humans, especially in the northeastern United States, implicate grade A shell chicken eggs as the likely vehicle of transmission. In April 1991 we investigated an outbreak of S enteritidis infections after a wedding anniversary celebration in Beaufort, South Carolina. Sixty-eight percent of persons who ate a macaroni and cheese dish, but none of the 16 attendees who did not, became ill (P < .001). The chef used six grade A eggs in the macaroni and cheese and may have undercooked it. The egg supplier processed eggs exclusively from farms in South Carolina and North Carolina. This outbreak suggests that the epidemic of S enteritidis in flocks of laying hens the consequent threat of human infection has spread to the Carolinas.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993MN62200005

    View details for PubMedID 8272910



    An outbreak of diarrhea occurred after a university field day. Of 643 attendees who returned mailed questionnaires, 139 (22%) reported illness. Persons who ate barbecued pork, which was unrefrigerated for 18 h after cooking, were five times more likely to become ill than those who did not eat pork (26% vs. 5%; relative risk, 5.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-20.9). A leftover pork sample grew a Bacillus cereus isolate, > 10(5) cfu/g, that produced diarrheal toxin. Thirty-four percent of ill persons noted onset of illness outside the 6- to 24-h incubation period traditionally ascribed to B. cereus-mediated diarrhea, and an unusually high percentage (23%) noted fever. B. cereus may cause a wider spectrum of disease than previously described.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993LD69400033

    View details for PubMedID 8501338



    Between January and June 1990, Restaurant A in Greenville, South Carolina repeatedly failed local health department inspection and was repeatedly sanctioned. In September 1990, two persons, hospitalized with salmonellosis after attending a convention catered by Restaurant A, contacted the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. We inspected Restaurant A, interviewed food handlers, and surveyed by telephone persons from every sixth business attending the convention. Of 398 persons interviewed, 135 (34%) reported gastroenteritis. Nine had culture-confirmed salmonella infection. People who ate turkey were 4.6 times more likely to become ill than those who did not eat turkey (95% confidence interval 2.0, 10.6). We estimate that of 2430 attendees, 824 became ill. Sanitarians judged Restaurant A's kitchen too small to prepare over 500 meals safely. The cooked turkey was unrefrigerated for several hours, incompletely rewarmed, and rinsed with water to reduce its offensive odour prior to serving. Stronger sanctions may be needed against restaurants that repeatedly fail local health department inspection.

    View details for Web of Science ID A1993KL75900005

    View details for PubMedID 8432321