Academic Appointments

Honors & Awards

  • Investigator in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease, Burroughs Wellcome Fund (2018)
  • Ann Palmenberg Junior Investigator Award, American Society of Virology (2013)
  • Fellow, David & Lucile Packard Foundation (2012)
  • NIH Director’s New Innovator Award, NIH (2012)
  • Baxter Faculty Scholar Award, Baxter Foundation (2011)

Current Research and Scholarly Interests

Our research focuses on the identification of host genes that play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infectious agents including viruses. We use haploid genetic screens in human cells as an efficient approach to perform loss-of-function studies. Besides obtaining fundamental insights on how viruses hijack cellular processes and on host defense mechanisms, it might also facilitate the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Stanford Advisees

Graduate and Fellowship Programs

All Publications

  • A CRISPR toolbox to study virus-host interactions NATURE REVIEWS MICROBIOLOGY Puschnik, A. S., Majzoub, K., Ooi, Y. S., Carette, J. E. 2017; 15 (6): 351-364


    Viruses depend on their hosts to complete their replication cycles; they exploit cellular receptors for entry and hijack cellular functions to replicate their genome, assemble progeny virions and spread. Recently, genome-scale CRISPR-Cas screens have been used to identify host factors that are required for virus replication, including the replication of clinically relevant viruses such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus and hepatitis C virus. In this Review, we discuss the technical aspects of genome-scale knockout screens using CRISPR-Cas technology, and we compare these screens with alternative genetic screening technologies. The relative ease of use and reproducibility of CRISPR-Cas make it a powerful tool for probing virus-host interactions and for identifying new antiviral targets.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.29

    View details for Web of Science ID 000401062000010

    View details for PubMedID 28420884

  • AAV serotypes have distinctive interactions with domains of the cellular receptor AAVR. Journal of virology Pillay, S., Zou, W., Cheng, F., Puschnik, A. S., Meyer, N. L., Ganaie, S. S., Deng, X., Wosen, J. E., Davulcu, O., Yan, Z., Engelhardt, J. F., Brown, K. E., Chapman, M. S., Qiu, J., Carette, J. E. 2017


    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) entry is determined by its interactions with specific surface glycans and proteinaceous receptor(s). Adeno-associated virus receptor (AAVR; also named KIAA0319L) is an essential cellular receptor required for the transduction of vectors derived from multiple AAV serotypes including the evolutionary distant serotypes, AAV2 and AAV5. Here, we further biochemically characterize the AAV-AAVR interaction and define the domains within the ectodomain of AAVR that facilitate this interaction. Using a virus overlay assay, it was previously shown that the major AAV2 binding protein in membrane preparations of human cells corresponds to a glycoprotein with a 150-kDa molecular mass. By establishing a purification procedure, performing further protein separation through two-dimensional electrophoresis and utilizing mass spectrometry, we now show that this glycoprotein is identical to AAVR. While we find that AAVR is N-linked glycosylated, this glycosylation is not a strict requirement for AAV2 binding or functional transduction. Using a combination of genetic complementation with deletion constructs and viral overlay assays with individual domains, we find that AAV2 functionally interacts predominantly with the second Ig-like PKD repeat domain (PKD2) present in the ectodomain of AAVR. By contrast, AAV5 interacts primarily through the first, most membrane distal, PKD domain (PKD1) of AAVR to promote transduction. Furthermore, other AAV serotypes including AAV1 and 8 require a combination of PKD1 and PKD2 for optimal transduction. These results suggest that despite their shared dependence on AAVR as a critical entry receptor, different AAV serotypes have evolved distinctive interactions with the same receptor.IMPORTANCE Over the past decade, AAV vectors have emerged as leading gene delivery tools for therapeutic applications and biomedical research. Yet, fundamental aspects of the AAV life cycle, including how AAV interacts with host cellular factors to facilitate infection are only partly understood. In particular, AAV receptors contribute significantly to AAV vector transduction efficiency and tropism. The recently identified AAV receptor, AAVR, is a key host receptor for multiple serotypes, including the most studied serotype, AAV2. AAVR binds directly to AAV2 particles and is rate-limiting for viral transduction. Defining the AAV-AAVR interface in more detail is important to understand how AAV engages with its cellular receptor, and how the receptor facilitates the entry process. Here, we further define AAV-AAVR interactions, genetically and biochemically, and show that different AAV serotypes have discreet interactions with the Ig-like PKD domains of AAVR. These findings reveal an unexpected divergence of AAVR engagement within these parvoviruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00391-17

    View details for PubMedID 28679762

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5571256

  • DDX6 Represses Aberrant Activation of Interferon-Stimulated Genes. Cell reports Lumb, J. H., Li, Q., Popov, L. M., Ding, S., Keith, M. T., Merrill, B. D., Greenberg, H. B., Li, J. B., Carette, J. E. 2017; 20 (4): 819–31


    The innate immune system tightly regulates activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to avoid inappropriate expression. Pathological ISG activation resulting from aberrant nucleic acid metabolism has been implicated in autoimmune disease; however, the mechanisms governing ISG suppression are unknown. Through a genome-wide genetic screen, we identified DEAD-box helicase 6 (DDX6) as a suppressor of ISGs. Genetic ablation of DDX6 induced global upregulation of ISGs and other immune genes. ISG upregulation proved cell intrinsic, imposing an antiviral state and making cells refractory to divergent families of RNA viruses. Epistatic analysis revealed that ISG activation could not be overcome by deletion of canonical RNA sensors. However, DDX6 deficiency was suppressed by disrupting LSM1, a core component of mRNA degradation machinery, suggesting that dysregulation of RNA processing underlies ISG activation in the DDX6 mutant. DDX6 is distinct among DExD/H helicases that regulate the antiviral response in its singular ability to negatively regulate immunity.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.06.085

    View details for PubMedID 28746868

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5551412

  • A Small-Molecule Oligosaccharyltransferase Inhibitor with Pan-flaviviral Activity. Cell reports Puschnik, A. S., Marceau, C. D., Ooi, Y. S., Majzoub, K., Rinis, N., Contessa, J. N., Carette, J. E. 2017; 21 (11): 3032–39


    The mosquito-borne flaviviruses include important human pathogens such as dengue, Zika, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses, which pose a serious threat for global health. Recent genetic screens identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane multiprotein complexes, including the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex, as critical flavivirus host factors. Here, we show that a chemical modulator of the OST complex termed NGI-1 has promising antiviral activity against flavivirus infections. We demonstrate that NGI-1 blocks viral RNA replication and that antiviral activity does not depend on inhibition of the N-glycosylation function of the OST. Viral mutants adapted to replicate in cells deficient of the OST complex showed resistance to NGI-1 treatment, reinforcing the on-target activity of NGI-1. Lastly, we show that NGI-1 also has strong antiviral activity in primary and disease-relevant cell types. This study provides an example for advancing from the identification of genetic determinants of infection to a host-directed antiviral compound with broad activity against flaviviruses.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.11.054

    View details for PubMedID 29241533

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5734657

  • Genetic dissection of Flaviviridae host factors through genome-scale CRISPR screens NATURE Marceau, C. D., Puschnik, A. S., Majzoub, K., Ooi, Y. S., Brewer, S. M., Fuchs, G., Swaminathan, K., Mata, M. A., Elias, J. E., Sarnow, P., Carette, J. E. 2016; 535 (7610): 159-?


    The Flaviviridae are a family of viruses that cause severe human diseases. For example, dengue virus (DENV) is a rapidly emerging pathogen causing an estimated 100 million symptomatic infections annually worldwide. No approved antivirals are available to date and clinical trials with a tetravalent dengue vaccine showed disappointingly low protection rates. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) also remains a major medical problem, with 160 million chronically infected patients worldwide and only expensive treatments available. Despite distinct differences in their pathogenesis and modes of transmission, the two viruses share common replication strategies. A detailed understanding of the host functions that determine viral infection is lacking. Here we use a pooled CRISPR genetic screening strategy to comprehensively dissect host factors required for these two highly important Flaviviridae members. For DENV, we identified endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated multi-protein complexes involved in signal sequence recognition, N-linked glycosylation and ER-associated degradation. DENV replication was nearly completely abrogated in cells deficient in the oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) complex. Mechanistic studies pinpointed viral RNA replication and not entry or translation as the crucial step requiring the OST complex. Moreover, we show that viral non-structural proteins bind to the OST complex. The identified ER-associated protein complexes were also important for infection by other mosquito-borne flaviviruses including Zika virus, an emerging pathogen causing severe birth defects. By contrast, the most significant genes identified in the HCV screen were distinct and included viral receptors, RNA-binding proteins and enzymes involved in metabolism. We found an unexpected link between intracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) levels and HCV replication. This study shows notable divergence in host-depenency factors between DENV and HCV, and illuminates new host targets for antiviral therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature18631

    View details for Web of Science ID 000379015600044

    View details for PubMedID 27383987

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4964798

  • An essential receptor for adeno-associated virus infection. Nature Pillay, S., Meyer, N. L., Puschnik, A. S., Davulcu, O., Diep, J., Ishikawa, Y., Jae, L. T., Wosen, J. E., Nagamine, C. M., Chapman, M. S., Carette, J. E. 2016; 530 (7588): 108-112


    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are currently the leading candidates for virus-based gene therapies because of their broad tissue tropism, non-pathogenic nature and low immunogenicity. They have been successfully used in clinical trials to treat hereditary diseases such as haemophilia B (ref. 2), and have been approved for treatment of lipoprotein lipase deficiency in Europe. Considerable efforts have been made to engineer AAV variants with novel and biomedically valuable cell tropisms to allow efficacious systemic administration, yet basic aspects of AAV cellular entry are still poorly understood. In particular, the protein receptor(s) required for AAV entry after cell attachment remains unknown. Here we use an unbiased genetic screen to identify proteins essential for AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) infection in a haploid human cell line. The most significantly enriched gene of the screen encodes a previously uncharacterized type I transmembrane protein, KIAA0319L (denoted hereafter as AAV receptor (AAVR)). We characterize AAVR as a protein capable of rapid endocytosis from the plasma membrane and trafficking to the trans-Golgi network. We show that AAVR directly binds to AAV2 particles, and that anti-AAVR antibodies efficiently block AAV2 infection. Moreover, genetic ablation of AAVR renders a wide range of mammalian cell types highly resistant to AAV2 infection. Notably, AAVR serves as a critical host factor for all tested AAV serotypes. The importance of AAVR for in vivo gene delivery is further highlighted by the robust resistance of Aavr(-/-) (also known as Au040320(-/-) and Kiaa0319l(-/-)) mice to AAV infection. Collectively, our data indicate that AAVR is a universal receptor involved in AAV infection.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature16465

    View details for PubMedID 26814968

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4962915

  • The adherens junctions control susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus a-toxin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Popov, L. M., Marceau, C. D., Starkl, P. M., Lumb, J. H., Shah, J., Guerrera, D., Cooper, R. L., Merakou, C., Bouley, D. M., Meng, W., Kiyonari, H., Takeichi, M., Galli, S. J., Bagnoli, F., Citi, S., Carette, J. E., Amieva, M. R. 2015; 112 (46): 14337-14342


    Staphylococcus aureus is both a transient skin colonizer and a formidable human pathogen, ranking among the leading causes of skin and soft tissue infections as well as severe pneumonia. The secreted bacterial α-toxin is essential for S. aureus virulence in these epithelial diseases. To discover host cellular factors required for α-toxin cytotoxicity, we conducted a genetic screen using mutagenized haploid human cells. Our screen identified a cytoplasmic member of the adherens junctions, plekstrin-homology domain containing protein 7 (PLEKHA7), as the second most significantly enriched gene after the known α-toxin receptor, a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). Here we report a new, unexpected role for PLEKHA7 and several components of cellular adherens junctions in controlling susceptibility to S. aureus α-toxin. We find that despite being injured by α-toxin pore formation, PLEKHA7 knockout cells recover after intoxication. By infecting PLEKHA7(-/-) mice with methicillin-resistant S. aureus USA300 LAC strain, we demonstrate that this junctional protein controls disease severity in both skin infection and lethal S. aureus pneumonia. Our results suggest that adherens junctions actively control cellular responses to a potent pore-forming bacterial toxin and identify PLEKHA7 as a potential nonessential host target to reduce S. aureus virulence during epithelial infections.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1510265112

    View details for PubMedID 26489655

  • Ebola virus entry requires the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C1 NATURE Carette, J. E., Raaben, M., Wong, A. C., Herbert, A. S., Obernosterer, G., Mulherkar, N., Kuehne, A. I., Kranzusch, P. J., Griffin, A. M., Ruthel, G., Dal Cin, P., Dye, J. M., Whelan, S. P., Chandran, K., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2011; 477 (7364): 340-U115


    Infections by the Ebola and Marburg filoviruses cause a rapidly fatal haemorrhagic fever in humans for which no approved antivirals are available. Filovirus entry is mediated by the viral spike glycoprotein (GP), which attaches viral particles to the cell surface, delivers them to endosomes and catalyses fusion between viral and endosomal membranes. Additional host factors in the endosomal compartment are probably required for viral membrane fusion; however, despite considerable efforts, these critical host factors have defied molecular identification. Here we describe a genome-wide haploid genetic screen in human cells to identify host factors required for Ebola virus entry. Our screen uncovered 67 mutations disrupting all six members of the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein-sorting (HOPS) multisubunit tethering complex, which is involved in the fusion of endosomes to lysosomes, and 39 independent mutations that disrupt the endo/lysosomal cholesterol transporter protein Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1). Cells defective for the HOPS complex or NPC1 function, including primary fibroblasts derived from human Niemann-Pick type C1 disease patients, are resistant to infection by Ebola virus and Marburg virus, but remain fully susceptible to a suite of unrelated viruses. We show that membrane fusion mediated by filovirus glycoproteins and viral escape from the vesicular compartment require the NPC1 protein, independent of its known function in cholesterol transport. Our findings uncover unique features of the entry pathway used by filoviruses and indicate potential antiviral strategies to combat these deadly agents.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature10348

    View details for Web of Science ID 000294852400033

    View details for PubMedID 21866103

  • Haploid Genetic Screens in Human Cells Identify Host Factors Used by Pathogens SCIENCE Carette, J. E., Guimaraes, C. P., Varadarajan, M., Park, A. S., Wuethrich, I., Godarova, A., Kotecki, M., Cochran, B. H., Spooner, E., Ploegh, H. L., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2009; 326 (5957): 1231-1235


    Loss-of-function genetic screens in model organisms have elucidated numerous biological processes, but the diploid genome of mammalian cells has precluded large-scale gene disruption. We used insertional mutagenesis to develop a screening method to generate null alleles in a human cell line haploid for all chromosomes except chromosome 8. Using this approach, we identified host factors essential for infection with influenza and genes encoding important elements of the biosynthetic pathway of diphthamide, which are required for the cytotoxic effects of diphtheria toxin and exotoxin A. We also identified genes needed for the action of cytolethal distending toxin, including a cell-surface protein that interacts with the toxin. This approach has both conceptual and practical parallels with genetic approaches in haploid yeast.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1178955

    View details for Web of Science ID 000272117900039

    View details for PubMedID 19965467

  • An alternate route for adeno-associated virus entry independent of AAVR. Journal of virology Dudek, A. M., Pillay, S., Puschnik, A. S., Nagamine, C. M., Cheng, F., Qiu, J., Carette, J. E., Vandenberghe, L. H. 2018


    Determinants and mechanisms of cell attachment and entry steer the Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) in its utility as a gene therapy vector. Thus far a systematic assessment of how diverse AAV serotypes engage their proteinaceous receptor AAVR (KIAA0319L) to establish transduction has been lacking, despite potential implications for cell and tissue tropism. Here, a large set of human and simian AAVs as well as in silico reconstructed ancestral AAV capsids were interrogated for AAVR usage. We identified a distinct AAV capsid lineage comprised of AAV4 and AAVrh32.33 that can bind and transduce cells in the absence of AAVR, independent of multiplicity of infection. Viral overlay assays and rescue experiments in non-permisive cells demonstrate that these AAVs are unable to bind to or use the AAVR protein for entry. Further evidence for a distinct entry pathway was observed in vivo, as AAVR knock out mice were equally permissive to transduction by AAVrh32.33 compared to wild type mice upon systemic injection. We interestingly observe that some AAV capsids undergo a low level of transduction in the absence of AAVR, both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some capsids may have a multi-modal entry pathway. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that AAVR usage is conserved amongst all primate AAVs except for those in the AAV4 lineage, and a non-AAVR pathway may be available to other serotypes. This work furthers our understanding of entry of AAV, a vector system of broad utility in gene therapy.Importance: Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) is a non-pathogenic virus that is used as a vehicle for gene delivery. Here, we have identified several situations in which transduction is retained in both cell lines and a mouse model in the absence of a previously defined entry receptor, AAVR. Defining the molecular determinants of the infectious pathway of this highly relevant viral vector system can help refine future applications and therapies of this vector.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.02213-17

    View details for PubMedID 29343568

  • RNA-protein interaction detection in living cells. Nature methods Ramanathan, M., Majzoub, K., Rao, D. S., Neela, P. H., Zarnegar, B. J., Mondal, S., Roth, J. G., Gai, H., Kovalski, J. R., Siprashvili, Z., Palmer, T. D., Carette, J. E., Khavari, P. A. 2018


    RNA-protein interactions play numerous roles in cellular function and disease. Here we describe RNA-protein interaction detection (RaPID), which uses proximity-dependent protein labeling, based on the BirA* biotin ligase, to rapidly identify the proteins that bind RNA sequences of interest in living cells. RaPID displays utility in multiple applications, including in evaluating protein binding to mutant RNA motifs in human genetic disorders, in uncovering potential post-transcriptional networks in breast cancer, and in discovering essential host proteins that interact with Zika virus RNA. To improve the BirA*-labeling component of RaPID, moreover, a new mutant BirA* was engineered from Bacillus subtilis, termed BASU, that enables >1,000-fold faster kinetics and >30-fold increased signal-to-noise ratio over the prior standard Escherichia coli BirA*, thereby enabling direct study of RNA-protein interactions in living cells on a timescale as short as 1 min.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nmeth.4601

    View details for PubMedID 29400715

  • Monkeypox Virus Host Factor Screen Using Haploid Cells Identifies Essential Role of GARP Complex in Extracellular Virus Formation. Journal of virology Realegeno, S., Puschnik, A. S., Kumar, A., Goldsmith, C., Burgado, J., Sambhara, S., Olson, V. A., Carroll, D., Damon, I., Hirata, T., Kinoshita, T., Carette, J. E., Satheshkumar, P. S. 2017; 91 (11)


    Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is a human pathogen that is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus, which includes Vaccinia virus and Variola virus (the causative agent of smallpox). Human monkeypox is considered an emerging zoonotic infectious disease. To identify host factors required for MPXV infection, we performed a genome-wide insertional mutagenesis screen in human haploid cells. The screen revealed several candidate genes, including those involved in Golgi trafficking, glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) - anchor biosynthesis. We validated the role of a set of vacuolar protein sorting (VPS) genes during infection, VPS51-54, which comprise the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. The GARP complex is a tethering complex involved in retrograde transport of endosomes to the trans-Golgi apparatus. Our data demonstrate that VPS52 and VPS54 were dispensable for mature virus (MV) production but were required for extracellular virus (EV) formation. For comparison, a known antiviral compound, ST-246, was used in our experiments demonstrating that EV titers in VPS52 and VPS54 knockout (KO) cells were comparable to levels exhibited by ST-246 treated wildtype cells. Confocal microscopy was used to examine actin tail formation, one of the viral egress mechanisms for cell-to-cell dissemination, and revealed an absence of actin tails in VPS52KO or VPS54KO infected cells. Further evaluation of these cells by electron microscopy demonstrated a decrease in wrapped viruses (WV) compared to wild type control. Collectively, our data demonstrate the role of GARP complex genes in double-membrane wrapping of MV necessary for EV formation, implicating the host endosomal trafficking pathway in orthopoxvirus infection.IMPORTANCE Human monkeypox is an emerging zoonotic infectious disease caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV). Of the two MPXV clades, the Congo Basin strain is associated with severe disease, higher mortality, and increased human-to-human transmission relative to the West African strain. Monkeypox is endemic to regions of western and central Africa but was introduced into the United States in 2003 from the importation of infected animals. The threat of MPXV and other orthopoxviruses is increasing due to the absence of routine smallpox vaccination leading to a higher proportion of naïve populations. In this study, we have identified and validated candidate genes that are required for MPXV infection, specifically the Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) complex. Identifying host targets required for infection that prevents extracellular virus formation such as the GARP complex or the retrograde pathway can provide a potential target for anti-viral therapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.00011-17

    View details for PubMedID 28331092

  • Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens NATURE Khodadoust, M. S., Olsson, N., Wagar, L. E., Haabeth, O. A., Chen, B., Swaminathan, K., Rawson, K., Liu, C. L., Steiner, D., Lund, P., Rao, S., Zhang, L., Marceau, C., Stehr, H., Newman, A. M., Czerwinski, D. K., Carlton, V. E., Moorhead, M., Faham, M., Kohrt, H. E., Carette, J., Green, M. R., Davis, M. M., Levy, R., Elias, J. E., Alizadeh, A. A. 2017; 543 (7647): 723-?


    Cancer somatic mutations can generate neoantigens that distinguish malignant from normal cells. However, the personalized identification and validation of neoantigens remains a major challenge. Here we discover neoantigens in human mantle-cell lymphomas by using an integrated genomic and proteomic strategy that interrogates tumour antigen peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II molecules. We applied this approach to systematically characterize MHC ligands from 17 patients. Remarkably, all discovered neoantigenic peptides were exclusively derived from the lymphoma immunoglobulin heavy- or light-chain variable regions. Although we identified MHC presentation of private polymorphic germline alleles, no mutated peptides were recovered from non-immunoglobulin somatically mutated genes. Somatic mutations within the immunoglobulin variable region were almost exclusively presented by MHC class II. We isolated circulating CD4(+) T cells specific for immunoglobulin-derived neoantigens and found these cells could mediate killing of autologous lymphoma cells. These results demonstrate that an integrative approach combining MHC isolation, peptide identification, and exome sequencing is an effective platform to uncover tumour neoantigens. Application of this strategy to human lymphoma implicates immunoglobulin neoantigens as targets for lymphoma immunotherapy.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature21433

    View details for Web of Science ID 000397619700057

    View details for PubMedID 28329770

  • PLA2G16 represents a switch between entry and clearance of Picornaviridae. Nature Staring, J., von Castelmur, E., Blomen, V. A., van den Hengel, L. G., Brockmann, M., Baggen, J., Thibaut, H. J., Nieuwenhuis, J., Janssen, H., Van Kuppeveld, F. J., Perrakis, A., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2017; 541 (7637): 412-416


    Picornaviruses are a leading cause of human and veterinary infections that result in various diseases, including polio and the common cold. As archetypical non-enveloped viruses, their biology has been extensively studied. Although a range of different cell-surface receptors are bound by different picornaviruses, it is unclear whether common host factors are needed for them to reach the cytoplasm. Using genome-wide haploid genetic screens, here we identify the lipid-modifying enzyme PLA2G16 (refs 8, 9, 10, 11) as a picornavirus host factor that is required for a previously unknown event in the viral life cycle. We find that PLA2G16 functions early during infection, enabling virion-mediated genome delivery into the cytoplasm, but not in any virion-assigned step, such as cell binding, endosomal trafficking or pore formation. To resolve this paradox, we screened for suppressors of the ΔPLA2G16 phenotype and identified a mechanism previously implicated in the clearance of intracellular bacteria. The sensor of this mechanism, galectin-8 (encoded by LGALS8), detects permeated endosomes and marks them for autophagic degradation, whereas PLA2G16 facilitates viral genome translocation and prevents clearance. This study uncovers two competing processes triggered by virus entry: activation of a pore-activated clearance pathway and recruitment of a phospholipase to enable genome release.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nature21032

    View details for PubMedID 28077878

  • Host determinants of adeno-associated viral vector entry. Current opinion in virology Pillay, S., Carette, J. E. 2017; 24: 124–31


    Viral vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are leading candidates for therapeutic gene delivery. Understanding rate-limiting steps in the entry of AAV vectors may be used in a rational approach to improve efficiency and specificity of transduction. This review describes our current understanding of AAV entry, a key step during infection. We discuss the identity and functions of AAV receptors and attachment factors, including the recently discovered multi-serotype receptor AAVR. We further provide an overview of other host factors that act during the trafficking stage of AAV vector transduction. In particular, we focus on cellular protein complexes associated with retrograde transport from endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. The novel insights in AAV-host interactions facilitated by technological advances in genetic screening approaches provide a greater depth in our understanding how AAV vectors exploit host factors to deliver its genetic cargo to the nucleus.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.coviro.2017.06.003

    View details for PubMedID 28672171

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5549665

  • Comparative genetic screens in human cells reveal new regulatory mechanisms in WNT signaling ELIFE Lebensohn, A. M., Dubey, R., Neitzel, L. R., Tacchelly-Benites, O., Yang, E., Marceau, C. D., Davis, E. M., Patel, B. B., Bahrami-Nejad, Z., Travaglini, K. J., Ahmed, Y., Lee, E., Carette, J. E., Rohatgi, R. 2016; 5


    The comprehensive understanding of cellular signaling pathways remains a challenge due to multiple layers of regulation that may become evident only when the pathway is probed at different levels or critical nodes are eliminated. To discover regulatory mechanisms in canonical WNT signaling, we conducted a systematic forward genetic analysis through reporter-based screens in haploid human cells. Comparison of screens for negative, attenuating and positive regulators of WNT signaling, mediators of R-spondin-dependent signaling and suppressors of constitutive signaling induced by loss of the tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli or casein kinase 1α uncovered new regulatory features at most levels of the pathway. These include a requirement for the transcription factor AP-4, a role for the DAX domain of AXIN2 in controlling β-catenin transcriptional activity, a contribution of glycophosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis and glypicans to R-spondin-potentiated WNT signaling, and two different mechanisms that regulate signaling when distinct components of the β-catenin destruction complex are lost. The conceptual and methodological framework we describe should enable the comprehensive understanding of other signaling systems.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.21459

    View details for Web of Science ID 000393384400001

    View details for PubMedID 27996937

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5257257

  • Complement pathway amplifies caspase-11-dependent cell death and endotoxin-induced sepsis severity. journal of experimental medicine Napier, B. A., Brubaker, S. W., Sweeney, T. E., Monette, P., Rothmeier, G. H., Gertsvolf, N. A., Puschnik, A., Carette, J. E., Khatri, P., Monack, D. M. 2016; 213 (11): 2365-2382


    Cell death and release of proinflammatory mediators contribute to mortality during sepsis. Specifically, caspase-11-dependent cell death contributes to pathology and decreases in survival time in sepsis models. Priming of the host cell, through TLR4 and interferon receptors, induces caspase-11 expression, and cytosolic LPS directly stimulates caspase-11 activation, promoting the release of proinflammatory cytokines through pyroptosis and caspase-1 activation. Using a CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome-wide screen, we identified novel mediators of caspase-11-dependent cell death. We found a complement-related peptidase, carboxypeptidase B1 (Cpb1), to be required for caspase-11 gene expression and subsequent caspase-11-dependent cell death. Cpb1 modifies a cleavage product of C3, which binds to and activates C3aR, and then modulates innate immune signaling. We find the Cpb1-C3-C3aR pathway induces caspase-11 expression through amplification of MAPK activity downstream of TLR4 and Ifnar activation, and mediates severity of LPS-induced sepsis (endotoxemia) and disease outcome in mice. We show C3aR is required for up-regulation of caspase-11 orthologues, caspase-4 and -5, in primary human macrophages during inflammation and that c3aR1 and caspase-5 transcripts are highly expressed in patients with severe sepsis; thus, suggesting that these pathways are important in human sepsis. Our results highlight a novel role for complement and the Cpb1-C3-C3aR pathway in proinflammatory signaling, caspase-11 cell death, and sepsis severity.

    View details for PubMedID 27697835

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5068231

  • Chromatin-Remodeling Complex SWI/SNF Controls Multidrug Resistance by Transcriptionally Regulating the Drug Efflux Pump ABCB1 CANCER RESEARCH Dubey, R., Lebensohn, A. M., Bahrami-Nejad, Z., Marceau, C., Champion, M., Gevaert, O., Sikic, B. I., Carette, J. E., Rohatgi, R. 2016; 76 (19): 5810-5821


    Anthracyclines are among the most effective yet most toxic drugs used in the oncology clinic. The nucleosome-remodeling SWI/SNF complex, a potent tumor suppressor, is thought to promote sensitivity to anthracyclines by recruiting topoisomerase IIa (TOP2A) to DNA and increasing double-strand breaks. In this study, we discovered a novel mechanism through which SWI/SNF influences resistance to the widely used anthracycline doxorubicin based on the use of a forward genetic screen in haploid human cells, followed by a rigorous single and double-mutant epistasis analysis using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated engineering. Doxorubicin resistance conferred by loss of the SMARCB1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex was caused by transcriptional upregulation of a single gene, encoding the multidrug resistance pump ABCB1. Remarkably, both ABCB1 upregulation and doxorubicin resistance caused by SMARCB1 loss were dependent on the function of SMARCA4, a catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. We propose that residual SWI/SNF complexes lacking SMARCB1 are vital determinants of drug sensitivity, not just to TOP2A-targeted agents, but to the much broader range of cancer drugs effluxed by ABCB1. Cancer Res; 76(19); 5810-21. ©2016 AACR.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0716

    View details for Web of Science ID 000385625500025

    View details for PubMedID 27503929

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC5050136

  • Parallel shRNA and CRISPR-Cas9 screens enable antiviral drug target identification NATURE CHEMICAL BIOLOGY Deans, R. M., Morgens, D. W., Okesli, A., Pillay, S., Horlbeck, M. A., Kampmann, M., Gilbert, L. A., Li, A., Mateo, R., Smith, M., Glenn, J. S., Carette, J. E., Khosla, C., Bassik, M. C. 2016; 12 (5): 361-?


    Broad-spectrum antiviral drugs targeting host processes could potentially treat a wide range of viruses while reducing the likelihood of emergent resistance. Despite great promise as therapeutics, such drugs remain largely elusive. Here we used parallel genome-wide high-coverage short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 screens to identify the cellular target and mechanism of action of GSK983, a potent broad-spectrum antiviral with unexplained cytotoxicity. We found that GSK983 blocked cell proliferation and dengue virus replication by inhibiting the pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH). Guided by mechanistic insights from both genomic screens, we found that exogenous deoxycytidine markedly reduced GSK983 cytotoxicity but not antiviral activity, providing an attractive new approach to improve the therapeutic window of DHODH inhibitors against RNA viruses. Our results highlight the distinct advantages and limitations of each screening method for identifying drug targets, and demonstrate the utility of parallel knockdown and knockout screens for comprehensive probing of drug activity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/NCHEMBIO.2050

    View details for Web of Science ID 000374322800011

    View details for PubMedID 27018887

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4836973

  • A Single Residue in Ebola Virus Receptor NPC1 Influences Cellular Host Range in Reptiles. mSphere Ndungo, E., Herbert, A. S., Raaben, M., Obernosterer, G., Biswas, R., Miller, E. H., Wirchnianski, A. S., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Whelan, S. P., Dye, J. M., Chandran, K. 2016; 1 (2)


    Filoviruses are the causative agents of an increasing number of disease outbreaks in human populations, including the current unprecedented Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in western Africa. One obstacle to controlling these epidemics is our poor understanding of the host range of filoviruses and their natural reservoirs. Here, we investigated the role of the intracellular filovirus receptor, Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) as a molecular determinant of Ebola virus (EBOV) host range at the cellular level. Whereas human cells can be infected by EBOV, a cell line derived from a Russell's viper (Daboia russellii) (VH-2) is resistant to infection in an NPC1-dependent manner. We found that VH-2 cells are resistant to EBOV infection because the Russell's viper NPC1 ortholog bound poorly to the EBOV spike glycoprotein (GP). Analysis of panels of viper-human NPC1 chimeras and point mutants allowed us to identify a single amino acid residue in NPC1, at position 503, that bidirectionally influenced both its binding to EBOV GP and its viral receptor activity in cells. Significantly, this single residue change perturbed neither NPC1's endosomal localization nor its housekeeping role in cellular cholesterol trafficking. Together with other recent work, these findings identify sequences in NPC1 that are important for viral receptor activity by virtue of their direct interaction with EBOV GP and suggest that they may influence filovirus host range in nature. Broader surveys of NPC1 orthologs from vertebrates may delineate additional sequence polymorphisms in this gene that control susceptibility to filovirus infection. IMPORTANCE Identifying cellular factors that determine susceptibility to infection can help us understand how Ebola virus is transmitted. We asked if the EBOV receptor Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) could explain why reptiles are resistant to EBOV infection. We demonstrate that cells derived from the Russell's viper are not susceptible to infection because EBOV cannot bind to viper NPC1. This resistance to infection can be mapped to a single amino acid residue in viper NPC1 that renders it unable to bind to EBOV GP. The newly solved structure of EBOV GP bound to NPC1 confirms our findings, revealing that this residue dips into the GP receptor-binding pocket and is therefore critical to the binding interface. Consequently, this otherwise well-conserved residue in vertebrate species influences the ability of reptilian NPC1 proteins to bind to EBOV GP, thereby affecting viral host range in reptilian cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/mSphere.00007-16

    View details for PubMedID 27303731

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4894689

  • Gene essentiality and synthetic lethality in haploid human cells. Science Blomen, V. A., Májek, P., Jae, L. T., Bigenzahn, J. W., Nieuwenhuis, J., Staring, J., Sacco, R., van Diemen, F. R., Olk, N., Stukalov, A., Marceau, C., Janssen, H., Carette, J. E., Bennett, K. L., Colinge, J., Superti-Furga, G., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2015; 350 (6264): 1092-1096


    Although the genes essential for life have been identified in less complex model organisms, their elucidation in human cells has been hindered by technical barriers. We use extensive mutagenesis in haploid human cells to identify approximately 2,000 genes required for optimal fitness under culture conditions. To study the principles of genetic interactions in human cells we created a synthetic lethality network focused on the secretory pathway based exclusively on mutations. This revealed a genetic crosstalk governing Golgi homeostasis, an additional subunit of the human oligosaccharyltransferase complex, and a Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase Beta adaptor hijacked by viruses. The synthetic lethality map parallels observations made in yeast and projects a route forward to reveal genetic networks in diverse aspects of human cell biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.aac7557

    View details for PubMedID 26472760

  • A forward genetic screen reveals novel independent regulators of ULBP1, an activating ligand for natural killer cells ELIFE Gowen, B. G., Chim, B., Marceau, C. D., Greene, T. T., Burr, P., Gonzalez, J. R., Hesser, C. R., Dietzen, P. A., Russell, T., Iannello, A., Coscoy, L., Sentman, C. L., Carette, J. E., Muljo, S. A., Raulet, D. H. 2015; 4

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.08474

    View details for Web of Science ID 000364817600001

    View details for PubMedID 26565589

  • Kinetic pathway of 40S ribosomal subunit recruitment to hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Fuchs, G., Petrov, A. N., Marceau, C. D., Popov, L. M., Chen, J., O'Leary, S. E., Wang, R., Carette, J. E., Sarnow, P., Puglisi, J. D. 2015; 112 (2): 319-325


    Translation initiation can occur by multiple pathways. To delineate these pathways by single-molecule methods, fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunits are required. Here, we labeled human 40S ribosomal subunits with a fluorescent SNAP-tag at ribosomal protein eS25 (RPS25). The resulting ribosomal subunits could be specifically labeled in living cells and in vitro. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between RPS25 and domain II of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), we measured the rates of 40S subunit arrival to the HCV IRES. Our data support a single-step model of HCV IRES recruitment to 40S subunits, irreversible on the initiation time scale. We furthermore demonstrated that after binding, the 40S:HCV IRES complex is conformationally dynamic, undergoing slow large-scale rearrangements. Addition of translation extracts suppresses these fluctuations, funneling the complex into a single conformation on the 80S assembly pathway. These findings show that 40S:HCV IRES complex formation is accompanied by dynamic conformational rearrangements that may be modulated by initiation factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1421328111

    View details for PubMedID 25516984

  • Compromising the 19S proteasome complex protects cells from reduced flux through the proteasome. eLife Tsvetkov, P., Mendillo, M. L., Zhao, J., Carette, J. E., Merrill, P. H., Cikes, D., Varadarajan, M., van Diemen, F. R., Penninger, J. M., Goldberg, A. L., Brummelkamp, T. R., Santagata, S., Lindquist, S. 2015; 4


    Proteasomes are central regulators of protein homeostasis in eukaryotes. Proteasome function is vulnerable to environmental insults, cellular protein imbalance and targeted pharmaceuticals. Yet, mechanisms that cells deploy to counteract inhibition of this central regulator are little understood. To find such mechanisms, we reduced flux through the proteasome to the point of toxicity with specific inhibitors and performed genome-wide screens for mutations that allowed cells to survive. Counter to expectation, reducing expression of individual subunits of the proteasome's 19S regulatory complex increased survival. Strong 19S reduction was cytotoxic but modest reduction protected cells from inhibitors. Protection was accompanied by an increased ratio of 20S to 26S proteasomes, preservation of protein degradation capacity and reduced proteotoxic stress. While compromise of 19S function can have a fitness cost under basal conditions, it provided a powerful survival advantage when proteasome function was impaired. This means of rebalancing proteostasis is conserved from yeast to humans.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.08467

    View details for PubMedID 26327695

  • Hunting Viral Receptors Using Haploid Cells ANNUAL REVIEW OF VIROLOGY, VOL 2 Pillay, S., Carette, J. E. 2015; 2: 219-239
  • A forward genetic screen reveals novel independent regulators of ULBP1, an activating ligand for natural killer cells. eLife Gowen, B. G., Chim, B., Marceau, C. D., Greene, T. T., Burr, P., Gonzalez, J. R., Hesser, C. R., Dietzen, P. A., Russell, T., Iannello, A., Coscoy, L., Sentman, C. L., Carette, J. E., Muljo, S. A., Raulet, D. H. 2015; 4


    Recognition and elimination of tumor cells by the immune system is crucial for limiting tumor growth. Natural killer (NK) cells become activated when the receptor NKG2D is engaged by ligands that are frequently upregulated in primary tumors and on cancer cell lines. However, the molecular mechanisms driving NKG2D ligand expression on tumor cells are not well defined. Using a forward genetic screen in a tumor-derived human cell line, we identified several novel factors supporting expression of the NKG2D ligand ULBP1. Our results show stepwise contributions of independent pathways working at multiple stages of ULBP1 biogenesis. Deeper investigation of selected hits from the screen showed that the transcription factor ATF4 drives ULBP1 gene expression in cancer cell lines, while the RNA-binding protein RBM4 supports ULBP1 expression by suppressing a novel alternatively spliced isoform of ULBP1 mRNA. These findings offer insight into the stress pathways that alert the immune system to danger.

    View details for DOI 10.7554/eLife.08474

    View details for PubMedID 26565589

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4629278

  • Identifying multi-locus chromatin contacts in human cells using tethered multiple 3C. BMC genomics Ay, F., Vu, T. H., Zeitz, M. J., Varoquaux, N., Carette, J. E., Vert, J., Hoffman, A. R., Noble, W. S. 2015; 16: 121-?


    Several recently developed experimental methods, each an extension of the chromatin conformation capture (3C) assay, have enabled the genome-wide profiling of chromatin contacts between pairs of genomic loci in 3D. Especially in complex eukaryotes, data generated by these methods, coupled with other genome-wide datasets, demonstrated that non-random chromatin folding correlates strongly with cellular processes such as gene expression and DNA replication.We describe a genome architecture assay, tethered multiple 3C (TM3C), that maps genome-wide chromatin contacts via a simple protocol of restriction enzyme digestion and religation of fragments upon agarose gel beads followed by paired-end sequencing. In addition to identifying contacts between pairs of loci, TM3C enables identification of contacts among more than two loci simultaneously. We use TM3C to assay the genome architectures of two human cell lines: KBM7, a near-haploid chronic leukemia cell line, and NHEK, a normal diploid human epidermal keratinocyte cell line. We confirm that the contact frequency maps produced by TM3C exhibit features characteristic of existing genome architecture datasets, including the expected scaling of contact probabilities with genomic distance, megabase scale chromosomal compartments and sub-megabase scale topological domains. We also confirm that TM3C captures several known cell type-specific contacts, ploidy shifts and translocations, such as Philadelphia chromosome formation (Ph+) in KBM7. We confirm a subset of the triple contacts involving the IGF2-H19 imprinting control region (ICR) using PCR analysis for KBM7 cells. Our genome-wide analysis of pairwise and triple contacts demonstrates their preference for linking open chromatin regions to each other and for linking regions with higher numbers of DNase hypersensitive sites (DHSs) to each other. For near-haploid KBM7 cells, we infer whole genome 3D models that exhibit clustering of small chromosomes with each other and large chromosomes with each other, consistent with previous studies of the genome architectures of other human cell lines.TM3C is a simple protocol for ascertaining genome architecture and can be used to identify simultaneous contacts among three or four loci. Application of TM3C to a near-haploid human cell line revealed large-scale features of chromosomal organization and multi-way chromatin contacts that preferentially link regions of open chromatin.

    View details for DOI 10.1186/s12864-015-1236-7

    View details for PubMedID 25887659

  • RIP3 induces apoptosis independent of pronecrotic kinase activity. Molecular cell Mandal, P., Berger, S. B., Pillay, S., Moriwaki, K., Huang, C., Guo, H., Lich, J. D., Finger, J., Kasparcova, V., Votta, B., Ouellette, M., King, B. W., Wisnoski, D., Lakdawala, A. S., DeMartino, M. P., Casillas, L. N., Haile, P. A., Sehon, C. A., Marquis, R. W., Upton, J., Daley-Bauer, L. P., Roback, L., Ramia, N., Dovey, C. M., Carette, J. E., Chan, F. K., Bertin, J., Gough, P. J., Mocarski, E. S., Kaiser, W. J. 2014; 56 (4): 481-495


    Receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3 or RIPK3) has emerged as a central player in necroptosis and a potential target to control inflammatory disease. Here, three selective small-molecule compounds are shown to inhibit RIP3 kinase-dependent necroptosis, although their therapeutic value is undermined by a surprising, concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis. These compounds interact with RIP3 to activate caspase 8 (Casp8) via RHIM-driven recruitment of RIP1 (RIPK1) to assemble a Casp8-FADD-cFLIP complex completely independent of pronecrotic kinase activities and MLKL. RIP3 kinase-dead D161N mutant induces spontaneous apoptosis independent of compound, whereas D161G, D143N, and K51A mutants, like wild-type, only trigger apoptosis when compound is present. Accordingly, RIP3-K51A mutant mice (Rip3(K51A/K51A)) are viable and fertile, in stark contrast to the perinatal lethality of Rip3(D161N/D161N) mice. RIP3 therefore holds both necroptosis and apoptosis in balance through a Ripoptosome-like platform. This work highlights a common mechanism unveiling RHIM-driven apoptosis by therapeutic or genetic perturbation of RIP3.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.10.021

    View details for PubMedID 25459880

  • GPR107, a G-protein-coupled Receptor Essential for Intoxication by Pseudomonas aeruginosa Exotoxin A, Localizes to the Golgi and Is Cleaved by Furin. journal of biological chemistry Tafesse, F. G., Guimaraes, C. P., Maruyama, T., Carette, J. E., Lory, S., Brummelkamp, T. R., Ploegh, H. L. 2014; 289 (35): 24005-24018


    A number of toxins, including exotoxin A (PE) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, kill cells by inhibiting protein synthesis. PE kills by ADP-ribosylation of the translation elongation factor 2, but many of the host factors required for entry, membrane translocation, and intracellular transport remain to be elucidated. A genome-wide genetic screen in human KBM7 cells was performed to uncover host factors used by PE, several of which were confirmed by CRISPR/Cas9-gene editing in a different cell type. Several proteins not previously implicated in the PE intoxication pathway were identified, including GPR107, an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. GPR107 localizes to the trans-Golgi network and is essential for retrograde transport. It is cleaved by the endoprotease furin, and a disulfide bond connects the two cleaved fragments. Compromising this association affects the function of GPR107. The N-terminal region of GPR107 is critical for its biological function. GPR107 might be one of the long-sought receptors that associates with G-proteins to regulate intracellular vesicular transport.

    View details for DOI 10.1074/jbc.M114.589275

    View details for PubMedID 25031321

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4148833

  • Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes as an in vitro model for coxsackievirus b3-induced myocarditis and antiviral drug screening platform. Circulation research Sharma, A., Marceau, C., Hamaguchi, R., Burridge, P. W., Rajarajan, K., Churko, J. M., Wu, H., Sallam, K. I., Matsa, E., Sturzu, A. C., Che, Y., Ebert, A., Diecke, S., Liang, P., Red-Horse, K., Carette, J. E., Wu, S. M., Wu, J. C. 2014; 115 (6): 556-566


    Viral myocarditis is a life-threatening illness that may lead to heart failure or cardiac arrhythmias. A major causative agent for viral myocarditis is the B3 strain of coxsackievirus, a positive-sense RNA enterovirus. However, human cardiac tissues are difficult to procure in sufficient enough quantities for studying the mechanisms of cardiac-specific viral infection.This study examined whether human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) could be used to model the pathogenic processes of coxsackievirus-induced viral myocarditis and to screen antiviral therapeutics for efficacy.hiPSC-CMs were infected with a luciferase-expressing coxsackievirus B3 strain (CVB3-Luc). Brightfield microscopy, immunofluorescence, and calcium imaging were used to characterize virally infected hiPSC-CMs for alterations in cellular morphology and calcium handling. Viral proliferation in hiPSC-CMs was quantified using bioluminescence imaging. Antiviral compounds including interferonβ1, ribavirin, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and fluoxetine were tested for their capacity to abrogate CVB3-Luc proliferation in hiPSC-CMs in vitro. The ability of these compounds to reduce CVB3-Luc proliferation in hiPSC-CMs was consistent with reported drug effects in previous studies. Mechanistic analyses via gene expression profiling of hiPSC-CMs infected with CVB3-Luc revealed an activation of viral RNA and protein clearance pathways after interferonβ1 treatment.This study demonstrates that hiPSC-CMs express the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor, are susceptible to coxsackievirus infection, and can be used to predict antiviral drug efficacy. Our results suggest that the hiPSC-CM/CVB3-Luc assay is a sensitive platform that can screen novel antiviral therapeutics for their effectiveness in a high-throughput fashion.

    View details for DOI 10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.115.303810

    View details for PubMedID 25015077

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC4149868

  • Inhibition of ATPIF1 Ameliorates Severe Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Dysfunction in Mammalian Cells. Cell reports Chen, W. W., Birsoy, K., Mihaylova, M. M., Snitkin, H., Stasinski, I., Yucel, B., Bayraktar, E. C., Carette, J. E., Clish, C. B., Brummelkamp, T. R., Sabatini, D. D., Sabatini, D. M. 2014; 7 (1): 27-34


    Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are characterized by loss of electron transport chain (ETC) activity. Although the causes of many such diseases are known, there is a lack of effective therapies. To identify genes that confer resistance to severe ETC dysfunction when inactivated, we performed a genome-wide genetic screen in haploid human cells with the mitochondrial complex III inhibitor antimycin. This screen revealed that loss of ATPIF1 strongly protects against antimycin-induced ETC dysfunction and cell death by allowing for the maintenance of mitochondrial membrane potential. ATPIF1 loss protects against other forms of ETC dysfunction and is even essential for the viability of human ρ° cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, a system commonly used for studying ETC dysfunction. Importantly, inhibition of ATPIF1 ameliorates complex III blockade in primary hepatocytes, a cell type afflicted in severe mitochondrial disease. Altogether, these results suggest that inhibition of ATPIF1 can ameliorate severe ETC dysfunction in mitochondrial pathology.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.02.046

    View details for PubMedID 24685140

  • A CREB3-ARF4 signalling pathway mediates the response to Golgi stress and susceptibility to pathogens NATURE CELL BIOLOGY Reiling, J. H., Olive, A. J., Sanyal, S., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Ploegh, H. L., Starnbach, M. N., Sabatini, D. M. 2013; 15 (12): 1473-?


    Treatment of cells with brefeldin A (BFA) blocks secretory vesicle transport and causes a collapse of the Golgi apparatus. To gain more insight into the cellular mechanisms mediating BFA toxicity, we conducted a genome-wide haploid genetic screen that led to the identification of the small G protein ADP-ribosylation factor 4 (ARF4). ARF4 depletion preserves viability, Golgi integrity and cargo trafficking in the presence of BFA, and these effects depend on the guanine nucleotide exchange factor GBF1 and other ARF isoforms including ARF1 and ARF5. ARF4 knockdown cells show increased resistance to several human pathogens including Chlamydia trachomatis and Shigella flexneri. Furthermore, ARF4 expression is induced when cells are exposed to several Golgi-disturbing agents and requires the CREB3 (also known as Luman or LZIP) transcription factor, whose downregulation mimics ARF4 loss. Thus, we have uncovered a CREB3-ARF4 signalling cascade that may be part of a Golgi stress response set in motion by stimuli compromising Golgi capacity.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ncb2865

    View details for Web of Science ID 000327944200012

    View details for PubMedID 24185178

  • Late endosomal transport and tethering are coupled processes controlled by RILP and the cholesterol sensor ORP1L JOURNAL OF CELL SCIENCE van der Kant, R., Fish, A., Janssen, L., Janssen, H., Krom, S., Ho, N., Brummelkamp, T., Carette, J., Rocha, N., Neefjes, J. 2013; 126 (15): 3462-3474


    Late endosomes and lysosomes are dynamic organelles that constantly move and fuse to acquire cargo from early endosomes, phagosomes and autophagosome. Defects in lysosomal dynamics cause severe neurodegenerative and developmental diseases, such as Niemann-Pick type C disease and ARC syndrome, yet little is known about the regulation of late endosomal fusion in a mammalian system. Mammalian endosomes destined for fusion need to be transported over very long distances before they tether to initiate contact. Here, we describe that lysosomal tethering and transport are combined processes co-regulated by one multi-protein complex: RAB7-RILP-ORP1L. We show that RILP directly and concomitantly binds the tethering HOPS complex and the p150(Glued) subunit of the dynein motor. ORP1L then functions as a cholesterol-sensing switch controlling RILP-HOPS-p150(Glued) interactions. We show that RILP and ORP1L control Ebola virus infection, a process dependent on late endosomal fusion. By combining recruitment and regulation of both the dynein motor and HOPS complex into a single multiprotein complex, the RAB7-RILP-ORP1L complex efficiently couples and regulates the timing of microtubule minus-end transport and fusion, two major events in endosomal biology.

    View details for DOI 10.1242/jcs.129270

    View details for Web of Science ID 000322570200024

    View details for PubMedID 23729732

  • A Reporter Screen in a Human Haploid Cell Line Identifies CYLD as a Constitutive Inhibitor of NF-kappa B PLOS ONE Lee, C. C., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Ploegh, H. L. 2013; 8 (7)


    The development of forward genetic screens in human haploid cells has the potential to transform our understanding of the genetic basis of cellular processes unique to man. So far, this approach has been limited mostly to the identification of genes that mediate cell death in response to a lethal agent, likely due to the ease with which this phenotype can be observed. Here, we perform the first reporter screen in the near-haploid KBM7 cell line to identify constitutive inhibitors of NF-κB. CYLD was the only currently known negative regulator of NF-κB to be identified, thus uniquely distinguishing this gene. Also identified were three genes with no previous known connection to NF-κB. Our results demonstrate that reporter screens in haploid human cells can be applied to investigate the many complex signaling pathways that converge upon transcription factors.

    View details for DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0070339

    View details for Web of Science ID 000321692000053

    View details for PubMedID 23861985

  • Deciphering the Glycosylome of Dystroglycanopathies Using Haploid Screens for Lassa Virus Entry SCIENCE Jae, L. T., Raaben, M., Riemersma, M., van Beusekom, E., Blomen, V. A., Velds, A., Kerkhoven, R. M., Carette, J. E., Topaloglu, H., Meinecke, P., Wessels, M. W., Lefeber, D. J., Whelan, S. P., van Bokhoven, H., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2013; 340 (6131): 479-483


    Glycosylated α-dystroglycan (α-DG) serves as cellular entry receptor for multiple pathogens, and defects in its glycosylation cause hereditary Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS). At least eight proteins are critical to glycosylate α-DG, but many genes mutated in WWS remain unknown. To identify modifiers of α-DG, we performed a haploid screen for Lassa virus entry, a hemorrhagic fever virus causing thousands of deaths annually that hijacks glycosylated α-DG to enter cells. In complementary screens, we profiled cells for absence of α-DG carbohydrate chains or biochemically related glycans. This revealed virus host factors and a suite of glycosylation units, including all known Walker-Warburg genes and five additional factors critical for the modification of α-DG. Our findings accentuate the complexity of this posttranslational feature and point out genes defective in dystroglycanopathies.

    View details for DOI 10.1126/science.1233675

    View details for Web of Science ID 000318016700042

    View details for PubMedID 23519211

  • MCT1-mediated transport of a toxic molecule is an effective strategy for targeting glycolytic tumors. Nature genetics Birsoy, K., Wang, T., Possemato, R., Yilmaz, O. H., Koch, C. E., Chen, W. W., Hutchins, A. W., Gultekin, Y., Peterson, T. R., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Clish, C. B., Sabatini, D. M. 2013; 45 (1): 104-108


    There is increasing evidence that oncogenic transformation modifies the metabolic program of cells. A common alteration is the upregulation of glycolysis, and efforts to target glycolytic enzymes for anticancer therapy are under way. Here, we performed a genome-wide haploid genetic screen to identify resistance mechanisms to 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA), a drug candidate that inhibits glycolysis in a poorly understood fashion. We identified the SLC16A1 gene product, MCT1, as the main determinant of 3-BrPA sensitivity. MCT1 is necessary and sufficient for 3-BrPA uptake by cancer cells. Additionally, SLC16A1 mRNA levels are the best predictor of 3-BrPA sensitivity and are most elevated in glycolytic cancer cells. Furthermore, forced MCT1 expression in 3-BrPA-resistant cancer cells sensitizes tumor xenografts to 3-BrPA treatment in vivo. Our results identify a potential biomarker for 3-BrPA sensitivity and provide proof of concept that the selectivity of cancer-expressed transporters can be exploited for delivering toxic molecules to tumors.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.2471

    View details for PubMedID 23202129

  • MCT1-mediated transport of a toxic molecule is an effective strategy for targeting glycolytic tumors NATURE GENETICS Birsoy, K., Wang, T., Possemato, R., Yilmaz, O. H., Koch, C. E., Chen, W. W., Hutchins, A. W., Gultekin, Y., Peterson, T. R., Carette, J. E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Clish, C. B., Sabatini, D. M. 2013; 45 (1): 104-U149

    View details for DOI 10.1038/ng.2471

    View details for Web of Science ID 000312838800021

  • Attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 to host cells requires sulfation PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Rosmarin, D. M., Carette, J. E., Olive, A. J., Starnbach, M. N., Brummelkamp, T. R., Ploegh, H. L. 2012; 109 (25): 10059-10064


    Chlamydia trachomatis is a pathogen responsible for a prevalent sexually transmitted disease. It is also the most common cause of infectious blindness in the developing world. We performed a loss-of-function genetic screen in human haploid cells to identify host factors important in C. trachomatis L2 infection. We identified and confirmed B3GAT3, B4GALT7, and SLC35B2, which encode glucuronosyltransferase I, galactosyltransferase I, and the 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate transporter 1, respectively, as important in facilitating Chlamydia infection. Knockout of any of these three genes inhibits Chlamydia attachment. In complementation studies, we found that the introduction of functional copies of these three genes into the null clones restored full susceptibility to Chlamydia infection. The degree of attachment of Chlamydia strongly correlates with the level of sulfation of the host cell, not simply with the amount of heparan sulfate. Thus, other, as-yet unidentified sulfated macromolecules must contribute to infection. These results demonstrate the utility of screens in haploid cells to study interactions of human cells with bacteria. Furthermore, the human null clones generated can be used to investigate the role of heparan sulfate and sulfation in other settings not limited to infectious disease.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1120244109

    View details for Web of Science ID 000306061400079

    View details for PubMedID 22675117

  • Ebola virus entry requires the host-programmed recognition of an intracellular receptor EMBO JOURNAL Miller, E. H., Obernosterer, G., Raaben, M., Herbert, A. S., Deffieu, M. S., Krishnan, A., Ndungo, E., Sandesara, R. G., Carette, J. E., Kuehne, A. I., Ruthel, G., Pfeffer, S. R., Dye, J. M., Whelan, S. P., Brummelkamp, T. R., Chandran, K. 2012; 31 (8): 1947-1960


    Ebola and Marburg filoviruses cause deadly outbreaks of haemorrhagic fever. Despite considerable efforts, no essential cellular receptors for filovirus entry have been identified. We showed previously that Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal cholesterol transporter, is required for filovirus entry. Here, we demonstrate that NPC1 is a critical filovirus receptor. Human NPC1 fulfills a cardinal property of viral receptors: it confers susceptibility to filovirus infection when expressed in non-permissive reptilian cells. The second luminal domain of NPC1 binds directly and specifically to the viral glycoprotein, GP, and a synthetic single-pass membrane protein containing this domain has viral receptor activity. Purified NPC1 binds only to a cleaved form of GP that is generated within cells during entry, and only viruses containing cleaved GP can utilize a receptor retargeted to the cell surface. Our findings support a model in which GP cleavage by endosomal cysteine proteases unmasks the binding site for NPC1, and GP-NPC1 engagement within lysosomes promotes a late step in entry proximal to viral escape into the host cytoplasm. NPC1 is the first known viral receptor that recognizes its ligand within an intracellular compartment and not at the plasma membrane.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/emboj.2012.53

    View details for Web of Science ID 000303108600010

    View details for PubMedID 22395071

    View details for PubMedCentralID PMC3343336

  • Identification of host cell factors required for intoxication through use of modified cholera toxin JOURNAL OF CELL BIOLOGY Guimaraes, C. P., Carette, J. E., Varadarajan, M., Antos, J., Popp, M. W., Spooner, E., Brummelkamp, T. R., Ploegh, H. L. 2011; 195 (5): 751-764


    We describe a novel labeling strategy to site-specifically attach fluorophores, biotin, and proteins to the C terminus of the A1 subunit (CTA1) of cholera toxin (CTx) in an otherwise correctly assembled and active CTx complex. Using a biotinylated N-linked glycosylation reporter peptide attached to CTA1, we provide direct evidence that ~12% of the internalized CTA1 pool reaches the ER. We also explored the sortase labeling method to attach the catalytic subunit of diphtheria toxin as a toxic warhead to CTA1, thus converting CTx into a cytolethal toxin. This new toxin conjugate enabled us to conduct a genetic screen in human cells, which identified ST3GAL5, SLC35A2, B3GALT4, UGCG, and ELF4 as genes essential for CTx intoxication. The first four encode proteins involved in the synthesis of gangliosides, which are known receptors for CTx. Identification and isolation of the ST3GAL5 and SLC35A2 mutant clonal cells uncover a previously unappreciated differential contribution of gangliosides to intoxication by CTx.

    View details for DOI 10.1083/jcb.201108103

    View details for Web of Science ID 000297819900007

    View details for PubMedID 22123862

  • Lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host receptor for the binary toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Papatheodorou, P., Carette, J. E., Bell, G. W., Schwan, C., Guttenberg, G., Brummelkamp, T. R., Aktories, K. 2011; 108 (39): 16422-16427


    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) causes antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. Hypervirulent strains of the pathogen, which are responsible for increased morbidity and mortality of CDI, produce the binary actin-ADP ribosylating toxin Clostridium difficile transferase (CDT) in addition to the Rho-glucosylating toxins A and B. CDT depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton, increases adherence and colonization of Clostridia by induction of microtubule-based cell protrusions and, eventually, causes death of target cells. Using a haploid genetic screen, we identified the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor as the membrane receptor for CDT uptake by target cells. Moreover, we show that Clostridium perfringens iota toxin, which is a related binary actin-ADP ribosylating toxin, enters target cells via the lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor. Identification of the toxin receptors is essential for understanding of the toxin uptake and provides a most valuable basis for antitoxin strategies.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1109772108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000295255300059

    View details for PubMedID 21930894

  • A haploid genetic screen identifies the major facilitator domain containing 2A (MFSD2A) transporter as a key mediator in the response to tunicamycin PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Reiling, J. H., Clish, C. B., Carette, J. E., Varadarajan, M., Brummelkamp, T. R., Sabatini, D. M. 2011; 108 (29): 11756-11765


    Tunicamycin (TM) inhibits eukaryotic asparagine-linked glycosylation, protein palmitoylation, ganglioside production, proteoglycan synthesis, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase activity, and cell wall biosynthesis in bacteria. Treatment of cells with TM elicits endoplasmic reticulum stress and activates the unfolded protein response. Although widely used in laboratory settings for many years, it is unknown how TM enters cells. Here, we identify in an unbiased genetic screen a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily, major facilitator domain containing 2A (MFSD2A), as a critical mediator of TM toxicity. Cells without MFSD2A are TM-resistant, whereas MFSD2A-overexpressing cells are hypersensitive. Hypersensitivity is associated with increased cellular TM uptake concomitant with an enhanced endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Furthermore, MFSD2A mutant analysis reveals an important function of the C terminus for correct intracellular localization and protein stability, and it identifies transmembrane helical amino acid residues essential for mediating TM sensitivity. Overall, our data uncover a critical role for MFSD2A by acting as a putative TM transporter at the plasma membrane.

    View details for DOI 10.1073/pnas.1018098108

    View details for Web of Science ID 000292876900017

    View details for PubMedID 21677192

  • Global gene disruption in human cells to assign genes to phenotypes by deep sequencing NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY Carette, J. E., Guimaraes, C. P., Wuethrich, I., Blomen, V. A., Varadarajan, M., Sun, C., Bell, G., Yuan, B., Muellner, M. K., Nijman, S. M., Ploegh, H. L., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2011; 29 (6): 542-U108


    Insertional mutagenesis in a haploid background can disrupt gene function. We extend our earlier work by using a retroviral gene-trap vector to generate insertions in >98% of the genes expressed in a human cancer cell line that is haploid for all but one of its chromosomes. We apply phenotypic interrogation via tag sequencing (PhITSeq) to examine millions of mutant alleles through selection and parallel sequencing. Analysis of pools of cells, rather than individual clones enables rapid assessment of the spectrum of genes involved in the phenotypes under study. This facilitates comparative screens as illustrated here for the family of cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs). CDTs are virulence factors secreted by a variety of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria responsible for tissue damage at distinct anatomical sites. We identify 743 mutations distributed over 12 human genes important for intoxication by four different CDTs. Although related CDTs may share host factors, they also exploit unique host factors to yield a profile characteristic for each CDT.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/nbt.1857

    View details for Web of Science ID 000291342100021

    View details for PubMedID 21623355

  • Objective determination of the oncolytic potency of conditionally-replicating adenoviruses using mathematical modeling JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE Idema, S., Dirven, C. M., van Beusechem, V. W., Carette, J. E., Planque, R., Noskel, D. P., Lamfers, M. L., Vandertop, W. P. 2010; 12 (7): 564-571


    Conditionally-replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) infect and replicate in tumor cells, releasing viral progeny upon lysis of the cell. This is a dynamic and inherently exponential process and, thus, the assessment of CRAds should incorporate these dynamics. In vitro experiments are therefore prone to subjective assessment because no validated assay exists that truly appreciates the dynamics of the process. An objective assay could simplify experiments and reduce the number of CRAd variants required to enter a full preclinical evaluation.We developed a simple and practical mathematical model incorporating easily obtainable parameters of the interaction between replicating viruses and growing tumor cells in vitro and, in the present study, validate this model by fitting the predicted values to experimentally-derived values.From the exponential curves of cellular growth and the viral propagation rate in glioma cells, we derive the four parameters needed in this model and show a robust fit to experimental data. Because the initial infection conditions appear to significantly influence the final outcome of CRAd experiments, these conditions are determined using the same cells and correlated with the expression of the primary adenovirus receptor CAR (coxsackie and adenovirus receptor).The results obtained shed light upon the method of action of CRAds and provide an objective and practical model and assay for determining and predicting CRAd activity in tumor cells.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgm.1468

    View details for Web of Science ID 000280451500003

    View details for PubMedID 20603863

  • Generation of iPSCs from cultured human malignant cells BLOOD Carette, J. E., Pruszak, J., Varadarajan, M., Blomen, V. A., Gokhale, S., Camargo, F. D., Wernig, M., Jaenisch, R., Brummelkamp, T. R. 2010; 115 (20): 4039-4042


    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from various differentiated cell types by the expression of a set of defined transcription factors. So far, iPSCs have been generated from primary cells, but it is unclear whether human cancer cell lines can be reprogrammed. Here we describe the generation and characterization of iPSCs derived from human chronic myeloid leukemia cells. We show that, despite the presence of oncogenic mutations, these cells acquired pluripotency by the expression of 4 transcription factors and underwent differentiation into cell types derived of all 3 germ layers during teratoma formation. Interestingly, although the parental cell line was strictly dependent on continuous signaling of the BCR-ABL oncogene, also termed oncogene addiction, reprogrammed cells lost this dependency and became resistant to the BCR-ABL inhibitor imatinib. This finding indicates that the therapeutic agent imatinib targets cells in a specific epigenetic differentiated cell state, and this may contribute to its inability to fully eradicate disease in chronic myeloid leukemia patients.

    View details for DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-07-231845

    View details for Web of Science ID 000277923600008

    View details for PubMedID 20233975

  • Replacement of native adenovirus receptor-binding sites with a new attachment moiety diminishes hepatic tropism and enhances bioavailability in mice HUMAN GENE THERAPY Schagen, F. H., Graat, H. C., Carette, J. E., Vellinga, J., van Geer, M. A., Hoeben, R. C., Dermody, T. S., van Beusechem, V. W. 2008; 19 (8): 783-794


    The in vivo efficacy of adenoviral vectors (AdVs) in gene delivery strategies is hampered by the broad tissue tropism of the virus and its efficient binding to human erythrocytes. To circumvent these limitations, we developed a prototype AdV lacking native binding sites. We replaced the adenoviral fiber with a chimeric molecule consisting of the fiber tail domain, the reovirus sigma1 oligomerization domain, and a polyhistidine tag as model targeting moiety. We also abolished the integrin-binding motif in the penton base protein. The chimeric attachment molecule was efficiently incorporated onto AdV capsids, allowed efficient propagation of AdV without requirement for complementing fiber and conferred highly specific tropism to the AdV. Importantly, the targeted AdV exhibited markedly reduced tropism for liver cells. In comparison with control AdV with native tropism, the targeted AdV showed 1000-fold reduced transduction of HepG2 cells and 10,000-fold reduced transduction of mouse liver cells in freshly isolated liver slices. After intravenous inoculation of C57BL/6 mice, the targeted AdV exhibited delayed clearance in comparison with the native AdV, leaving approximately 10-fold greater levels in the blood 2 hr after inoculation. For all tissues analyzed, the targeted AdV displayed significantly reduced in vivo transduction in comparison with the native vector. Furthermore, in contrast to the native AdV, the targeted AdV did not bind human erythrocytes. Together, our findings suggest that the targeted AdV design described here provides a promising platform for systemic in vivo gene delivery.

    View details for DOI 10.1089/hum.2007.133

    View details for Web of Science ID 000259034300003

    View details for PubMedID 18627267

  • Enhanced tumor cell kill by combined treatment with a small-molecule antagonist of mouse double minute 2 and adenoviruses encoding p53 MOLECULAR CANCER THERAPEUTICS Graat, H. C., Carette, J. E., Schagen, F. H., Vassilev, L. T., Gerritsen, W. R., Kaspers, G. J., Wuisman, P. I., van Beusechem, V. W. 2007; 6 (5): 1552-1561


    Strategies to treat cancer by restoring p53 tumor suppressor functions are being actively investigated. These approaches range from expressing an exogenous p53 gene in p53 mutant cancers to antagonizing a p53 inhibitor in p53 wild-type (WT) cancer cells. In addition, exogenous p53 is used to strengthen the anticancer efficacy of oncolytic adenoviruses. Many cancers express high levels of the major negative regulator of p53, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) protein. Recently, a novel class of highly potent and specific MDM2 antagonists, the Nutlins, was identified. We envisioned that Nutlins could protect both endogenous and exogenous p53 from MDM2-mediated inactivation. We therefore investigated treating human cancer cells with a combination of adenovirus-mediated p53 gene therapy and Nutlin. Combination treatment resulted in broadly effective cell kill of p53 WT and p53-negative cancer cells. Cytotoxicity was associated with profound cell cycle checkpoint activation and apoptosis induction. We also tested Nutlin in combination with oncolytic adenoviruses. Nutlin treatment accelerated viral progeny burst from oncolytic adenovirus-infected cancer cells and caused an estimated 10- to 1,000-fold augmented eradication of p53 WT cancer cells. These findings suggest that Nutlins are promising compounds to be combined with p53 gene therapy and oncolytic virotherapy for cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0631

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246626900012

    View details for PubMedID 17513604

  • A conditionally replicating adenovirus with strict selectivity in killing cells expressing epidermal growth factor receptor VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Graat, H. C., Schagen, F. H., Mastenbroek, D. C., Rots, M. G., Haisma, H. J., Groothuis, G. M., Schaap, G. R., Bras, J., Kaspers, G. J., Wuisman, P. I., Gerritsen, W. R., van Beusechem, V. W. 2007; 361 (1): 56-67


    Virotherapy of cancer using oncolytic adenoviruses has shown promise in both preclinical and clinical settings. One important challenge to reach the full therapeutic potential of oncolytic adenoviruses is accomplishing efficient infection of cancer cells and avoiding uptake by normal tissue through tropism modification. Towards this goal, we constructed and characterized an oncolytic adenovirus, carrying mutated capsid proteins to abolish the promiscuous adenovirus native tropism and encoding a bispecific adapter molecule to target the virus to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The new virus displayed a highly selective targeting profile, with reduced infection of EGFR-negative cells and efficient killing of EGFR-positive cancer cells including primary EGFR-positive osteosarcoma cells that are refractory to infection by conventional adenoviruses. Our method to modify adenovirus tropism might thus be useful to design new oncolytic adenoviruses for more effective treatment of cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.virol.2006.11.011

    View details for Web of Science ID 000246042300007

    View details for PubMedID 17184803

  • Cyclophosphamide increases transgene expression mediated by an oncolytic adenovirus in glioma-bearing mice monitored by bioluminescence imaging MOLECULAR THERAPY Lamfers, M. L., Fulci, G., Gianni, D., Tang, Y., Kurozumi, K., Kaur, B., Moeniralm, S., Saeki, Y., Carette, J. E., Weissleder, R., Vandertop, W. P., van Beusechem, V. W., Dirven, C. M., Chiocca, E. A. 2006; 14 (6): 779-788


    Approaches to improve the oncolytic potency of replication-competent adenoviruses include the insertion of therapeutic transgenes into the viral genome. Little is known about the levels and duration of in vivo transgene expression by cells infected with such "armed" viruses. Using a tumor-selective adenovirus encoding firefly luciferase (AdDelta24CMV-Luc) we investigated these questions in an intracranial mouse model for malignant glioma. Luciferase expression was detected by bioluminescence imaging, and the effect of the immunosuppressive agent cyclophosphamide (CPA) on transgene expression was assessed. Intratumoral AdDelta24CMV-Luc injection led to a localized dose-dependent expression of luciferase. Surprisingly, this expression decreased rapidly during the course of 14 days. In contrast, mice injected with nonreplicating Ad.CMV-Luc demonstrated stable transgene expression. Treatment of mice with CPA in combination with AdDelta24CMV-Luc retarded the loss of transgene expression. Staining of mouse brains for inflammatory cells demonstrated decreased tumor infiltration by immune cells in CPA-treated mice. Moreover, in immunodeficient NOD/SCID mice loss of transgene expression was less rapid and not prevented by CPA treatment. Together, our data demonstrate that transgene expression and viral replication decrease rapidly after intratumoral injection of oncolytic adenovirus in mouse brains and that treatment with the immunomodulator CPA prolongs viral-mediated gene expression.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ymthe.2006.08.008

    View details for Web of Science ID 000242723300004

    View details for PubMedID 16996314

  • Genetic targeting of adenovirus vectors using a reovirus sigma 1-based attachment protein MOLECULAR THERAPY Schagen, F. H., Wensveen, F. M., Carette, J. E., Dermody, T. S., Gerritsen, W. R., van Beusechem, V. W. 2006; 13 (5): 997-1005


    Targeting adenovirus vectors (AdV's) for selective transduction of specific cell types requires ablation of native adenovirus tropism and introduction of a unique target-binding moiety. To bring these requirements within reach, we developed a novel strategy to target AdV's genetically that relies on replacement of the entire adenovirus fiber protein with a fusion molecule comprising the virion-anchoring domain of fiber and the oligomerization domain of reovirus attachment protein sigma1. The chimeric molecule forms trimers, is transported to the nucleus, and assembles onto the adenovirus capsid. In contrast to previously reported genetically targeted vectors, the AdV presented herein propagates efficiently without a requirement for complementing fiber. Due to ablation of the native adenovirus tropism, the infectivity of this AdV was at least 35-fold reduced on 293 cells. Importantly, a His tag incorporated into the chimeric attachment protein conferred His-tag-dependent tropism to the AdV, which resulted in a 12- to 40-fold greater transduction efficiency on two different cell lines expressing a His-tag-binding receptor. In addition, the infection efficiency was strongly reduced by preincubation with a His-tag-specific Ab. Thus, this sigma1-based chimeric attachment molecule provides a promising new platform for the generation of truly targeted AdV's.

    View details for DOI 10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.11.019

    View details for Web of Science ID 000237523000022

    View details for PubMedID 16515889

  • Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 expression from an oncolytic adenovirus inhibits matrix metalloproteinase activity In vivo without affecting antitumor efficacy in malignant glioma CANCER RESEARCH Lamfers, M. L., Gianni, D., Tung, C. H., Idema, S., Schagen, F. H., Carette, J. E., QUAX, P. H., van Beusechem, V. W., Vandertop, W. P., Dirven, C. M., Chiocca, E. A., Gerritsen, W. R. 2005; 65 (20): 9398-9405


    Oncolytic adenoviruses exhibiting tumor-selective replication are promising anticancer agents. Insertion and expression of a transgene encoding tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 (TIMP-3), which has been reported to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor cell infiltration and induce apoptosis, may improve the antitumor activity of these agents. To assess the effects of TIMP-3 gene transfer to glioma cells, a replication-defective adenovirus encoding TIMP-3 (Ad.TIMP-3) was employed. Ad.TIMP-3 infection of a panel of glioma cell cultures decreased the proliferative capacity of these cells and induced morphologic changes characteristic for apoptosis. Next, a conditionally replicating adenovirus encoding TIMP-3 was constructed by inserting the TIMP-3 expression cassette into the E3 region of the adenoviral backbone containing a 24-bp deletion in E1A. This novel oncolytic adenovirus, AdDelta24TIMP-3, showed enhanced oncolytic activity on a panel of primary cell cultures and two glioma cell lines compared with the control oncolytic virus AdDelta24Luc. In vivo inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity by AdDelta24TIMP-3 was shown in s.c. glioma xenografts. The functional activity of TIMP-3 was imaged noninvasively using a near-IR fluorescent MMP-2-activated probe. Tumoral MMP-2 activity was significantly reduced by 58% in the AdDelta24TIMP-3-treated tumors 24 hours after infection. A study into the therapeutic effects of combined oncolytic and antiproteolytic therapy was done in both a s.c. and an intracranial model for malignant glioma. Treatment of s.c. (U-87MG) or intracranial (U-87deltaEGFR) tumors with AdDelta24TIMP-3 and AdDelta24Luc both significantly inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival compared with PBS-treated controls. However, expression of TIMP-3 in the context of AdDelta24 did not significantly affect the antitumor efficacy of this oncolytic agent.

    View details for DOI 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4264

    View details for Web of Science ID 000232566800042

    View details for PubMedID 16230403

  • Replication-dependent transgene expression from a conditionally replicating adenovirus via alternative splicing to a heterologous splice-acceptor site JOURNAL OF GENE MEDICINE Carette, J. E., Graat, H. C., Schagen, F. H., El Hassan, M. A., Gerritsen, W. R., van Beusechem, V. W. 2005; 7 (8): 1053-1062


    Oncolytic viruses are promising anticancer agents because they selectively kill cancer cells and multiply within a tumor. Their oncolytic potency might be improved by expressing a therapeutic gene from the virus genome. In this regard, proper kinetics and level of transgene expression are important. In addition, expression of cytotoxic transgene products should be confined to cancer cells. Here, we developed oncolytic adenoviruses that provide transgene expression dependent on viral replication.We constructed an oncolytic adenovirus that expresses luciferase under regulation of the endogenous major late promoter (MLP) via alternative splicing to an inserted splice-acceptor site analogous to that of the adenovirus serotype 40 long fiber gene. Splicing of the luciferase transcript was studied by RT-PCR analysis. Expression was measured in the presence and absence of the flavonoid apigenin, an inhibitor of viral replication.The inserted splice-acceptor site was properly recognized by the adenoviral splicing machinery. Luciferase expression levels were markedly higher than levels obtained with the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, especially at late stages of infection. Inhibiting adenovirus replication reduced luciferase expression levels dramatically by 4 to 5 logs, whereas expression levels with the CMV-luciferase adenovirus were only moderately affected (2 logs).Transgene delivery using the endogenous late gene expression machinery resulted in an expression pattern distinct from expression driven by the conventional CMV promoter. The high expression levels and strict coupling of expression to viral replication should be useful for adequate monitoring of replication and might provide a platform for the design of armed conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) with enhanced oncolytic potency.

    View details for DOI 10.1002/jgm.754

    View details for Web of Science ID 000231477900006

    View details for PubMedID 15756711

  • Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy with carboxylesterase enhances the anticancer efficacy of the conditionally replicating adenovirus Ad Delta 24 GENE THERAPY Oosterhoff, D., Pinedo, H. M., Witlox, M. A., Carette, J. E., Gerritsen, W. R., van Beusechem, V. W. 2005; 12 (12): 1011-1018


    Conditionally replicating adenoviruses (CRAds) selectively replicate in and thereby kill cancer cells. The CRAd AdDelta24 with pRb-binding-deficient E1A kills cancer cells efficiently. Arming CRAds with genes encoding prodrug-converting enzymes could allow for enhanced anticancer efficacy by the combined effects of oncolytic replication and local prodrug activation. Here, we investigated combination treatment of human colon cancer cell lines with AdDelta24-type CRAds and gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) using two different enzyme/prodrug systems, that is, thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (TK/GCV) and carboxylesterase (CE)/CPT-11. On all three cell lines tested, GDEPT with TK/GCV made CRAd treatment less efficacious. In contrast, expression of a secreted form of CE (sCE2) combined with CPT-11 treatment markedly enhanced the efficacy of AdDelta24 virotherapy. Based on this observation, we constructed an AdDelta24 variant expressing sCE2. In the absence of CPT-11, this new CRAd Ad5-Delta24.E3-sCE2 was similarly effective as its parent in killing human colon cancer cells. Low concentrations of CPT-11 inhibited Ad5-Delta24.E3-sCE2 propagation. Nevertheless, CPT-11 specifically augmented the cytotoxicity of Ad5-Delta24.E3-sCE2 against all three-colon cancer cell lines. Hence, the positive contribution of sCE2/CPT-11 GDEPT to colon cancer cytotoxicity outweighed its negative influence on CRAd propagation. Therefore, CRAd-sCE2/CPT-11 combination therapy appears useful for more effective treatment of colon cancer.

    View details for DOI 10.1038/

    View details for Web of Science ID 000229578300011

    View details for PubMedID 15729367

  • Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor expression on primary osteosarcoma specimens and implications for gene therapy with recombinant adenoviruses CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH Graat, H. C., Wuisman, P. I., van Beusechem, V. W., Carette, J. E., Gerritsen, W. R., Bras, J., Schaap, G. R., Kaspers, G. J. 2005; 11 (6): 2445-2447

    View details for Web of Science ID 000227770000043

    View details for PubMedID 15788696

  • Conditionally replicating adenoviruses expressing short hairpin RNAs silence the expression of a target gene in cancer cells CANCER RESEARCH Carette, J. E., Overmeer, R. M., Schagen, F. H., Alemany, R., Barski, O. A., Gerritsen, W. R., van Beusechem, V. W. 2004; 64 (8): 2663-2667


    RNA interference (RNAi) is a posttranscriptional silencing mechanism triggered by double-stranded RNA that was recently shown to function in mammalian cells. Expression of cancer-associated genes was knocked down by expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) in cancer cells. By virtue of its excellent target specificity, RNAi may be used as a new therapeutic modality for cancer. The success of this approach will largely depend on efficient delivery of shRNAs to tumor cells. Tumor-selective replication competent viruses are especially suited to efficiently deliver anticancer genes to tumors. In addition, their intrinsic capacity to kill cancer cells makes these viruses promising anticancer agents per se. In this study, conditionally replicating adenoviruses were constructed encoding shRNAs targeted against firefly luciferase. These replicating viruses were shown to specifically silence the expression of the target gene in human cancer cells down to 30% relative to control virus. This finding offers the promise of using RNAi in the context of cancer gene therapy with oncolytic viruses.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000220810400005

    View details for PubMedID 15087375

  • Cowpea mosaic virus: effects on host cell processes MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY Pouwels, J., Carette, J. E., Van Lent, J., Wellink, J. 2002; 3 (6): 411-418


    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is the type member of the Comoviridae and bears a strong resemblance to animal picornaviruses, both in gene organization and in the amino acid sequence of replication proteins. Little systematic work has been done to compare isolates of the virus from different parts of the world. Physical properties: Purified preparations of virus contain three centrifugal components; empty protein shells without RNA (T) and two nucleoprotein components (M and B), containing 24% and 34% RNA, respectively. The icosahedral particles have with a diameter of 28 nm, consist of 60 copies of two coat proteins, and are heat stable. Hosts: CPMV causes one of the most commonly reported virus diseases of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), in which it produces chlorotic spots with diffuse borders in inoculated primary leaves. Trifoliate leaves develop a bright yellow or light green mosaic of increasing severity in younger leaves. The host range is rather limited, and few hosts are known outside the Leguminosae. The virus is transmitted by various beetles with biting mouthparts. Reported in Africa, the Philippines and Iran. Is apparently absent from North and South America. Useful website: (structure); (general information).

    View details for Web of Science ID 000179408500001

    View details for PubMedID 20569348

  • Coalescence of the sites of cowpea mosaic virus RNA replication into a cytopathic structure JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Guhl, K., Wellink, J., van Kammen, A. 2002; 76 (12): 6235-6243


    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replication induces an extensive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes, leading to the formation of small membranous vesicles where viral RNA replication takes place. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we found that early in the infection of cowpea protoplasts, CPMV plus-strand RNA accumulates at numerous distinct subcellular sites distributed randomly throughout the cytoplasm which rapidly coalesce into a large body located in the center of the cell, often near the nucleus. The combined use of immunostaining and a green fluorescent protein ER marker revealed that during the course of an infection, CPMV RNA colocalizes with the 110-kDa viral polymerase and other replication proteins and is always found in close association with proliferated ER membranes, indicating that these sites correspond to the membranous site of viral replication. Experiments with the cytoskeleton inhibitors oryzalin and latrunculin B point to a role of actin and not tubulin in establishing the large central structure. The induction of ER membrane proliferations in CPMV-infected protoplasts did not coincide with increased levels of BiP mRNA, indicating that the unfolded-protein response is not involved in this process.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.76.12.6235-6243.2002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175912200041

    View details for PubMedID 12021357

  • Cowpea mosaic virus 32- and 60-kilodalton replication proteins target and change the morphology of endoplasmic reticulum membranes JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Van Lent, J., MacFarlane, S. A., Wellink, J., van Kammen, A. 2002; 76 (12): 6293-6301


    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replicates in close association with small membranous vesicles that are formed by rearrangements of intracellular membranes. To determine which of the viral proteins are responsible for the rearrangements of membranes and the attachment of the replication complex, we have expressed individual CPMV proteins encoded by RNA1 in cowpea protoplasts by transient expression and in Nicotiana benthamiana plants by using the tobacco rattle virus (TRV) expression vector. The 32-kDa protein (32K) and 60K, when expressed individually, accumulate in only low amounts but are found associated with membranes mainly derived from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). 24K and 110K are freely soluble and accumulate to high levels. With the TRV vector, expression of 32K and 60K results in rearrangement of ER membranes. Besides, expression of 32K and 60K results in necrosis of the inoculated N. benthamiana leaves, suggesting that 32K and 60K are cytotoxic proteins. On the other hand, during CPMV infection 32K and 60K accumulate to high levels without causing necrosis.

    View details for DOI 10.1128/JVI.76.12.6293-6301.2002

    View details for Web of Science ID 000175912200046

    View details for PubMedID 12021362

  • Characterization of plant proteins that interact with cowpea mosaic virus '6OK' protein in the yeast two-hybrid system JOURNAL OF GENERAL VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Verver, J., Martens, J., Van Kampen, T., Wellink, J., van Kammen, A. 2002; 83: 885-893


    Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) replication occurs in close association with small membranous vesicles in the host cell. The CPMV RNA1-encoded 60 kDa nucleotide-binding protein ('60K') plays a role in the formation of these vesicles. In this study, five cellular proteins were identified that interacted with different domains of 60K using a yeast two-hybrid search of an Arabidopsis cDNA library. Two of these host proteins (termed VAP27-1 and VAP27-2), with high homology to the VAP33 family of SNARE-like proteins from animals, interacted specifically with the C-terminal domain of 60K and upon transient expression colocalized with 60K in CPMV-infected cowpea protoplasts. eEF1-beta, picked up using the central domain of 60K, was also found to colocalize with 60K. The possible role of these host proteins in the viral replicative cycle is discussed.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000174503100020

    View details for PubMedID 11907339

  • Mutational analysis of the genome-linked protein of cowpea mosaic virus VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Kujawa, A., Guhl, K., Verver, J., Wellink, J., van Kammen, A. 2001; 290 (1): 21-29


    In this study we have performed a mutational analysis of the cowpea mosaic comovirus (CPMV) genome-linked protein VPg to discern the structural requirements necessary for proper functioning of VPg. Either changing the serine residue linking VPg to RNA at a tyrosine or a threonine or changing the position of the serine from the N-terminal end to position 2 or 3 abolished virus infectivity. Some of the mutations affected the cleavage between the VPg and the 58K ATP-binding protein in vitro, which might have contributed to the lethal phenotype. RNA replication of some of the mutants designed to replace VPg with the related cowpea severe mosaic comovirus was completely abolished, whereas replication of others was not affected or only mildly affected, showing that amino acids that are not conserved between the comoviruses can be critical for the function of VPg. The replicative proteins of one of the mutants failed to accumulate in typical cytopathic structures and this might reflect the involvement of VPg in protein-protein interactions with the other replicative proteins.

    View details for DOI 10.1006/viro.2001.1137

    View details for Web of Science ID 000172463400003

    View details for PubMedID 11883002

  • Alfalfa mosaic virus replicase proteins P1 and P2 interact and colocalize at the vacuolar membrane JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY van der Heijden, M. W., Carette, J. E., Reinhoud, P. J., Haegi, A., Bol, J. F. 2001; 75 (4): 1879-1887


    Replication of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) RNAs depends on the virus-encoded proteins P1 and P2. P1 contains methyltransferase- and helicase-like domains, and P2 contains a polymerase-like domain. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between in vitro translated-P1 and P2 and showed that these proteins are present together in fractions with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. A deletion analysis in the yeast two-hybrid system showed that in P1 the C-terminal sequence of 509 amino acids with the helicase domain was necessary for the interaction. In P2, the sequence of the N-terminal 241 aa was required for the interaction. In infected protoplasts, P1 and P2 colocalized at a membrane structure that was identified as the tonoplast (i.e., the membrane that surrounds the vacuoles) by using a tonoplast intrinsic protein as a marker in immunofluorescence studies. While P1 was exclusively localized on the tonoplast, P2 was found both at the tonoplast and at other locations in the cell. As Brome mosaic virus replication complexes have been found to be associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (M. A. Restrepo-Hartwig and P. Ahlquist, J. Virol. 70:8908-8916, 1996), viruses in the family Bromoviridae apparently select different cellular membranes for the assembly of their replication complexes.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000166697000032

    View details for PubMedID 11160687

  • Cowpea mosaic virus infection induces a massive proliferation of endoplasmic reticulum but not Golgi membranes and is dependent on de novo membrane synthesis JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY Carette, J. E., Stuiver, M., Van Lent, J., Wellink, J., Van Kammen, A. B. 2000; 74 (14): 6556-6563


    Replication of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) is associated with small membranous vesicles that are induced upon infection. The effect of CPMV replication on the morphology and distribution of the endomembrane system in living plant cells was studied by expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi membranes. CPMV infection was found to induce an extensive proliferation of the ER, whereas the distribution and morphology of the Golgi stacks remained unaffected. Immunolocalization experiments using fluorescence confocal microscopy showed that the proliferated ER membranes were closely associated with the electron-dense structures that contain the replicative proteins encoded by RNA1. Replication of CPMV was strongly inhibited by cerulenin, an inhibitor of de novo lipid synthesis, at concentrations where the replication of the two unrelated viruses alfalfa mosaic virus and tobacco mosaic virus was largely unaffected. These results suggest that proliferating ER membranes produce the membranous vesicles formed during CPMV infection and that this process requires continuous lipid biosynthesis.

    View details for Web of Science ID 000087817900038

    View details for PubMedID 10864669