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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011 Jan;31(1):262-74. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2010.85. Epub 2010 Jun 30.

Intraoperative blood flow analysis of direct revascularization procedures in patients with moyamoya disease.

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Department of Neurosurgery and Stanford Stroke Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.


Moyamoya disease is characterized by the progressive stenosis and often occlusion of the terminal internal carotid arteries, which leads to ischemic and hemorrhagic injuries. The etiology is unknown and surgical revascularization remains the mainstay treatment. We analyzed various hemodynamic factors in 292 patients with moyamoya disease, representing 496 revascularization procedures, including vessel dimension and intraoperative blood flow, using a perivascular ultrasonic flowprobe. Mean middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow rate was 4.4 ± 0.26 mL/min. After superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass surgery, flows at the microanastomosis were increased fivefold to a mean of 22.2 ± 0.8 mL/min. The MCA flows were significantly lower in the pediatric (16.2 ± 1.3 mL/min) compared with the adult (23.9 ± 1.0 mL/min; P<0.0001) population. Increased local flow rates were associated with clinical improvement. Permanent postoperative complications were low (<5%), but very high postanastomosis MCA flow was associated with postoperative stroke (31.2 ± 6.8 mL/min; P=0.045), hemorrhage (32.1 ± 10.2 mL/min; P=0.045), and transient neurologic deficits (28.6 ± 5.6 mL/min; P=0.047) compared with controls. Other flow and vessel dimension data are presented to elucidate the hemodynamic changes related to the vasculopathy and subsequent to surgical intervention.

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