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J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 Sep;15(5):865-76.

Correlation of CGS 19755 neuroprotection against in vitro excitotoxicity and focal cerebral ischemia.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University Medical Center, California, USA.


The in vivo neuroprotective effect and brain levels of cis-4-phosphonomethyl-2-piperidine carboxylic acid (CGS 19755), a competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, were compared with its in vitro neuroprotective effects. The dose-response for in vitro neuroprotection against both NMDA toxicity and combined oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) was determined in murine neocortical cultures. Primary cultures of neocortical cells from feta mice were injured by exposure to 500 microM NMDA for 10 min or to OGD for 45 min. The effect of CGS 19755 in both injury paradigms was assessed morphologically and quantitated by determination of lactate dehydrogenase release. Near complete neuroprotection was found at high doses of CGS 19755. The ED50 for protection against NMDA toxicity was 25.4 micro M, and against OGD the ED50 was 15.2 microM. For the in vivo paradigm rabbits underwent 2 h of left internal carotid, anterior cerebral, and middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 4 h reperfusion; ischemic injury was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology. The rabbits were treated with 40 mg/kg i.v. CGS 19755 or saline 10 min after arterial occlusion. CSF and brain levels of CGS 19755 were 12 microM and 5 microM, respectively, at 1 h, 6 microM and 5 microM at 2 h, and 13 microM and 7 microM at 4 h. These levels were neuroprotective in this model, reducing cortical ischemic edema by 48% and ischemic neuronal damage by 76%. These results suggest that a single i.v. dose penetrates the blood-brain barrier, attaining sustained neuroprotective levels that are in the range for in vitro neuroprotection.

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