The researchers are seeking to develop a system for monitoring bacterial gene expression in response to signals from the natural environment using a blend of membrane diffusion cell, genomics and optical detection technologies. We will develop and test a system for monitoring of Vibrio cholerae, beginning with field experiments in the San Francisco Bay. The results will serve as a foundation for a proposal to the National Institutes of Health for a long-term field scale study in Bangladesh. The developed technology should enable monitoring of genes of many microorganisms of environmental significance and will form the foundation of a novel environmental sensing technology for accurate measurements of classes of contaminants and environmental conditions.